فهرست مطالب

تدریس پژوهی - سال هشتم شماره 1 (بهار 1399)
  • سال هشتم شماره 1 (بهار 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/01/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • محمدرضا کرامتی* صفحات 1-18
    هدف

    یادگیری مشارکتی به عنوان یکی از رویکردهای فعال یاددهی- یادگیری در یکی از کلاس های درس رشته تحصیلی مشاوره در طول یک ترم تحصیلی در قالب 14 جلسه درسی اجرا شد. هدف اصلی مطالعه شناسایی ادراک دانشجویان از اجرای یادگیری مشارکتی در کلاس درس بود.

    روش

    نمونه گیری برای انتخاب شرکت کنندگان به صورت هدفمند انجام شد. مشارکت کنندگان 24 نفر زن و 4 نفر مرد بودند که از طریق کنکور سراسری در دانشگاه تهران پذیرفته شده بودند. آن ها به صورت داوطلبانه در پژوهش شرکت کردند. مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته ابزار اصلی پژوهش بود. محتوای مصاحبه ها با رویکرد تحلیل موضوعی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت.

    یافته ها

    یافته ها نشان داد یادگیری مشارکتی نه تنها فرآیند یادگیری دانشجویان رشته مشاوره در درس آموزش و پرورش ابتدایی و متوسطه را تسهیل نموده و کیفیت یادگیری آنان را بهبود می بخشد بلکه در زمینه تقویت اعتمادبه نفس و هیجانات مثبت، تفکر انتقادی (کنترل احساسات و خلق، بحث و گفتگو، بارش مغزی و خودارزیابی صحیح)، تعامل و همکاری موثر و پرورش حس مسئولیت پذیری و رهبری کردن نیز موثر است. آشنایی اعضا هیات علمی با یادگیری مشارکتی و نظارت مستمر آنان در حین تعامل دانشجویان با یکدیگر می تواند کیفیت اجرای آن را در کلاس های درس دانشگاه بهبود بخشد.

    کلیدواژگان: دانشجو، رشته تحصیلی مشاوره، یادگیری مشارکتی، تحلیل موضوعی
  • مهدی محمدی، رضا ناصری جهرمی*، زینب مختاری، زهرا حسامپور، راحیل ناصری جهرمی صفحات 19-37
    معلمان رکن اساسی در فرایند یاددهی- یادگیری هستند، لذا از تجربیات زیسته آنها می توان اطلاعات مفید و گران بهایی استخراج کرد. هدف اصلی از انجام پژوهش حاضر، فهم تجربه زیسته معلمان دوره ابتدایی از ذهن آگاهی بود. این پژوهش کیفی با استفاده از روش پدیدارشناسی اجرا شد. روش گردآوری اطلاعات استفاده از مصاحبه های نیمه ساختمند بود. بر این اساس، از بین معلمان دوره ابتدایی 19 نفر بر اساس معیارهای ورود به پژوهش انتخاب شدند. تحلیل مصاحبه ها، با استفاده از الگوی کلایزی و روش تحلیل مضمون انجام شد. پس از استخراج موضوعی و طبقه بندی آن ها، یافته ها در سه مقوله اصلی؛ "مدیریت موثر کلاس درس"، "بهبود فرآیند یاددهی- یادگیری" و "ارتقاء سلامت روانی دانش آموزان " و 12 مقوله فرعی طبقه بندی شدند. بررسی تجارب معلمان دوره ابتدایی نشان داد که معلمان با مداخلات مبتنی بر ذهن آگاهی و پیاده سازی در کلاس درس، علاوه بر اینکه از استرس کاری خود و فرسودگی شغلی شان می کاهند، بر پیشرفت تحصیلی و یادگیری دانش آموزان نیز اثر داشته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: تجربه، معلمان ابتدایی، ذهن آگاهی، تدریس
  • آزاد الله کرمی*، رضا مراد صحرایی صفحات 38-58

    در پژوهش پیش رو نگرش معلمان و مدیران آموزشی درباره استفاده از زبان مادری در آموزش و پرورش بررسی و مقایسه شد. تمامی معلمان و مدیران آموزشی مقطع ابتدایی منطقه اورامانات(شهرستان های جوانرود، پاوه، روانسر و ثلاث باباجانی) در استان کرمانشاه جامعه آماری این پژوهش را تشکیل می دهند. روش تحقیق آمیخته، و از نوع طرح مثلث سازی مدل همگرا بود. جمع آوری داده ها با استفاده از پرسشنامه نگرش نسبت به استفاده از زبان مادری (محقق ساخته) و مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته انجام شد. داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزارهای spss22 و mplus5 تحلیل شدند. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده های کمی از شاخص های آمار توصیفی، شامل میانگین و انحراف معیار و در بخش آمار استنباطی، از آزمون تی تک نمونه ‍ ای و تی مستقل استفاده شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده های حاصل از مصاحبه نیز با استفاده از روش تحلیل کمی انجام شد. یافته های حاصل از تحلیل داده های کمی و کیفی پژوهش نشان داد: هر دو گروه معلمان و مدیران نسبت به استفاده از زبان مادری در آموزش و پرورش نگرش مثبتی داشته و در این زمینه تفاوت آماری معناداری با هم ندارند. نتایج پژوهش مبنی بر نگرش مثبت معلمان و مدیران آموزشی نسبت به استفاده از زبان مادری و فوایدی که زبان مادری بر رشد شناختی و تحصیلی دانش آموزان خواهد داشت ایجاب می کند مسیولان آموزش و پرورش نسبت به تفاوت های فردی دانش آموزان بی تفاوت نبوده و برنامه های آموزشی مبتنی بر زبان مادری و یا دوزبانه را در دستور کار قرار دهند.کلمات کلیدی: زبان مادری، نگرش، معلمان، مدیران و آموزش و پرورش.

    کلیدواژگان: زبان مادری، نگرش، معلمان، مدیران
  • سعید آریاپوران*، هدایت الله اعتمادی زاده صفحات 59-79
    هدف

    پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه مدیریت کلاس مبتنی بر یادگیری اجتماعی- هیجانی معلمان و تعامل معلم-دانش آموز با سواد هیجانی دانش آموزان ابتدایی در سال تحصیلی 98-1397 انجام شد.

