فهرست مطالب

Pediatrics - Volume:8 Issue: 79, 2020
  • Volume:8 Issue: 79, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • Somayeh Oladi, Fereshte Khoshniyat, Masumeh Ghazanfarpour, Sahebeh Dadshahi, Neda Asadi, Faezeh Ghorbani, Amirreza Dehghan Tarazjani *, Saeideh Shahsavari Pages 11519-11526
    Background
    Clinical education is the basis for medical sciences education, and one of the most critical criteria of professional education, playing a significant role in internalizing the teachings to students. This study aims to investigate the opinions of midwifery students about the quality of feedback provision in clinical education.
    Materials and Methods
    This cross-sectional study was performed in 2019 in the Congress of midwifery and women’s health, Mashhad, Iran. Census method was used for selecting 98 midwifery students who had participated from all over the country in this Congress. Data collection was performed through a demographic information questionnaire and a standard feedback questionnaire with 21 items. The midwifery students were asked to specify the importance of feedback received during their clinical
    Results
    Overall, 98 midwifery students participated in this study. According to most students, most of the time the feedback received was as expected (40.8%), clear and explicit (41.8%), constructive (50%), and was useful for correcting their attitude (49%), performance (54.1%), and behavior (50%), and related to clinical skills (55.1%), and most of them had received positive feedback (49%). Except for items 8 and 20, most midwifery students chose the options of often and most of the time for responding to items.
    Conclusion
    More than half of the midwifery students had adequate satisfaction with the feedback they received during their clinical education (often and most of the time). It is suggested that the quality of feedback provision by midwifery professors could be enhanced for the maximum satisfaction of students.
    Keywords: Congress, Feedback, Midwifery student, Quality
  • Molood Bolourian, Hoda Dadgar, Rahele Aqadousti, Mohammad Firoozbakht, Mohadese Khakpour, Ali Rokni, Fatemeh Abdi, Zahra Ramazanian Bafghi, Samaneh Dabagh Fekri, Sara Ghahremani * Pages 11527-11535
    Background

    Considering,  the high prevalence of nipple fissures as well as the importance of neonatal health and, on the other hand, the increasing use of herbal medicines, we decided to conduct a systematic review on the effects of peppermint on nipple fissure.

    Materials and Methods

    In this systematic review, all clinical trials evaluating the effect of pepperminton healing of breast fissure in lactating mothers were searched on the online databases of Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Medline with no language or time restrictions till to Feb. 2019 using the combination related keywords of Mesh. The study selection was carried out by two reviewers.

    Results

    Six studies (with a total 952-sample size) examined the effect of peppermint on nipple fissure. The first study showed that the lanolin, peppermint, and dexpanthenol medicines had similar therapeutic effects on the damaged nipple. The results of the second study revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the three intervention groups (peppermint tea bag, peppermint cream, and breast milk) in the treatment of nipple cracking. The results of four other studies also showed a positive effect of peppermint on the treatment of nipple fissure.

    Conclusion

    Peppermint can have beneficial effects on the treatment of nipple fissure disorders. Considering the patients' interest in complementary medicine and the low cost of this treatment, this useful herb can be used in improving the symptoms of nipple fissure.

    Keywords: Breastfeeding, Mother, Nipple fissure, Peppermint, Treatment
  • Zahra Delavarian, Atessa Pakfetrat, Zahra Badiee, Ala Ghazi *, Ava Taghizadeh Pages 11537-11542

    Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a heterogeneous malignancy originating from proliferation of lymphoid cells or their precursors. , we report a case of a 6-year-old Iranian male child admitted at the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran, in March 2019. The case was complaining about gingival swellings worsening for one month. Clinical and pathologic examination, complemented by biopsy and immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Treatment was based on chemotherapy. Intraoral involvement of lymphomas might be confused with inflammatory diseases; therefore the dentist has a crucial role in early diagnosis for appropriate management of the disease.

