فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:24 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
  • Maryam Masoudi, Hamzeh Ahmadian *, Maryam Akbari, Nasrin Jalilian Page 1
    Background

    Postmenopausal women experience tremendous changes that are not only hormonal, but also social and emotional, which reduce their quality of life. Limited research has been focused on perceived stress and the influential factors in women during menstruation.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to assess the correlation between perceived stress and insomnia severity in postmenopausal women.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 postmenopausal women referring to the healthcare centers in Kermanshah, Iran in 2019. Data were collected using the individual and sociodemographic questionnaire, perceived stress scale, and insomnia severity index. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation-coefficient to evaluate the correlation between perceived stress and insomnia severity.

    Results

    The total mean score of perceived stress was 33.9 ± 13.8 (score range: 7 - 54), and the total mean score of insomnia was 15.1 ± 4.8 (score range: 6 - 28). The comparison of the total mean score of perceived stress showed a significant difference at various severities of insomnia (F [3, 186] = 12.31; P < 0.0001). According to the post-hoc results, the women with severe insomnia obtained the highest mean score of perceived stress compared to those with normal, mild, and moderate insomnia. Furthermore, the Pearson’s correlation-coefficient was indicative of a significant association between insomnia severity and the total score of perceived stress (r = 0.417; P < 0.0001). In other words, the women with higher scores of insomnia severity achieved higher scores of perceived stress comparatively.

    Conclusions

    Insomnia and perceived stress are common and correlated in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the identification and treatment of postmenopausal women with stress and sleep disorders could remarkably improve their quality of life.

    Keywords: Insomnia, Perceived Stress, Postmenopausal Women
  • haleh Ghaem, Sima Afrashteh, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Ali Gholami, Leila Nami Nazari, Abbas Abbasi Ghahramanloo *, HamidReza Tabatabaee Page 2
    Background

    Illicit drug use is a major public health concern among university students.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and the associated factors in a population of Iranian university students.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Bushehr, located in the Northwest of Iran in 2017. The participants were selected randomly and included 977 university students. Anonymous, structured questionnaires were completed by the students. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of data on illicit drug use, smoking habits, sexual behaviors, alcohol consumption, physical fights, religious beliefs, parental support, and illicit drug use by the family members and friends. Data analysis was performed using chi-square and logistic regression analysis.

    Results

    The prevalence of illicit drug use during the lifetime, past year, past month, and daily/almost daily was estimated at 4%, 3.3%, 2.4%, and 0.9%, respectively. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis, amphetamine-type stimulants, opium, and heroin was 1.3%, 1.5%, 1.5%, and 0.1%, respectively. After adjustment for other factors, male gender (OR = 4.06), working along with education (OR = 2.33), smoking habits (OR = 4.00), physical fights (OR = 4.04), and illicit drug use by friends (OR = 2.71) were associated with illicit drug use.

    Conclusions

    According to the results, the prevalence of illicit drug use was relatively low, albeit significant, among the students in Bushehr. Among the determined factors associated with this issue, illicit drug use was strongly correlated with drug use by friends. Our findings could be used for the planning and evaluation of interventions based on the related risk factors.

    Keywords: Prevalence, Students, Substance Use, Illicit Drug Use, Bushehr, Risk-Taking Behavior
  • Sanaz Pashapour, Masoumeh Heshmati, Zahra Mousavi*, Somayeh Esmaeili Page 3
    Background

    Studies on the fractional extracts of Galium verum L. have confirmed their cytotoxicity and anticancer effects on various cancer cell lines.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Galium verum extracts on liver and colon cancer cell lines.

    Methods

    Colon cancer (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cell lines were randomly divided into the test and control groups and exposed to 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.125 µg/mL of the extract. MTT assay was used to evaluate the viability of the cells, and the groups were compared in the GraphPad Prism software using Tukey’s post-hoc test.

    Results

    The chloroform fractional extract of Galium verum exerted cytotoxic effects on HT29 at the concentrations of 100 and 50 µg/mL and increased the cell viability of HepG2 cancer cells. On the other hand, the fraction of petroleum ether had cytotoxic effects on HT29 at all the determined concentrations, as well as on HepG2 at the concentration of 3.125 µg/mL. In addition, the treatment of HT29 with various concentrations of the petroleum ether fractional extract and HepG2 treatment with the same extract at the concentration of 3.125 µg/mL significantly decreased cell viability compared to the control group. The IC50 concentration was determined at > 100 µg/mL.