    روش

    روش تحقیق توصیفی-همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل کل معلمان ابتدایی شهرستان ملایر بود (548=N). حجم نمونه 247 معلم ابتدایی بود که به روش طبقه ای تصادفی انتخاب شدند؛ هر معلم به صورت تصادفی، پرسشنامه های مربوط به 3 دانش آموز کلاس خود را تکمیل می کرد. داده ها با استفاده از مقیاس مدیریت کلاس اجتماعی- هیجانی، مقیاس ارتباط معلم-دانش آموز و ابزار ارزیابی سواد هیجانی نسخه معلم گردآوری شد. ضریب آلفای کرونباخ مقیاس مدیریت کلاس اجتماعی- هیجانی، ارتباط نزدیک معلم-دانش آموز، تعارض معلم-دانش آموز و سواد هیجانی به ترتیب برابر با 89/0، 71/0، 77/0 و 79/0 بود. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون چندمتغیری به روش گام به گام استفاده شد.

    یافته ها

    حاکی از رابطه مثبت مدیریت کلاس مبتنی بر یادگیری اجتماعی- هیجانی و ابعاد آن با سواد هیجانی بود. همچنین بین نزدیکی معلم-دانش آموز با سواد هیجانی رابطه مثبت و بین تعارض معلم-دانش آموز با سواد هیجانی رابطه منفی وجود داشت (01/0>p). براساس نتایج رگرسیون سهم مدیریت کلاس مبتنی بر یادگیری اجتماعی- هیجانی (258/0=بتا) و نزدیکی معلم-دانش آموز (113/0=بتا) در پیش بینی سواد هیجانی مثبت و معنی دار بوده است (01/0>p). با توجه به یافته ها پیشنهاد می شود که مدیریت کلاس مبتنی بر یادگیری اجتماعی- هیجانی به معلمان آموزش داده شود و ارتباط معلم-دانش آموز نیز در برنامه های ضمن خدمت معلمان گنجانده شود.

    کلیدواژگان: تعامل معلم -دانش آموز، دانش آموزان ابتدایی، سواد هیجانی، مدیریت کلاس، یادگیری اجتماعی هیجانی
  • پیمان قنبریان قلندر*، محمد امجد زبردست، کیوان بلندهمتان صفحات 80-101

    هدف پژوهش حاضر واکاوی پیامدها، چالش ها و استراتژی های آموزش انتقادی در علوم انسانی می باشد. برای این منظور پیامدهای کلاس مبتنی بر تفکر انتقادی، چالش های پیش روی اعضای هییت علمی در آموزش تفکر انتقادی و استراتژی های مناسب جهت آموزش تفکر انتقادی در حوزه علوم انسانی پرداخته شده است. رویکرد این پژوهش از نوع کیفی و خود مردم نگاری می باشد. جهت جمع آوری داده ها از ابزار مصاحبه نیمه ساختارمند استفاده شده است. نمونه پژوهش شامل 9 نفر از اعضای هییت علمی دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه کردستان می باشد که از طریق نمونه گیری با بالاترین قدرت (بررسی مواردی که پدیده های موردنظر در آن ها بروز بسیار قوی دارد) انتخاب شده اند. تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل مقایسه ای صورت گرفته است. جهت تعیین روایی پژوهش از سه روش اعتبار پذیری، انتقال پذیری و تایید پذیری استفاده شده است.یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که آموزش انتقادی باعث می شود نوعی دغدغه و صمیمیت در دانشجویان به وجود آید و سبب پیشرفت تحصیلی دانشجویان نیز می شود. همچنین اعضای هییت علمی در آموزش تفکر انتقادی با چالش ها و موانعی روبه رو بودند یکی از این چالش ها بی انگیزگی و نداشتن دانش پایه در دانشجویان عنوان شد و دومین چالش سیاست گذاری های غلط آموزش عالی بود. علاوه بر این اعضای هییت علمی توجه به فرایندهای مدیریت کلاس و روابط مثبت استاد دانشجو را به عنوان استراتژی های و راهبردهای آموزش انتقادی را عنوان کردند.

    کلیدواژگان: پیامدها، چالش ها، استراتژی ها، تفکر انتقادی، خود مردم نگاری
  • فرانک موسوی*، معصومه ویسی صفحات 102-120

    هدف از انجام این پژوهش شناسایی مولفه های مهارت تعویض مخاطب به منظور ارایه مدل مهارت تعویض مخاطب معلمان در کلاس درس بوده است. رویکرد پژوهش کیفی و از روش نظریه داده ها بنیاد استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری شامل تمامی معلمان دوره ابتدایی شهر کرمانشاه بوده است. برای گردآوری داده های کیفی با 18 نفر از معلمان مجرب و نمونه مدارس ابتدایی مصاحبه صورت پذیرفت. در این پژوهش، از روش نمونه گیری هدفمند برای انتخاب نفر اول و از فن گلوله برفی برای انتخاب نفرات بعدی استفاده شد. روش نمونه گیری به صورت هدفمند تا جایی ادامه یافت که پژوهشگر با استفاده از مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته با اعضای نمونه به اشباع نظری رسید. با استفاده از نتایج حاصل از بررسی مبانی نظری و پیشینه پژوهش و تجزیه و تحلیل محتوای مصاحبه های انجام گرفته، شاخص های مهارت تعویض مخاطب معلمان در کلاس درس شناسایی شده و طی سه مرحله کدگذاری باز، کدگذاری محوری و کدگذاری انتخابی ، مدل تعویض مخاطب معلمان در شش مقوله اصلی شرایط علی، پدیده محوری (واکاوی تعویض مخاطب در کلاس درس: شامل 3 مقوله اصلی اهداف، ویژگی ها، شیوه اجرا و 10 مقوله فرعی است)، راهبردهای تعویض مخاطب، شرایط واسطه ای، شرایط مداخله گر و پیامدهای تعویض مخاطب جهت بهره برداری در کلاس و مدرسه ارایه گردید .

    کلیدواژگان: تعویض مخاطب، معلمان مدارس، مدل مهارت تعویض مخاطب
  • رحمان عزیزی*، غلامرضا حاج حسین نژاد، مصطفی قادری، مجید علی عسگری صفحات 121-150
    هدف

    هدف از انجام این پژوهش، ارایه چارچوب بهینه برای ارزشیابی نظام برنامه درسی در دانشگاه است.

    روش

    پژوهش دارای رویکردی کیفی و از روش سنتزپژوهی و گراندد تیوری به عنوان روش های تحقیق استفاده شده است. پژوهش براساس هدف، توصیفی و از نوع کیفی - کاربردی است. از این رو حوزه پژوهش شامل کلیه مقالات علمی پژوهشی دهه اخیر در زمینه ارزشیابی برنامه های درسی آموزش عالی می باشد که براساس روند بررسی مقالات 46 مقاله مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. از سوی دیگر در این پژوهش از مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته با 16 نفر از نخبگان آگاه نیز استفاده شد. روش نمونه گیری از موارد مطلوب بوده یعنی افرادی که تجربه مستقیم از ارزشیابی برنامه های درسی دانشگاهی داشتند. برای تعیین اعتبار از راهبرد بازبینی مشارکت کنندگان و بازبینی متخصصان استفاده شده است. به این منظور کدگذاری تحلیل در اختیار سه پژوهشگر قرار گرفت که ضریب توافق 88/0 برآورد شد.