    Keywords: Non-hodgkin’s lymphoma, oral cavity, Gingival swelling
  • Taliha Oner *, Pınar Dervisoglu, Ahmet Celebi Pages 11543-11550
    Background
    Right Ventricular (RV) hypertrophy is an adaptive response to chronic RV pressure overload in patients with pulmonary hypertension. We investigated the relationships between RV hypertrophy indicators, including electrocardiography, the percentage oxygen saturation (SaO2%), body mass index (BMI), and blood uric acid levels in patients with a biventricular structure followed up for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH).
    Materials and Methods
    This retrospective study included 33 patients with confirmed systemic PAH, according to the catheterization and a negative vascular reactivity test result. Patients with single-ventricle physiology and Down’s syndrome who had undergone surgery were excluded. The data of blood chemistry, hemogram, ECG, and SaO2% were collected, thus, the BMI was calculated. The patients were categorized according to SaO2 values (<90% [n=14] vs. >90% [n=19]), BMI (18.5 [n=17] kg/m2), PAH status (primary [n=13] vs. secondary [n=20]), and treatment regime (combination therapy [n=16] vs. monotherapy [n=17]), and the data were compared among the groups.
    Results
    Patients with SaO2 values of <90% and >90% differed only in terms of blood uric acid level, which was significantly higher in the patients with SaO2<90%. The V1–V2 R-waves indicating right ventricular hypertrophy were significantly higher in patients with a BMI
    Conclusion
    Low BMI, SaO2 <90%, elevated uric acid levels, and an elevated R-wave in V1 or V2 were associated with poor functional capacity. In particular, the D1 S-wave was significantly higher in patients who received combination therapy, with a height >9 mm indicating impaired capacity. These measured markers can be used to follow-up patients with PAH.
    Keywords: Children, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, S-wave
  • Tahereh Poordast, Fatemeh Sadat Najib, Zahra Kianmehr, Fatemeh Shoaee, Elham Askary * Pages 11551-11559
    Background
    Vaginal aplasia is a rare congenital anomaly with different surgical techniques suggested for vaginal reconstruction.McIndoe vaginoplasty is an easy one of these surgical methods with a low morbidity rate, but its long-term results need to be further investigated. Therefore, the female genital anatomy and sexual function was examined after performing McIndoe vaginoplasty in patients with müllerian anomaly or androgen insensitivity syndrome.
    Materials and Methods
    In this historical cohort study, the data of 25 patients undergoing McIndoe vaginoplasty with amniotic graft from 2006 to 2017 at four selected hospitals of Shiraz affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran were extracted from medical records. Then, the patients were called to refer for physical examination and fill the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. In addition, 31 women of the same age range and without a sexual problem, vaginal surgery, or delivery were selected as the control group. Finally, the results of vaginal measurements and FSFI scores of the two groups were compared together.
    Results
    Theaverage vaginal length of the case and control groups were 5.60±2.38 and 8.47±1.31 cm, respectively. Furthermore, the mean proximal vaginal diameter in case and control groups were measured 2.94±0.92, and 4.12±0.70 cm, respectively (P<0.001). The mean FSFI score of the case group was 12.81±7.87, and 24.19±2.90 for the control group (P<0.001). The vaginal indices and FSFI of the patients using mold routinely were still lower than the control group (P<0.05) although theyhad a larger vagina (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Vaginal reconstruction using McIndoe vaginoplasty with amniotic graft failed to provide normal vagina function and anatomy for patients with congenital vaginal aplasia in long-term follow-up.
    Keywords: Congenital, Reconstructive surgical procedures, Vagina
  • Forod Salehi, Mahmood Hoseinzadeh Maleki, Emad Asgari Jafarabadi *, Shiva Salehi Pages 11561-11571
    Background

    Regular consumption of vitamin D doses can improve heart function in patients with heart failure. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D on the recovery process of neonates, infants, and children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) following reconstructive cardiac surgery.

    Materials and Methods

    In this single-blinded clinical trial study, 60children with CHD requiringreconstructive cardiac surgery, who had been referred to the cardiology department of Razi Hospital affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2019, were selected and randomly divided to the intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group received oral vitamin D before operation (300,000 units of vitamin D). 24 and 48 hours after the operation, patients' hemodynamic conditions were assessed and inotropic drugs were administered accordingly.

