فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Evaluation of Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. Gongylodes) extract effect on mesenchymal stem cell viability and apoptosis
    Naser Kalhor Qom, Mohsen Sheykhhasan, Ali Kowsari* Page 1
    Background

    Cell viability and apoptosis are two crucial factors that may determine cell fate. There are several factors, such as hypoxia, which may be effective in cell processes. Because of its unique features, such as its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptosis mechanisms, kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) extract may be used in the amelioration of cell viability and a decrease in cell apoptosis. In this study, we evaluate the effect of kohlrabi extract on the viability and apoptosis of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs).

    Material and Methods

    In this study, extract from kohlrabi and mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue were isolated in a laboratory under sterile conditions. Expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) surface markers, including CD44, CD90, and CD105 was evaluated by flow cytometry method. Besides, CD34 was used as a negative marker. MTT assay was carried out to determine the cell viability. Evaluation of BCL2 and BAX expression levels was performed by real-time PCR.

    Results

    MSC surface markers were verified by flow cytometry. The obtained results demonstrated a significant difference between the cell viability of the kohlrabi-extract treated and control group over time (P=0.03). In addition, the real-time PCR analysis showed that expression levels of BCL2 significantly increased in hypoxic condition after treatment with leaf extract (P=0.019). However, there was no significant expression change in the BAX gene.

    Conclusion

    Our study illustrates that kohlrabi extract may have positive effects on cell survival while having inhibitory effects on apoptosis.

    Keywords: Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Brassica oleracea, Extract, Viability, Apoptosis, MTT, Real-Time PCR
  • Gholamreza Farnoosh, Kazem Hassanpour, Taleb Badri, Seyed Reza Hosseini Zijoud* Pages 49-50

    On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China (1). Iran was the 25th country affected by COVID-19. According to the Iranian Ministry of Health, every 12 minutes, one person dies in Iran because of COVID-19. After a 3.5-fold and 12.9-fold increase in the number of COVID-19 affected people and deaths, respectively in the second two weeks compared with the first two weeks after the official announcement of COVID-19 on February 19, 2020, in Iran (2), the coincidence of this epidemic with the celebration of New Year Eve, may lead to a human and health catastrophe in Iran. Nowruz (New Year Eve) is the first day of the Iranian New Year on March 20 (or the previous or following day). It marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and takes place with celebrations. Before the start of the New Year in Iran on March 20, all 31 provinces were affected by COVID-19, with some provinces including Qom, Tehran, Guilan reporting the highest prevalence rates (2). The preparations for the celebration of New Year's Eve in Iran include shopping in crowded markets and beginning of the New Year Eve holiday in Iran (6 official days for administrations and 13 days for schools and universities) is along with traveling, that accelerates human-to-human transmission, effectively spreading SARS-CoV-2 (3). Due to the outbreak of COVID-19 during Nowruz, abroad travel had decreased, but domestic travel in Iran had not stopped. Despite the closing of museums and recreation centers, and repeated official announcements that no amenities will be offered, Nowruz trips continued. Besides domestic tourism attractions in Iran as a four-season country, many people in big cities are returned to their villages and hometowns for the New Year's holiday to visit their parents or grandparents. These visits can lead to an increased prevalence of COVID-19 in adults, which is dangerous and worrying. This year, with the beginning of Nowruz, major highways and tourist areas were hit by heavy traffic, too. Nowruz trips of three million Iranians from the 13 affected provinces with COVID-19 (during March 17-20, 2020) demonstrated that many people refused to stay at home, while Iranian authorities and the WHO have repeatedly urged people not to travel, in order to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 (2). Quarantine of cities with COVID-19 cases and controlling citizens' traffic to these cities are strategies recommended by WHO to control the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, and China's experience as the main sources of this outbreak has confirmed the effectiveness of the measure (4). But no quarantine in any city had been implemented in Iran. Although some traffic restrictions had been put in place, they were not fully enforced in any province. According to the Iranian Ministry of Roads and Urban Development, the number of Nowruz travelers has decreased from 18 million in 2019 to 8.5 million in 2020. However, this amount of travel is alarming (5). The Iranian Ministry of Health had repeatedly stated that the only way to control the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak is social distasting by reducing contact levels, traffic, traveling, and canceling unnecessary trips in Nowruz, as well as staying at home under voluntary home quarantine. But the opportunity to travel on the Nowruz holiday and the “high season” in Iran, had become a serious threat to public health. Because the incubation period of COVID-19 is 2 to 14 days, and every infected or carrier can infect 2 to 20 people in Iran, traveling to different cities during Nowruz may lead to devastating outbreaks. As such, traveling seems to be spreading SARS-CoV-2 to the farthest cities and villages after the Nowruz holidays, which certainly do not have adequate health facilities. In big cities, hospitals will not have the capacity to accommodate patients, so human and health consequences are predictable. Nowruz trips like a cluster bomb will exacerbate the wave of COVID-19 across the country, and Nowruz celebrations have made it harder to maintain control of the disease in Iran.