    یافته ها

    نتیجه نهایی تحلیل سنتزپژوهی و گراندد تیوری به صورت ترکیبی چارچوب دایره‎ای شکل را که بیانگر مولفه های مهم و اساسی برای‎ ارزشیابی از نظام برنامه‎های درسی در دانشگاه جامع علمی کاربردی می‎باشد را تشکیل داده‎اند. این چارچوب شامل مولفه هایی در ابعاد‎: الف) بافت (‎با مولفه های 1- ویژگی برنامه‎های درسی و 2- طراحی، تدوین و تصویب برنامه‎های درسی). ب)‎ فرایند (‎با مولفه های 1- نظام پذیرش و اجرای برنامه‎های درسی و 2- مدرسین). ج) مداخله‎گر (‎با مولفه چالش‎ها و ضعف‎ها) د) پیامد (با مولفه های 1- ساختار 2- تعامل و 3- پیامدها‎) می‎باشد. در ضلع دیگری از این دایره هر یک از مولفه ها خود چندین ریز مولفه را شامل می شود که این ریز مولفه ها در حقیقت آن مواردی است که در نتیجه مصاحبه های نیمه ساختاریافته با صاحب نظران و متخصصین کسب شده است. در ضلع بیرونی چارچوب دایره‎ای شکل ذیل ریز‎مولفه هایی متناظر با ریز‎مولفه های حاصل از مصاحبه آورده شده است که در حقیقت محصول انجام و پیاده‎سازی روش تلفیق (سنتز‎پژوهی) در این پژوهش می‎باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزشیابی، دانشگاه جامع علمی-کاربردی، سنتزپژوهی، گراندد تئوری و نظام برنامه درسی
  • مهدی یعقوبی، عیسی برقی*، سیروس اسدیان صفحات 151-165
    پژوهش حاضر، به بررسی تاثیر روش تدریس مبتنی بر پداگوژی انتقادی هنری ژیرو بر آگاهی از حقوق شهروندی دانش آموزان دوره ی دوم متوسطه پرداخته است. این پژوهش، از نوع تحقیقات شبه آزمایشی بوده و طرح پژوهشی مورد استفاده در این پژوهش، طرح پیش آزمون _ پس آزمون با گروه کنترل است. جامعه آماری در این تحقیق، شامل کلیه ی دانش آموزان پسر سال اول دوره دوم متوسطه ی ناحیه ی 3 آموزش و پرورش شهر کرمانشاه به تعداد 459 نفر در سال تحصیلی 97-1396 بود. حجم نمونه بر اساس حداقل حجم نمونه ی لازم برای تحقیقات آزمایشی، 60 نفر (30 نفر برای گروه آزمایش و 30 نفر برای گروه کنترل) تعیین و به روش نمونه گیری دردسترس انتخاب گردید. آزمودنی های پژوهش حاضر شامل دانش آموزان 2 کلاس اول دوره ی دوم متوسطه بودند که از این بین، یکی از کلاس ها به عنوان گروه آزمایش و یکی دیگر به عنوان گروه گواه (کنترل) انتخاب شد. برای اندازه گیری میزان آگاهی دانش آموزان از حقوق شهروندی، از پرسشنامه ی حقوق شهروندی شریفی و اسلامیه (1391) استفاده شد. روایی محتوایی پرسشنامه ، توسط صاحب نظران تایید و پایایی درونی آن با ضریب آلفای کرونباخ، 92/0 بدست آمد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS 23 انجام شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، از روش های آماری توصیفی و نیز استنباطی شامل تحلیل کوواریانس چندمتغیری استفاده گردید. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که اعمال روش تدریس مبتنی بر پداگوژی انتقادی هنری ژیرو بر افزایش میزان آگاهی از حقوق مدنی، حقوق سیاسی و حقوق اجتماعی دانش آموزان، موثر است.
    کلیدواژگان: پداگوژی انتقادی، حقوق شهروندی، روش تدریس
  • ناصر شیربگی*، شهاب نصیری نیا صفحات 166-197
    هدف

    این پژوهش از اهداف چندگانه ای مانند آزمون شاخصه های روایی و پایایی پرسش نامه «توسعه حرفه ای اثربخش»، شناسایی تفاوت ها بین نظرات معلمان بر اساس متغیرهای جمعیت شناختی و کمک به بهبود توسعه حرفه ای معلمان از طریق شناسایی اولویت های توسعه حرفه ای اثربخش برخوردار بود.

    روش

    رویکرد پژوهش حاضر پسااثبات گرایی و راهبرد آن پیمایشی -توصیفی بود. جامعه تحقیق شامل معلمان دوره ابتدایی شهر سنندج که 1258 نفر بود. مشارکت کنندگان در این پژوهش، 300 نفر بودند که با استفاده از جدول کرجسی و مورگان و با نمونه گیری به روش خوشه ای چندمرحله ای انتخاب شدند. از پرسشنامه سوین و لومپه (2014) تحت عنوان «ویژگی های توسعه حرفه ای اثربخش» استفاده شد. جهت آزمون فرضیه ها با توجه به نوع توزیع داده ها از آمارهای مناسب استنباطی استفاده شد. برای آزمون روایی محتوایی پرسشنامه از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی و برای آزمون پایایی از آزمون آلفای کرانباخ استفاده شد که آلفای به دست آمده 967/0 بود که نشان از پایایی مناسب پرسشنامه بود.