    Results

    The mean vitamin D level was 33.21 ± 4.66 ng/ml in the intervention group (with vitamin D) and 23.55 ± 2.68 ng/ml in the control group (P<0.05). The mean RACH category of the intervention and controlgroups was 2.33 ± 0.15 and 2.2 ± 0.14 respectively; there was no significant difference between the two groups in this regard. The relationship between vitamin D level with RACH category score, inotrope score, and vasoactive inotrope score was not significant at 24 and 48 hours after the operation in both groups. Conclusion According to the results, the administration of vitamin D had no significant effect on the improvement of patients with the congenital cardiac disease after reconstructive heart surgery.

    Keywords: Children, congenital heart disease, Infants, Vitamin D
  • Abolhassan Seyedzadeh, Mohammadreza Tohidi *, Ali Shourmij, Sara Hookari Pages 11573-11580
    Background

    Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is a kidney involvement that causes edema and heavy proteinuria with severe complications if the treatment is started late. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of Levamisole in the daily versus every other day treatment regimen to control recurrence in Childhood Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Materials and Methods

    This randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 52 children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome who referred to the pediatric nephrology clinic of Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah (Iran). The eligible patients divided into two groups using a random numbers table (Daily Group, n=10; Every Other Day Group, n=42). The first group received 2.5 mg /kg Levamisole daily and the second group received the same dose for every other day. Patients were investigated and followed up for at least 4 months. The clinical, laboratory variables, and side effects were compared between the two groups.

    Results

    The two groups had no statistically significant difference interms of baseline variables. There was a significant statistical difference between the two groups in terms of follow-up period after treatment using Levamisole, steroid dose, and the number of recurrences so that the average of these variables in every other day group was higher compared to the daily group (P<0.05). Also, there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups in terms of different complications of vomiting, arthritis, skin rash, neutropenia, seizure, increased liver enzymes, and Urea-Creatinine. Conclusion According to the results, the better efficacy and safety of Levamisole in the daily vs. every other day regimen, daily administration of Levamisole to control recurrence in the Childhood Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome was recommended.

    Keywords: Childhood, Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome, Iran, Levamisole
  • Saman Sedighi, Mohammad Reza Najarzadegan, Hoseyn Ghasemzadeh, Mehrdad Khodabandeh, Mahshid Khazaei, Monirsadat Mirzadeh, Masaudeh Babakhanian *, Ali Rokni, Masumeh Ghazanfarpour Pages 11581-11586
    Background

    Considering the necessity of using a valid and reliable tool to assess depression in women and the lack of similar tools in Iran, the purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS) with an emphasis on factor analysis among Iranian women with sick children.

    Materials and Methods 

    In the cross-sectional psychometric study, 102 eligible women were selected by multistage cluster sampling from various environments such as healthcare centers, hospitals, and public and private institutions, who completed the ZSDS. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed using test-retest and internal consistency, and its validity was tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

    Results 

    Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the total scale were equal to 0.73, and high test-retest reliability indicated the appropriate reliability of ZSDS. The CFA results indicated a poor fit of the model in determining the factors as initially expressed in ZSDS. After removing six questions with low factor loadings and freeing the covariance error between the two questions, the model was adequately fitted (CMIN/DF= 1.3, CFI= 0.92, TLI= 0.90, GFI= 0.89).

    Conclusion

    Based on our study, the ZSDS is convenient for identifying clinically significant depressive symptoms among women with sick children.

    Keywords: Child, Psychometric, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Women
  • Abolhassan Seyedzadeh, Mohamad Reza Tohidi *, Nazanin Farshchian, Mohammad Saleh Seyedzadeh, Jalaleh Haghighi, Sara Hookari Pages 11587-11595
    Background 

    Fetal hydronephrosis is a common urinary tract anomaly that may result in renal parenchyma damage. Ultrasound is considered a simple, noninvasive procedure to diagnose and track antenatal hydronephrosis. Our aim was to study the clinical course of fetal hydronephrosis in fetuses.