    Keywords: Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, Nowruz, Iran
  • Zeinab Nazari, Javad Ghaffari*, Abbas Dabaghzadeh, Negar Ghaffari Pages 51-54

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease. Nutritional conditions effects on allergic diseases such as asthma. The aim of this study is to find relation of maternal vitamin E and progression of children asthma. This is a review article searched in data base include Google, PubMed, SID, Irandoc, Scopus and up-to-date. Key words for search include maternal vitamin e, asthma, children and pediatric. There was not limitation time for search. A few articles found in our search. Some of them were cohort studies. A few researches were about vitamin e only and a few of them evaluated vitamin e with other vitamins in clinical trial studies. Because the articles were heterogenic, we could not do a meta-analysis. Often articles showed the vitamin e improved clinical manifestations of asthma and or lung function in spirometry tests. A few articles revealed no any effect of prenatal vitamin e during pregnancy on children wheezing or asthma. Vitamin e has not any serious side effects. Vitamin e supplement during pregnancy has different effects on  wheezing or asthma prevalence in children.

    Keywords: asthma, children, vitamin e, pregnancy, wheezing
  • Atefeh Verdi*, Seyedeh Saeideh Sahraei, Elham Asa, Rahil Jannatifar, MohamadBagher Masaeimanesh Pages 55-62
    Background

    One of the main causes of male infertility is the negative effects of oxidative stress. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays an essential role in spermatogenesis, as well as in the maintenance of sperm DNA integrity. This study aimed to determine whether the recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) treatment of sperm parameters could positively affect sperm DNA and oxidative DNA fragmentation in oligozoospermia infertile men.

    Materials and Methods

    This interventional study was carried out on a sample of 50 oligozoospermia infertile men. To this end, sperm DNA fragmentation and ROS as an oxidative stress marker were measured before and after treatment with the rhFSH sperm parameters.

    Results

    The sperm parameters (concentration, mobility, and morphology) were significantly different in the oligozoospermia infertile patients before and after the rhFSH treatment (p<0.05). Moreover, sperm DNA fragmentation had a significant decrease in the patients after the FSH treatment (p<0.05). In addition, the ROS level in sperm, and the malondialdehyde level of seminal plasma significantly decreased after the treatment (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    The findings indicated that the rhFSH treatment significantly improved the sperm parameters. Further, the treatment led to a meaningful reduction of sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidative stress in the oligozoospermia infertile patients. Similarly, the malondialdehyde concentration markedly decreased in correlation with DNA fragmentation after the rhFSH treatment.

    Keywords: DNA fragmentation, Malondialdehyde, Oxidative stress, Oligozoospermia, Recombinant human FSH
  • Zahra Norouzi Bazgir, Bahman Mirzaei*, MohammadReza Haghshenas, HamidReza Goli, Ebrahim Shafaie Pages 63-70
    Background

    Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Citrobacter freundii (C. freundii) as a causative agent of nosocomial infections is a health threat, especially in hospitals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of MDR C. freundii, considering isolation sites and a variety of utilized antibiotics.

    Materials and Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, the clinical samples of C. freundii strains were collected and screened using traditional bacteriological tests in Zareh Hospital, Sari City, Iran, during 2016-2017. We used disk diffusion methods to assess the susceptibility patterns of isolates according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines.