    Conclusions

    According to the results, the fractional extract of petroleum ether had cytotoxic effects on HT29 cancer cells at all the concentrations, while it affected HepG2 cancer cells only at the concentration of 3.125 µg/mL.

    Keywords: MTT Assay, HT29, Galium verum, HepG2, Viability
  • Zabihollah Kaveh Farsani *, Malihe Khabazi Page 4
    Background

    Adolescent obesity has been a major concern in numerous studies in terms of the prevention, adjustment of the underlying factors, and assessment of the physical and psychological consequences in recent decades.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to investigate the psychological consequences of obesity in adolescent girls.

    Methods

    This descriptive study was conducted using the causal-comparative on all the first- and second-year high school girls in the academic year 2019 in Shahrekord Province, Iran. In total, 346 individuals were selected via multistage random cluster sampling for the normal students and purposive sampling for the obese students. Data were collected using Children’s depression inventory (CDI), Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and Ryff’s psychological wellbeing (PWB) scales. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 23 using the multivariate analysis of covariance.

    Results

    The obese students had higher CDI scores and lower scores in the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and PWB compared to the normal students, with a significant difference in this regard (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    According to the results, the variables of CDI, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and PWB could be considered in the outcomes of obese adolescent girls. Therefore, psychological interventions are recommended for the minimization of these consequences.

    Keywords: Depression, Self-Esteem, Psychological Wellbeing
  • Keivan Kakabaraee*, Habibolah Khazaie, Azita Chehri, Maryam Seidy Page 5
    Background

    Subjective sleep quality plays a pivotal role in health, quality of life, and efficient performance.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of subjective sleep quality in the citizens of Kermanshah, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on all the citizens of Kermanshah in 2017. In total, 450 subjects were selected via multistage random sampling. Based on the inclusion criteria, 416 were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire of demographic characteristics and Petersburg sleep quality index (PSQI; Baisi et al., 1989).

    Results

    In 79% of the participants, the mean score of PSQI was above the cutoff point (m = 6.64). The analysis of the questionnaires indicated the highest frequency of sleep disorders to be in the components of subjective sleep quality from the perspective of the respondents, delayed sleep, sleep disorders, and daily functional disorders. In addition, 10.6% of the subjects used very high doses of sedatives, while 10.3% used relatively high doses of these pills. Minimal sleep disorders were reported as well. Poor sleep quality was less common in women, and significant correlations were observed between age and sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep medication use, and daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness.

    Conclusions

    According to the results, subjective sleep quality was favorable in the citizens of Kermanshah. Considering the significant effects of sleep quality on performance and quality of life, attention must be paid to this aspect of health by healthcare planners and managers.

    Keywords: Kermanshah, Epidemiology, Citizens, Subjective Sleep Quality
  • Ibrahim Abdulqader Naqid *, Nawfal Rasheed Hussein, Amer A .Balatay, Kurdisatan Abdullah Saeed, Hiba A. Ahmed Page 7
    Background

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic enteric bacterial strain, which is a major cause of pneumonia and urinary tract infection. Antimicrobial resistance is an increasingly severe threat to the Global Public Health, requiring immediate action across governmental sectors and communities.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to determine the sensitivity pattern of K. pneumonia isolated from various clinical specimens for common antibiotics in Duhok City, Iraq.

    Methods

    This study was conducted in Duhok City during January 2017-February 2019 on 130 clinical samples of urine, blood, sputum, wound swabs, central venous lines, and oral swabs. K. pneumoniae strains were confirmed and tested in terms of susceptibility to various antimicrobial drugs using the VITEK-2 compact system.

    Results

    In total, 130 positive K. pneumoniae cultures from various clinical samples were examined. The isolates were more predominant in the females (n = 99; 76.2%) compared to males (n = 31; 23.8%). The antibiotic resistance rate of K. pneumoniae varied among different isolate clinical sample sources. Overall, high resistance rates were recorded for ampicillin (96.9%), ceftriaxone (65.8%), and cefepime (60.8%). However, ertapenem (93.8%) and imipenem (82.3%) showed the highest susceptibility rate against the isolates.

    Conclusions

    According to the results, K. pneumoniae isolated from various clinical specimens varied in terms of the antibiotic susceptibility pattern with high resistance to common antibiotics, particularly ampicillin. Ertapenem and imipenem were the most effective antibiotics against the isolates. Our findings could help physicians and clinicians to select appropriate antimicrobial therapies in the region.

    Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, Clinical Samples, K. pneumoniae, Duhok City