    Materials and Methods

    In this prospective study, 60 fetuses in Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran, which were diagnosed with prenatal hydronephrosis in the third trimester of pregnancy, were grouped into three categories according to the anteroposterior diameter of the renal pelvis: mild (7-9 mm), moderate (9-15 mm), and severe (> 15 mm). The groups were followed for two months after birth with ultrasonography to investigate the clinical course and spontaneous resolution.  

    Results

    The severity of the left-side hydronephrosis at the antenatal ultrasound was mild in 27 (45%), moderate in 19 (31.7%), and severe in 3 (18.30%) fetuses. At the follow-up, 30 patients had normal renal pelvis. Severe hydronephrosis, however, remained in three patients after 6 to 8 weeks of follow-up. The severity of the right-side hydronephrosis at the antenatal ultrasound was mild in 15 (25%), moderate in 10 (16.7%), and severe in 1 (1.7%) fetuses. At six to eight weeks after birth, 15 patients had normal renal pelvis. In 10 patients (16.7%), improvement in hydronephrosis was observed after 6-8 weeks. In the first evaluation, 45 patients (75%) had unilateral hydronephrosis and 15 patients (25%) had bilateral hydronephrosis. After six to eight weeks, these decreased to 22 (36.7%), and 6 (10%) cases, respectively.

    Conclusion 

    The use of antenatal and postnatal ultrasound for imaging follow-up of neonates with fetal hydronephrosis showed that a significant number of cases improved after 6-8 weeks.

    Keywords: Dilation, Fetal Hydronephrosis, Renal Pelvis, Ultrasound
  • Reza Derakhshan, Najme Barfeii, Tabandeh Sadeghi * Pages 11597-11602
    Background

    Diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) in neonates with extra cardiac anomalies is effective in their clinical management and surgical outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of CHD in neonates with extra cardiac anomalies admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

    Materials and Methods 

    This retrospective, descriptive study included all neonates with extra cardiac anomalies admitted to the NICU of Ali Ibn Abitaleb Hospital in Rafsanjan, Iran, from March 2016 until the end of September 2018. Data were collected through a researcher-designed checklist including demographic and disease information for neonates and their parents. The checklist was filled out according to the neonates’ medical records. Moreover, CHD was diagnosed using echocardiography. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.

    Results

    From the 58 neonates, 35 (60.35%) were boys and 23 (39.65%) were girls. The mean age of the neonates was 5.27±6.9 days. The prevalence of CHD in neonates with extra cardiac anomalies was 37.25% (n=19). The most prevalent CHD anomaly was PDA with a rate of 78.9%. The highest prevalence of CHD was associated with musculoskeletal (50%, n=6 from 12), and genitourinary (43.8%, n=7 from 16) abnormality, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the CHD and non-CHD neonates in terms of neonatal gender and parental characteristics.

    Conclusion

    This study shows that 37.25% of neonates with extra cardiac anomalies have CHD anomalies; thus, it is recommended to refer all neonates with extra cardiac anomalies for cardiac examination.

    Keywords: congenital heart disease, Extra cardiac anomalies, neonate
  • Saeedeh Derhami, Shaghayegh Rahmani *, Nasrin Jalalimanesh Pages 11603-11608
    Background

    The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 [2019-nCoV]) is the origin of several cases of pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. According to the reported data, children are less common to be infected by COVID-19. Besides, their mortality rate is almost zero.

    Case Presentation

    In this article, we investigated six children who were infected by COVID-19 and discuss the various symptoms of disease in children.

    Conclusion

    In this article, we investigated six children with various clinical manifestations, and based on our patients' presentations, death undoubtedly occurs among children infected by COVID-19. The majority of our sample population includes boys, therefore we suggest this theory that this virus is more probable to be severe among the male gender.

    Keywords: Children, COVID-19, Mortality
  • Ali Parsa, Benyamin Esmaeili *, Mohammad Hallaj Moghadam, Farzad Omidi Kashani, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam, Amin Rezaeian Pages 11609-11615
    Background 

    Supracondylar humeral fractures constitute about 60% and 13% of all pediatric elbow and pediatric skeletal fractures, respectively, with a peak incidence in the 5-7 years age group. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare closed reduction with open reduction and pin fixation in type III supracondylar humeral fractures in children younger than 12 years.