    یافته ها و نتیجه گیری

    نتایج نشان داد که پرسشنامه «ویژگی های توسعه حرفه ای اثربخش» دارای روایی و پایایی مطلوب برای استفاده در بین معلمان ایرانی است. در بین مولفه های توسعه حرفه ای اثربخش از نظر معلمان با توجه به نتایج آزمون فریدمن رتبه اول این مولفه ها تمرکز بر دانش محتوایی معلمان و نحوه یادگیری مطالب توسط دانش آموزان و در رتبه آخر یادگیری فعال فراتر از کلاس درس قرار داشت. همچنین بین مولفه های توسعه حرفه ای اثربخش معلمان تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه حرفه ای، معلمان، توسعه حرفه ای اثربخش، تدریس اثربخش، بهبود کیفیت
  • محبوبه عارفی*، ثریا خزایی، آذر خزایی صفحات 198-217
    هدف
    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی بهره گیری از راهبردهای تکیه گاه سازی آموزشی و تعیین میزان اثربخشی آن بر یادگیری و انگیزه پیشرفت دانش آموزان با اختلال یادگیری ریاضی بود.
    روش
    دراین پژوهش از روش نیمه آزمایشی و از نوع پیش آزمون و پس آزمون با گروه کنترل استفاده شد. جامعه آماری شامل همه دانش آموزان پسر پایه پنجم دبستان با اختلال ریاضی در مراکز اختلال یادگیری خرم آباد در سال تحصیلی 96-97 بودند. بدین منظور از میان کلیه دانش آموزان مراکز اختلال یادگیری خرم آباد، 22 دانش آموز به صورت در دسترس انتخاب و به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه کنترل و آزمایش (11 نفر برای هر گروه) گمارده شدند. به منظور جمع آوری داده ها از آزمون محقق ساخته یادگیری و پرسشنامه انگیزه پیشرفت هرمنس (1970) استفاده شد. در فرایند اجرا، گروه آزمایش به مدت 8 جلسه چهل وپنج دقیقه ای تحت طرح درس مبتنی بر راهبردهای تکیه گاه سازی آموزش دیدند و گروه کنترل هیچ مداخله ای را دریافت نکرد. داده های جمع آوری شده با نرم افزار SPSS-V22 و تحلیل کوواریانس تجزیه وتحلیل شد.
    یافته ها
    نتایج تحلیل کوواریانس نشان داد که طرح درس مبتنی بر راهبردهای تکیه گاه سازی آموزشی بر یادگیری و انگیزه پیشرفت موثر است، به این صورت که منجر به افزایش یادگیری و انگیزه پیشرفت دانش آموزان دارای اختلال یادگیری ریاضی شده است
    کلیدواژگان: اختلال ریاضی، اثربخشی، انگیزه پیشرفت، تکیه گاه سازی آموزشی
  • مریم شفیعی سروستانی*، جعفر جهانی، اسدالله راخداپور صفحات 218-241
    هدف

    پژوهش حاضر به طرح مدل ساختاری پیش‌بینی روحیه پژوهشگری دانش آموزان با استفاده از سبک‌‌های تدریس و سبک‌های تفکر معلمان پرداخته است.

    روش

    روش تحقیق توصیفی از نوع همبستگی بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش، شامل کلیه دانش‌آموزان و معلمان دوره اول متوسطه نواحی چهارگانه شهر شیراز هست که در سال تحصیلی 97-1396 مشغول به تحصیل بودند و با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای چندمرحله‌ای، تعداد نمونه 600 دانش‌آموز و 60 معلم انتخاب شد. ابزار پژوهش شامل پرسشنامه سبک‌های تدریس (Grasha and Richman, 2002)، پرسشنامه سبک‌های تفکر (Harrison, and Bramson, 2002) و پرسشنامه روحیه‌ی‌ پژوهشگری (Mohammad Sharifi, 2013) بود، ضریب آلفای کرونباخ آن‌ها به ترتیب 79/0، 91/0 و 81/0 بود. یافته‌های پژوهش با استفاده از نرم‌افزارهای Spss و Lisrel و با بهره‌گیری از روش‌های آماری آزمون تی تک نمونه‌ای، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه تجزیه‌وتحلیل شد.

    یافته‌ها

    نتایج نشان داد روحیه پژوهشگری دانش‌آموزان بالاتر از حد متوسط است، سبک غالب تدریس معلمان، سبک تدریس تسهیل‌کننده و سبک غالب تفکر آنان سبک تحلیل‌گرایی هست. رابطه معناداری بین تعدادی از سبک تدریس و سبک تفکر معلمان مشاهده شده است. رابطه‌ای معنی‌دار و مستقیم بین انواع سبک تدریس معلمان و روحیه پژوهشگری دانش‌آموزان وجود دارد. سبک تدریس و سبک تفکر معلمان به‌طور همزمان پیش‌بینی کننده معناداری برای روحیه پژوهشگری دانش‌آموزان می‌باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: سبک تدریس معلمان، سبک تفکر معلمان، روحیه پژوهشگری
  • عادل محمدی، ابومحمد عسگرخانی *، سید باقر میر عباسی صفحات 242-260
    هدف

    هدف از انجام این مطالعه بررسی تاثیر حق آموزش به زبان مادری به عنوان یکی از مولفه های حق تعیین سرنوشت بر سازگاری اجتماعی در دانش آموزان دوزبانه و استفاده از روش های خاص تحقیقی در رشته علوم تربیتی برای اثبات سازگاری اقلیت ها در صورت تبیین حقوق آنها در قواعد حقوقی می باشد. 

    روش تحقیق

    روش انجام پژوهش به صورت شبه آزمایشی و با استفاده از دو گروه کنترل و گواه بود. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل دانش آموزان دوره ابتدایی شهر پاوه در سال تحصیلی 1397-98 بودند که با توجه به ماهیت و هدف تحقیق تعداد 44 نفر از آنان(کلاس ششم تحصیلی) انتخاب شدند. نمونه ها بر اساس روش بلوکه سازی تصادفی به دو گروه مورد و شاهد تقسیم شده و به مطالعه وارد شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسش نامه استاندارد نشاط اجتماعی آکسفورد با میزان پایایی (81/0) و پرسشنامه استاندارد سازگاری اجتماعی کالیفرنیا با پایایی 84/0 بود. روایی صوری و محتوایی پرسشنامه های مذکور توسط 4 نفر از اساتید دانشگاه تهران مورد بررسی و تایید قرار گرفت. نحوه گردآوری داده ها به صورت پیش آزمون- پس آزمون بود. س از جمع آوری پرسش-نامه ها توسط محقق داده ها از طریق نرم افزار SPSS نسخه 23 و آزمون های آماری توصیفی و استنباطی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. 

    یافته ها و بحث

    نتایج حاصل از تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که حق آموزش به زبان مادری سبب بالا رفتن نشاط اجتماعی بین دانش آموزان دو زبانه می گردد. سهولت یادگیری مطالب به زبان مادری خود از عوامل مهم بالا رفتن اشتیاق برای تحصیل می باشد. آموزش به زبان مادری سبب افزایش سازگاری اجتماعی دانش آموزان در مدارس می باشد. پیشنهاد می گردد آموزش و تدریس در مدارس دو زبانه حداقل در برخی از دروس در کنار زبان ملی، به وسیله زبان مادری نیز انجام گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: پیامدها، چالشها، استراتژیها، تفکر انتقادی، خود مردم نگاری
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  • Mohamadreza Keramati * Pages 1-18

    The present article was designed to identify the perception of 28 undergraduate students of counseling about the implementation of cooperative learning in class. The participants, who were 24 women and 4 men, volunteered to participate in the study. The semi-structured interview was the main tool for research. In order to analysis the data thematic analysis was used. Participant’s experience showed that cooperative learning not only facilitates students' learning process in primary and secondary education course and improves the quality of learning, but also enhances self-confidence and positive emotions, critical thinking (control of emotions and mood, discussion, brainstorming, and self-assessment), effective interaction, and the development of sense of responsibility and leadership are also effective. Faculty members' familiarity with cooperative learning and continuous monitoring during student interaction can improve the quality of its implementation in university classes.