    Results

    Out of 3248 clinical samples, C. freundii strains were detected in 109 samples (32.1% females and 67.9% males). Susceptibility tests indicated that 89 isolates (81.65%) were MDR strains. Frequencies of MDR C. freundii strains were higher in the Behavioral Intensive Care Unit (BICU) (37.61%) and restoration ward (29.35%) compared with other hospital wards.

    Conclusion

    Considering the MDR C. freundii strains detected from burn hospital wards, it is necessary to implement prevention criteria for their eradication from burn hospitals. The results indicate the urgent need to design more practical methods for controlling infection in hospital wards.

    Keywords: Multi drug- resistant, extensively- drug resistant Citrobacter freundii, Susceptibility testing, hospital acquired infections, Burn Hospital Wards
  • Behnam Mortazavi, Najaf Allahyari Fard*, Farid Heidari, AliAsghar Karkhaneh, MohammadAli Eslamizade Pages 71-82
    Background

    Contraceptive vaccines (CVs) can be used as a valuable and alternative method for the prevention of gestation in humans and animals. These vaccines can have several targets, such as superficial sperm proteins. Vaccines based on sperm antigens are quite efficacious to create a contraceptive effect. However, multi-epitope vaccines are more effective in stimulating the immune system and producing more antibodies to reduce the infertility rate.

    Materials and Methods

    This study aimed to design and evaluate a chimeric fusion protein containing IZUMO, SACA3, and PH-20 epitopes. IZUMO1, SACA3, and PH-20 were assessed, and appropriate regions were selected using various bioinformatics tools, including IEDB, I-TASSER, ProtParam, Asa-View, and Chimera software. Protein epitopes were selected based on various characters, including specificity, solvent accessibility, their weight and length, antigenic intensity, and topology. Epitopes with high antigenic potential were selected and joined together by linkers. The designed fusion protein was simulated using Molecular Dynamic, GROMACS 5, and Chimera 1.14 software.

    Results

    The results demonstrated that all antigenic plots and availability of epitopes in the new construct remained constant. The spermatic antigens were combined using rigid linkers as a new construct and showed a stable formation with proper solvent accessibility validated by ProSA-web and PROCHECK. Also, comparing the new structure with its original one did not show any structural change.

    Conclusion

    Based on bioinformatics results, the fusion protein that consists of three spermatic antigens has productive potential to stimulate the immune system and capable of producing more antibodies in circulation and reliable infertility.

    Keywords: IZUMO1, SACA3, PH-20, Contraceptive vaccine, Chimeric protein
  • Mohamad Najarasl, Mehdi Zeinoddini*, AliReza Saeeidinia, Reza Hasan Sajedi Pages 83-90
    Background

    Denileukin diftitox (trade name, Ontak) is the first recombinant immunotoxin (IM), in which the binding domain of diphtheria toxin has been replaced by the amino acid sequence of human interleukin-2 (DT389IL-2) using genetic engineering. Purity, stability, and structural property of the protein are critical factors for the scale-up production of this fusion protein. In this IM, location 519 has free cysteine residue that leads to cross S-S bound formation in the refolding process and, as a result, misfolding/aggregation of the protein may occur.

    Materials and Methods

    To inhibit misfolding/aggregation, we substituted cysteine 519 by a serine residue with site-directed mutagenesis, and then the ability of the mutated protein for binding to the IL-2 receptor was predicted and determined by bioinformatics tools. For this purpose, the sequence of the denileukin diftitox was adopted from Drugbank, and the mentioned substitution applied. Two methods determined the folding of the fusion protein: de novo modeling method (by utilizing the I-TASSER database) and homology modeling method (by using some databases and tools, including Swiss-Model, PHYRE2, M4T, ModWeb, RaptorX, and EasyModeller). Finally, the ability of the proteins for binding to the IL-2 receptor was investigated by pyDock and Zdock docking servers, as well as Hex software.

    Results

    The result showed that the mutated form (C519S) of this protein folds appropriately, and the ΔG of the models, measured by STRUM, showed no significant variation.  Also, docking analysis has shown that the protein can efficiently bind to the IL-2 receptor without any substantial changes in the binding energy.

    Conclusion

    The present study shows that the suggested mutation of this protein can be an acceptable replacement for denileukin diftitox with a similar affinity and a more proper refolding process.

    Keywords: Immunotoxin, Denileukin diftitox, Refolding process, prediction, Bioinformatic software, Docking