    Materials and Methods

    In this retrospective study, all children under 12 years of age with type III supracondylar humeral fractures who referred to two teaching hospitals in Mashhad, Iran, between March 2017 and March 2019 were included. Patients were divided into two groups:  open reduction and fixation with pin (OR) (n= 30), and closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CR) (n=15). The method of surgery for each individual patient was chosen based on the surgeon’s preference. For patients who had a follow-up of at least 6 months, subsequent elbow radiographs were requested.

    Results

    No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of range of motion of the fractured limb and radiographic angles at follow-up (p > 0.05). However, operation time was significantly shorter in the CR group compared with the OR group (p < 0.001). Three patients (6%) had cubitus valgus (all of whom were in the OR group [10%]), and two patients (4%) had cubitus varus (one patient in the OR group [3.33%] and the other in the CR group [5%]). Wound dehiscence was only seen in one patient in the OR group (3.33%).

    Conclusion 

    Based on the results, there was no significant difference between the open and closed reduction methods in type III supracondylar humeral fractures with respect to elbow function and union of the fracture.

    Keywords: Fracture, Pediatric, Reduction, Supracondylar humerous
  • Saeed Dorgaleleh, Karim Naghipoor, Ahmad Ahmad Barahouie, Morteza Oladnabi * Pages 11617-11623
    Background

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a deadly X-linked recessive disorder. This genetic disorder affects 1 among 3,500-5,000 males in the world. The majority of the patients are male, due to the type of inheritance. It affects most of the skeletal, the respiratory, and cardiac muscles, causing these vital organs to contract and eventually mortality.

    Materials and Methods 

    This study was performed on two boys of 7 and 9 years old with DMD, which were belonged to one family who was consanguinity married. These tests were conducted during a year including LDH, cK, AST, ALT, MRI, EMG, NCV, and MLPA. These tests evaluate the production and function of dystrophin proteins in muscles.

    Results

    The amount of cK and LDH increased during one year of study in patients. According to the positive family history of hydrocephaly and anencephaly, MRI patients were normal. Regarding the fact that the patients have DMD, the result of EMG and NCV showed Myopathy. MLPA test identified duplication in 56-63 exons.

    Conclusion

    This study investigated the duplication mutation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in two members of the same family. Other mutations such as duplication and point mutations consisted of a small percentage of the disease. Therefore, it is recommended that programs of the prevention measures and pre-marital genetic counseling be specifically trained by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and relevant organizations.

    Keywords: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Dystrophin, X-linked recessive, Duplication MLPA
  • Seyede Shadi Nazari, Nima Motamed, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Yalda Ehsani-Khanghah, Ramazan Fallah * Pages 11625-11633
    Background 

    Childhood growth factors play an essential role in the process of child development. Providing an accurate measurement for determining the growth rate predictors longitudinally has an advantage over a growth chart that only measures cumulative growth. This study aimed to determine the trends in growth rate and its effective factors among infants using two different methods.

    Materials and Methods

    This longitudinal study was conducted on 181 infants referred to healthcare centers of Zanjan, Iran, from April 2017 to April 2019. The growth rate using 9-time points was estimated for participants via Point Average Weighting (PAW) model and the exponential model. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used to estimate predictors of infant’s growth rate. The coincident and parallelism test was used to compare the growth rate between models.

    Results

    The mean growth rate of children in the PAW model and the exponential model in the first month were 298.2+109.2 and 299.4+115.6 gr/kg per month. The results showed that the two models' growth rate prediction ability is almost identical over time. The trend of growth rate was decreased significantly (AAPC=22.46% per month, P<0.0001) with a change-point in month ninth. The estimated growth rates based on two models coincided (P=0.885), and parallel (P=0.898) across 24 months. The associations between growth rate with variables mother job (B=9.4, P=0.005), breastfeeding (B=-9.3, P=0.005), and multi-fetal pregnancy (B=-18.9, P=0.005) were significant.

    Conclusion 

    There was no difference between the two models when pediatricians apply them in office or other clinical settings. The multi-fetal pregnancy, job of mother, and exclusion breastfeeding were the most important predictor of growth rate, especially at the first nine months of age.