    Keywords: Student, field of counseling, cooperative learning, thematic analysis
  • Mehdi Mohammadi, Reza Naseri *, Zainab Mokhtari, Zahra Hesampoor, Rahil Naseri Pages 19-37
  • Azad Allahkarami *, Rezamorad Sahraee Pages 38-58
    Aims

    In this study the attitudes of teachers and educational administrators about the use of mother tongue in education were examined and compared. The population included all primary school teachers and educational administrators in Avramanat region, Kermanshah Province.

    Method and Materials

    Research method was triangulation design (convergence model). The tools used in this study were Questionnaire of attitude towards the use of mother tongue (researcher made) and Semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data were analyzed using methods of descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t-test and one-sample t-test). Analysis of data from interviews were conducted using a quantitative method.

    Results

    The results showed: Both groups of teachers and administrators have positive attitudes about the use of mother tongue in education and the difference is not statistically significant. The results showed that teachers and educational administrators have a positive attitude toward using mother tongue, In addition to the benefits that mother tongue will have on students' cognitive and academic development, Education officials should not be indifferent to the individual differences of students and pay attention to mother tongue-based instruction or bilingual education programs. Keywords: mother tongue, attitude, teachers, administrators and education.

    Keywords: mother tongue, attitude, teachers, administrators, education
  • Saeed Ariapooran *, Hedayatollah Etemadi Pages 59-79

    Emotional literacy refers to the ability to understand emotions, listen to others, sympathize and empathize with their emotions, and be able to express emotions; in other words, emotional literacy involves the ability to understand, express, and manage one's emotions and respond to other people's emotions. According to previous research, this skill has a positive effect on students 'academic achievement, helps students adapt to the school environment, reduces students' disruptive behaviors, and promotes student-teacher relationships and peer relationships. Also, the positive effects of emotional literacy include improving relationships, feelings of friendship and cooperation between people, and the consequences of low emotional literacy include poor relationships, low emotions, and low self-esteem, and inappropriate mood. Teachers play an important role in students 'emotions, and their teaching has an effect on students' positive and negative emotions. Given that emotional literacy is a skill, it can be said that learning this skill can be related to variables related to teacher teaching in elementary school, because the primary school teacher is in a unique situation that his behavior helps to the emotional and social development of students. Teachers, in essential skills such as accepting negative emotions and coping with them, act as models for children. In managing the social and emotional classroom, teachers use self-regulation, self-monitoring, and social skills in classroom settings, and this has been shown to reduce the negative social interactions of the classroom and increase students' academic achievement. In social-emotional classroom management, teachers use self-regulation, self-monitoring, and social skills in classroom settings, and this has been shown to reduce the negative social interactions of the classroom and increase students' academic achievement. Many teachers believe that social-emotional learning is very important; they believe that schools should play an active role and that current academic demands reduce the opportunity for social-emotional learning. Teachers can regulate their excitement in healthy ways that facilitate the positive consequences of the class without compromising their health. In other words, when teachers experience their mastery of these social and emotional challenges, teaching becomes more enjoyable and more effective. Teacher-student interaction is often characterized by teacher-student closeness and conflict. The teacher-student closeness is defined as the degree of "positive interaction, communication, and warm feelings between learners and teachers". Teacher-student conflict is defined as the degree of "negative interaction and negative impact" between learners and teachers. Students who have a closeness relationship with their teachers have shown better cognitive skills in language and math. Students whose relationships with teachers are determined by conflict are more likely to exhibit behavioral problems and are likely to exhibit less behavioral competence. No research has been done on the relationship between classroom management based on socio-emotional learning and emotional literacy of students, but research has shown that direct education is the highest rate of teaching among teachers, which is associated with low levels of positive emotions and high levels of fatigue in students. Emotional-based social learning programs that aim to increase classroom management skills in teachers improve students 'problem-solving and anger management skills and facilitate students' acquisition of social skills; in addition, these programs facilitate teacher-student interaction. One meta-analysis showed that classroom management skills affect students' academic, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Elsewhere, the social-emotional learning of the classroom environment has been shown to have a positive effect on students' social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance. It has also been suggested that teacher classroom management influences students' interests and motivation. Also, no research has been reported on the relationship between teacher-student interaction and students 'emotional literacy until the study was conducted, but related research has confirmed the teacher-student interaction with students' emotional intelligence. Research has shown that when students have a close relationship with the teacher, they are actively involved in classroom activities, and the teacher's positive attitude toward students has a positive effect on their self-regulatory behavior (one of the dimensions of emotional literacy). In addition, another study found that teacher-student relationship was positively associated with students' social skills (an emotional literacy dimension). Other research has shown that a better and much closer teacher-student relationship is associated with increased motivation (an emotional literacy dimension) of students. The results of a study also show that teacher-student conflict in the United States and of teacher-student closeness education in Turkey are significantly related to students' self-regulation (an emotional literacy dimension). The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between classroom management through social and emotional learning and teacher-student interaction with emotional literacy in elementary students in the academic year of 2018-2019. The research method was descriptive-correlation. The statistical population of the study consisted of all elementary teachers in Malayer city. The sample size was 247 elementary teachers selected by stratified random sampling. Each teacher randomly completed questionnaires for 3 students in their class. Data were collected using Socio-Emotional Classroom Management, Teacher-Student Relationship scale, and Teacher Version Emotional Literacy Assessment Instrument. Pearson correlation and multivariate regression by the stepwise method were used to analyze the data. The results indicated a positive relationship between socio-emotional classroom management and its dimensions with emotional literacy. There was also a positive relationship between teacher-student closeness with emotional literacy and a negative relationship between teacher-student conflicts with emotional literacy. According to the results of regression, the contribution of emotional social class management and teacher-student closeness in predicting emotional literacy was positive and significant. It can be said that when teachers in the classroom use classroom management based on socio-emotional learning, they will play a major role in instilling a sense of cohession among students and realizing the potentials and identity formation of students. Appropriate behavior with students in the classroom, creating a classroom with social and emotional security as well as building self-confidence and motivation in students in an effort to achieve personal can increase students' emotional literacy. The teacher-student relationship is likely to increase the teacher's emotional state to the students, and because students feel good about this close relationship, they try to express the right emotions in the classroom and positive feedback from the teacher led to these emotion expressions, which leads to an increase in emotional literacy. Based on the findings, it is suggested that socio-emotional classroom management be taught to teachers and that teacher-student relationship be included in in-service teacher programs.

    Keywords: classroom management, elementary students, emotional literacy, social emotional learning, teacher-student interaction
  • Pages 80-101

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the consequences, challenges, and strategies of critical education in the humanities. Therefore, the implications of the Critical Thinking Classes, the challenges faced by faculty members in critical thinking education, and appropriate strategies for teaching critical thinking in the humanities area have been discussed. Critical thinking is defined as the art of thinking analysis and evaluation, and it is defined as a correction. (2015،Zeke). In other words, critical thinking is a style of thinking about any subject, content, or form that enhances the thinking of the thinker by analyzing, evaluating, and refining it. (2013،Tashi). Critical thinking encourages students to learn concepts in greater depth and durability, and they are able to explain and apply what they have learned, hence, they will also be able to learn how is possible to relate what they several classes, also they will ask more and more relevant questions and link what they have learned with their daily lives. (Mehrbi, ALIPOOR, 1395). Hence, (Gilfour, 2004) they believe that the necessity of developing critical thinking skills through the curriculum has become one of the major goals of educational coaches. Thus, faculty members can develop students' critical thinking through active teaching methods, such as small groups discussion, case studies, and classroom conferences. The use of active teaching methods can be very effective because of active teaching and learning is the use of strategies that maximize the opportunity for interaction and learners are empowered by participating in teamwork. In fact, whenever teachers in the classroom listening to students' opinions, being comfortable and honest with students, create a warm and intimate atmosphere, encouraging students to participate in classroom activities and to provide ongoing evaluations of paying longer, it becomes true that the motivation of students will increase. (Paul,1995). Therefore, considering the role of faculty members in fostering critical thinking in students, we have attempted to answer the following questions: What are the implications and reflections of the critical thinking classrooms form the point of view of participating faculty members? Moreover, what were the challenges and obstacles faced by faculty members involved in the research in the increase of critical thinking in the classrooms, And what strategies do faculty members in the research suggest for developing and fostering critical thinking in students? This research is qualitative research in terms of approach and is based on the auto ethnography method; auto ethnography should be methodological, ethnographic, cultural in terms of interpretation, and biographical in content. (Chang,2008). The field of study in this study was all professors of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of Kurdistan University who applied and fostered critical thinking in the classrooms of management processes. Considering the necessity of utilizing the views of a wide range of leading professors in this field, selecting the participants was done using the highest power sampling (checking the cases in which the phenomenon is very strong). High-power sampling can allow the researcher to select a small number of rich items that have in-depth information on the topic and also help them clarify the research topic. (Patton,2000). In this study, we selected faculty members who had a thorough understanding of critical thinking and applied it to the classroom. Finally, 9 professors were interviewed. These teachers ranged in age from 34 to 59 years, with between 8 and 25 years of teaching experience. The semi-structured interview technique was used to collect the required data. At the beginning of the interview, the interviewee was given a general explanation of the research and its aims and after this introduction; the interviewees were allowed to record their interview, each interview lasting between 45 and 60 minutes. Data were analyzed by using a comparative analysis method. This method of comparative analysis is based on comparison to the notion of similarities and differences. Comparative scholars, which focused on the problem of basing a relatively limited number of cases, selected for theoretical and substantive importance. (Ghafari,1388). In this study, we compared open coding to generate basic codes and classify data using methods namely: comparative analysis, congruent events, event-by-category, category-by-category, and concept-by-concept analysis. Finally, a number of categories and several sub-categories were obtained for each question. To determine the validity of the research, three methods of validity, transferability, and validity were used. For data validity criteria, we have tried several times to compare the data obtained from the interview with the real world that was actually the classroom. To make sure that what the interviewees said is true with the facts or not. Also, with a full explanation of how the sample is selected, the method of data collection and a thorough description of how to conduct the interview, a description of the method of data collection has helped to enhance the transferability criterion. Finally, with the help of university professors, especially supervisor and consultant professor, we conduct interviews and various coding steps and analysis methods to enhance the data validation effect. The findings showed that critical education causes a concern and intimacy among students and also increases students' academic achievement. Faculty members also faced challenges and obstacles in teaching critical thinking. One of these challenges was students' lack of motivation and lack of knowledge, and the second was the challenge of incorrect higher education policy making. In addition, faculty members cited attention to classroom management processes and positive student-teacher relationships as critical teaching strategies and strategies. (Gershenson, 2016) acknowledged that the quality of the teacher-student relationship has an impact on student progress. Also, when a student feels that the teacher knows him / her, he / she will feel more committed to the teacher and his / her wishes. It is clear that this depends on the type of teacher's wishes and how they are expressed, but generally speaking, their students are more committed to the professors they know. Students empathize with such teachers and make more positive judgments about them. Having a relationship can help students solve their learning problems more effectively (Lohr, 2004). In relation to the research done, the following suggestions are made by the professors to pay more attention to classroom processes and not all evaluations are summarized in the end-of-semester exam. Relationships have a significant impact on students' academic achievement, and higher education seems to have a serious rethink in quantitative education in order to enhance the quality of teaching.

    Keywords: auto ethnography, Consequences, challenges, strategies, Critical Thinking
  • Pages 102-120
  • Rahman Azizi *, Gholamreza Hajhosseinnezhad, Mostafa Ghaderi, Majid Aliaskari Pages 121-150
    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to provide an optimal framework for evaluating the curriculum system at the university.

    Method

    The research has a qualitative approach and the research synthesis has been used as research method. The purpose-based research is descriptive and qualitative-applied. Therefore, the field of research includes all scientific research articles of the last decade in the field of evaluation of higher education curricula, which were evaluated based on the review process of 46 articles. On the other hand, semi-structured interviews with 16 knowledgeable elites were also used in this study. The sampling method was desirable, namely those who had direct experience of evaluating university curricula. Participant review and expert review strategies have been used to validate. For this purpose, the coding of the analysis was provided by three researchers with a coefficient of agreement of 0.88. From the qualitative content analysis of the information obtained from the articles and opinions of the experts, the optimal framework for evaluating the syllabus system at the applied science university was developed.