    Keywords: Breastfeeding, Growth rate, Growth trend, Infants
  • Masoumeh Vaezi, Shamsadin Niknamy, Fatemeh Zarei, Alireza Hidarnia * Pages 11635-11644
    Background 

    Prevalence of iron deficiency among children under five years old in Afghanistan is about 44.2%. The current study was aimed at the psychometric analysis of iron-deficiency anemia prevention scale among a sample of mothers who had female primary school children in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    Materials and Methods 

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. Three hundred mothers who had female elementary school children, were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. The iron-deficiency anemia prevention scale was developed about face validity, reliability (internal consistency) and construct validity. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was carried out to determine the factorial structure and to explaining the variance of the variables.

    Results 

    The initial questionnaire consisted of 50 items and nine items were eliminated in the psychometric process scale. All the studied factors in analyzing exploratory factor with factorial loadings of more than 0.4 were confirmed. In explanatory factor analysis, the results of the KMO test were calculated at 0.800. Totally, four personality variables described 58.626% of the assumed model changes. The Cronbach’s alpha for the measured constructs including attitude, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived self-efficacy, behavior, knowledge of disease symptoms, and knowledge of preventive behaviors ranged from 0.72 to 0.93.

    Conclusion 

    The current study provides some support to the internal validity and reliability of the iron-deficiency anemia prevention scale among mothers who had female primary school children in Afghanistan. This scale can be beneficial to planning health programs based on the promotion of iron- deficiency anemia prevention among elementary school girls by their mothers in Afghanistan and other similar cultural settings.

    Keywords: Afghanistan, Children, Iron-Deficiency Anemia, Mother, Psychometric
  • Irina Bavykina, Аlexander Zvyagin, Olga Panina *, Dmitry Bavykin, Aleksandr Pochivalov, Sofia Maschenko Pages 11645-11649

    Currently, many studies show the effectiveness of elimination (gluten-free and case-free) diets in correcting not only the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders in patients with autism but also in correcting behavioral indicators. The results of the inclusion of gluten and case free diets were analyzed in the complex of therapeutic measures in a child with autism spectrum disorders. The clinical efficacy of adherence was revealed to a strict gluten-free diet for 2 years in a child with autism spectrum disorders with gluten sensitivity. An individual approach is necessary to the appointment of a gluten-free diet for children with autism spectrum disorders, it is required to survey before it begins to exclude various forms of gluten intolerance.

    Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders, Children, gluten intolerance, gluten-free diet
  • Saeed Dorgaleleh, Ahmad Barahouie, Karim Naghipoor, Farzad Dastaviz, Zahrasadat Ghodsalavi, Morteza Oladnabi * Pages 11651-11661

    Thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorders, worldwide.Beta-Thalassemia Major (BTM) is the most severe type, which reduces lifeexpectancy and quality of life. In this study, we searched the related keywords to subject from 1996-2019 in the Medline and Web of Science databases, therefore found 250 articles. Moreover, we categorized them into the studies on blood transfusions in beta-thalassemia and new treatment modalities in these patients. We concluded that blood transfusion is the most common therapeutic choice in BTM, but is associated with complications such as iron overload in vital organs. Heart, Liver, Pancreas, Bone Marrow, and Kidney are the main damaged organs.Irion overload related to cardiac dysfunction is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in BTM.Consequently, treatments such as cell therapy and CRISPR/Cas9 are more appropriate compared to the blood transfusion. Cell therapy with lentivirus vectors is one of the novel therapies. The main disadvantages are the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs), and the human leukocyte antigen mismatch. CRISPR/Cas9 could be used as a promising novel therapy of genetic diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 edits genomes, which is being rapidly grown in clinical use for the former in vivo modification of stem cell-mediated mutations that attempt to edit genes directly in endonuclease encoding. Therefore, in the present study, we described transfusion-related adverse effects in BTM and explained the advantages and disadvantages of new therapies.

    Keywords: Beta-Thalassemia, CRISPRCas9, Hematopoietic stem cell, Lentivirus, Transfusion