    Findings

    The final result of the analysis of the synthesis of research and Grand Theory in combination has formed a circular framework that expresses the important and basic components for evaluating the system of curricula at the University of Applied Sciences and Technology. This framework includes components in the following dimensions: a) Texture (with components: 1- Features of curriculum and 2- Design, development and approval of curriculum). B) Process (with the components of 1- system of admission and implementation of curriculum and 2- teachers). C) The intervener (with the component of challenges and weaknesses) d) is the consequence (with the components of 1- structure 2- interaction and 3- consequences). On the other side of the circle, each of the components itself contains several micro-components, which are in fact the result of semi-structured interviews with experts. In the outer side of the curriculum framework, the following are the components that correspond to the details of the interview, which is in fact the product of the implementation and implementation of the synthesis method (synthesis research) in this study. As much as possible, the researcher has tried to match the details of the synthesis implementation with the small components of the semi-structured interviews so that future appraisers of the applied science system can be evaluated. Have a relatively comprehensive framework for evaluating the curriculum system at the Comprehensive University of Applied Sciences and Technology.Key word: Evaluation, Comprehensive University of Applied Sciences, Research Synthesis, grounded theory and Curriculum System.

    Keywords: evaluation, Comprehensive University of Applied Sciences, Research Synthesis, grounded theory, Curriculum System
  • Mehdi Yaghoubi, Esa Barghi *, Siros Asadian Pages 151-165
    The present study examines the impact of teaching methods based on the critical artistic pedagogy of Giro on the awareness of the citizenship rights of second grade high school students. This research is a quasi-experimental research and the research project used in this study is pre-test-post-test design with control group. The statistical population in this study included all male students in the first year of the second year of high school in district 3 of education in Kermanshah with 459 people in the academic year 1396-97. Sample size Based on the minimum sample size required for experimental research, 60 people (30 people for the experimental group and 30 people for the control group) were determined and selected by the available sampling method. The subjects of the present study included students in the first two grades of the second year of high school, one of whom was selected as the experimental group and the other as the control group. To measure students' awareness of citizenship rights, the Sharifi and Islamic Citizenship Rights Questionnaire (2012) was used. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts and its internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 23 software. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods including multivariate analysis of covariance were used. The results of this study showed that the application of the teaching method based on Giro's critical artistic pedagogy is effective in increasing the level of awareness of civil rights, political rights and social rights of students.The present study examines the impact of teaching methods based on the critical artistic pedagogy of Giro on the awareness of the citizenship rights of second grade high school students. This research is a quasi-experimental research and the research project used in this study is pre-test-post-test design with control group. The statistical population in this study included all male students in the first year of the second year of high school in district 3 of education in Kermanshah with 459 people in the academic year 1396-97. Sample size Based on the minimum sample size required for experimental research, 60 people (30 people for the experimental group and 30 people for the control group) were determined and selected by the available sampling method. The subjects of the present study included students in the first two grades of the second year of high school, one of whom was selected as the experimental group and the other as the control group. To measure students' awareness of citizenship rights, the Sharifi and Islamic Citizenship Rights Questionnaire (2012) was used. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts and its internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 23 software. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods including multivariate analysis of covariance were used. The results of this study showed that the application of the teaching method based on Giro's critical artistic pedagogy is effective in increasing the level of awareness of civil rights, political rights and social rights of students.The present study examines the impact of teaching methods based on the critical artistic pedagogy of Giro on the awareness of the citizenship rights of second grade high school students. This research is a quasi-experimental research and the research project used in this study is pre-test-post-test design with control group. The statistical population in this study included all male students in the first year of the second year of high school in district 3 of education in Kermanshah with 459 people in the academic year 1396-97. Sample size Based on the minimum sample size required for experimental research, 60 people (30 people for the experimental group and 30 people for the control group) were determined and selected by the available sampling method. The subjects of the present study included students in the first two grades of the second year of high school, one of whom was selected as the experimental group and the other as the control group. To measure students' awareness of citizenship rights, the Sharifi and Islamic Citizenship Rights Questionnaire (2012) was used. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts and its internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 23 software. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods including multivariate analysis of covariance were used. The results of this study showed that the application of the teaching method based on Giro's critical artistic pedagogy is effective in increasing the level of awareness of civil rights, political rights and social rights of students.The present study examines the impact of teaching methods based on the critical artistic pedagogy of Giro on the awareness of the citizenship rights of second grade high school students. This research is a quasi-experimental research and the research project used in this study is pre-test-post-test design with control group. The statistical population in this study included all male students in the first year of the second year of high school in district 3 of education in Kermanshah with 459 people in the academic year 1396-97. Sample size Based on the minimum sample size required for experimental research, 60 people (30 people for the experimental group and 30 people for the control group) were determined and selected by the available sampling method. The subjects of the present study included students in the first two grades of the second year of high school, one of whom was selected as the experimental group and the other as the control group. To measure students' awareness of citizenship rights, the Sharifi and Islamic Citizenship Rights Questionnaire (2012) was used. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts and its internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 23 software. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods including multivariate analysis of covariance were used. The results of this study showed that the application of the teaching method based on Giro's critical artistic pedagogy is effective in increasing the level of awareness of civil rights, political rights and social rights of students.
    Keywords: Critical pedagogy, citizenship law, Teaching Method
  • Naser Shirbagi *, Shahab Nasiri Nia Pages 166-197
    Purpose

    This study had multiple objectives such as testing the validity and reliability characteristics of the "Effective Professional Development" questionnaire, identifying differences between teachers 'opinions based on demographic variables and helping to improve teachers' professional development by identifying effective career development priorities.

    Method

    The approach of the present study was post-stability and its strategy was survey-descriptive. The research community included primary school teachers in Sanandaj who numbered 1,258. The participants in this study were 300 people who were selected using Karajsi and Morgan tables and by sampling using multi-stage clustering method. Sweeney and Lumpé's (2014) questionnaire was used under the heading "Characteristics of Effective Professional Development". Appropriate inferential statistics were used to test the hypotheses according to the type of data distribution. For the content validity test of the questionnaire, confirmatory factor analysis and for reliability test, Cranbach's alpha test was used. The obtained alpha was 0.967, which showed the appropriate reliability of the questionnaire.

    Results and Conclusions

    The results showed that the questionnaire "Effective professional development characteristics" has the desired validity and reliability for use among Iranian teachers. Among the components of effective teacher development in terms of teachers, according to Friedman's test results, the first rank of these components was the focus on teacher content knowledge and how students learn the content and the last rank was active learning beyond the classroom. There is also a significant difference between the components of effective teacher development. Keywords: Professional development, teachers, effective professional development, effective teaching, quality improvement.

    Keywords: professional development, teachers, Effective Professional Development, Effective Teaching, Quality Improvement
  • Mahboobeh Arefe *, Soraya Khazaei, Azar Khazai Pages 198-217
    Purpose
    The aim of this research was to study the utilization of instructional scaffolding strategies and determining ther effectiveness on learning and achievement motivation of students with mathematics learning disabilities.
    Method
    In This study a pretest-post test quasi expenmental, including a used control group. Statistical universe in cludes all elementary fifth graders(boys) diagnosed With mathematics learning in academic year 96-97 and reforred to learning disabilities conter in khorramabad, receiving due interretions. Study sample consistes of 22 students with mathematics disabilities, elected through available sampling and randomy devided into control and experimental groups (n = 11 per group). in the section through learning teast structured by the researcher and also achievement motivation questionaire Hermence (1970) were used to collect data. In the process of implemention, the experimention group received 8 sessions training (45 minutes each), based on instructional scaffolding strategies, while control group not receive no intervention. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS-V22 software and analysis of covariance.
    Result
    The result Covariance analysis indicated that syllabus based on structional scaffolding strategies was effect on the learning and achievement motivation, in the way that Lead to increased learning and achievement motivation of students with mathematics learning disability (P
    Keywords: mathematics disabilities, effectiveness, achievement motivation, instructional scaffolding
  • Maryam Shafiesarvestani *, Jafar Jahani, Asad Rakhdapoor Pages 218-241

    The research method was descriptive and correlational. The population of this research consisted of all first cycle of secondary education students and teachers in the four district of Shiraz, who studied in the academic year 96-97. Using multi-stage cluster sampling, 600 students and 60 teachers were selected. Research tools included Grassha and Richman Teaching Styles Questionnaire (2002), Harrison & Bramson Thought Style Questionnaire (2002) and Mohammad Sharifi’s research morale questionnaire (2013). Which Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.79, 0.91 and 0.81 respectively. Research findings were analyzed by SPSS and LISREL software and using statistical methods such as one-sample t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that: Research morale in students was higher than average, the dominant teaching style of teachers, was facilitator style and dominant thinking style was the style of analytics. There is a significant relationship between a number of teaching styles and teachers' thinking styles. There is a significant and direct correlation between the different teaching styles of teachers and students' research morale. Teachers teaching styles and thinking styles simultaneously predict a significant role for the students' Research Morale, Teachers teaching styles and thinking styles are simultaneously significant predictor of students' research morale.

    Keywords: Teaching Styles, Thinking styles, Research Morale
  • Mohammadi Adel, Abomohammad Asgarkhani*, Seyed Bagher Mirabbasi Pages 242-260

    The right to self-determination is one of the fundamental human rights in the event of a violation of the rights of individuals and groups. The right to education in one's mother tongue as a human right of minorities is currently emphasized and taught in many countries. Teaching in the mother tongue in areas where language minorities live can have a positive impact on students' learning. How to teach is one of the most important things to learn and motivate students to learn, which in the absence of favorable conditions for this learning, the acquisition of skills will face a major challenge. Lack of learning of children due to linguistic differences with the toxic language of the country can have negative consequences in social adaptation with other groups in society. Excessive conflict with the majority or other groups in society can lead to disputes and even violent conflicts. The emergence of civil wars or armed conflicts in some countries with ethnic, religious, linguistic, etc. minorities is itself one of the causes of violence due to linguistic incompatibility in education and learning. Violation of this fundamental right against minorities can lead to the right to self-determination. Language in its most basic sense is a means of communication that causes communication between people of any ethnicity and race, in this sense, language can be considered somewhat identical with the means of communication of other creatures and animals. But human language is not only a means of communication but also a means of expressing thoughts, ideas, attitudes and knowing them from the outside world. This role of language is the informational role of language and not its communicative role, which in this perception is inherent in the human mind and no other being has the ability to learn and use such language. Although there have been conflicting reports from linguists and psychologists about animal language learning, no other creature has the ability to learn human language based on Chomsky's theory of the inherent nature of language (for humans). does not have. The joy and vivacity that comes from the right to education is one of the characteristics of life expectancy and, by its nature, development. This issue has been clarified even in some field researches that cheerfulness in education leads to higher education and during it longer life and healthier life. Man is a social being and lives within society, and the behaviors that emanate from him are partly related to social interactions and are influenced in some way by social factors, so that the behavior of an individual alone is different from the behavior of the collective. Shows itself. Social adjustment, which is considered as the most important sign of mental health, is one of the topics that has attracted the attention of many psychologists, especially educators. Social growth is the most important aspect of any person's development. The criterion for measuring a person's social development is the extent to which he or she adapts to others. Social growth is not only effective in adapting to the environment with which the person is in contact, but also in the rate of career and academic success of the person. In the contemporary world, due to the numerous migrations and the phenomenon of globalization, it is no longer clear that a country has only one race, ethnicity, religion, etc. Consequently, in such an atmosphere, educational places also face a multicultural phenomenon. Multiculturalism with different languages, which naturally also challenges learning. Motivation to study is one of the criteria for determining our future destiny. One of the most important rights of minorities in the international world is the right to education in their mother tongue in schools and universities. This right is so important that in case of systematic violation it can lead to the use of the right to self-determination Happiness is realized in the process of the individual's relationship with society and the group; Otherwise, from the point of view of the outside observer, cheerfulness will be nothing but a set of personal qualities and emotional emotions. If these exhilarating qualities do not have social meanings and collective goals, they will have no definition other than some abnormal mental states. Thus, social vitality is the same level of enjoyment of the gifts of public life with subjective persuasion and objective consensus; That is, the individual and external definition of vitality must be simultaneous. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the right to education in the mother tongue as one of the components of the right to self-determination on social adjustment in bilingual students and to use specific research methods in the field of educational sciences to prove the compatibility of minorities if their rights are explained. Are legal rules.

    Method

    The Research was a quasi-experimental study with two groups of control and control. The statistical population of the study consisted of elementary students of Paveh city in the academic (Sixth grade) year of 1397-98. According to the nature and purpose of the research, 44 of them were selected. The samples were divided into two groups of case and control, based on the randomized blocking method. The data collection tool was a standard Oxford Social Welfare Questionnaire with a reliability (0.81) and California Social Compliance Standard Questionnaire (0.84). The face and content validity of the questionnaires were evaluated and confirmed by 4 faculty members of Tehran University. How to collect data as a test fair; test post. After collecting the questionnaires, the data was analyzed by SPSS software version 23 and descriptive and inferential statistical tests. Findings and

    Discussion

    The results of data analysis showed that education and the right to study in native language increase the social vitality of students. The ease of learning content in their mother tongue is one of the major factors driving up the desire to study. Eliminating dissatisfaction with learning and studying is another factor in using mother tongue. Also, the right to study in native language increases the social adjustment of students in schools. Therefore, it is suggested that teaching and teaching in bilingual schools should be done at least in some courses alongside the native language, by native language. Key words: native language, education, self-determination, social happiness

    Keywords: native language, education, self-determination, social happiness