فهرست مطالب

Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research - Volume:6 Issue: 2, Jun 2020
  • Volume:6 Issue: 2, Jun 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Golpar Gholizadeh Shirdarreh, Gohar Eslami*, Aria Soleimani, Ebrahim Salehifa Pages 105-114
    Background

    Resistance to antibiotics, including aminoglycosides  (AMG) is one of the problems associated with inappropriate administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to assess the clinical features of aminoglycosides consumption based on the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) index in open heart surgery.

    Methods

    This study was done on 268 patients who underwent heart surgery during 2015 and 2016. Clinical and demographic characteristics, laboratory data, and aminoglycoside-related data such as dose and the total duration of administration were collected through a questionnaire designed by the authors. The patients’ DDD/100 bed-days were calculated, too.

    Results

    Out of 268 patients, 170 patients (63.4%) were male. The Mean±SD age of the patients was 60.65±10.71 years and the Mean±SD duration of hospitalization was 12.19±7.02 days. Ischemic heart disease was the most prevalent cause of hospitalization. The Mean duration of receiving aminoglycosides was 3.61 days. In 134 patients (50%), creatinine clearance was less than 60 mL/min during aminoglycosides administration. In 25 patients (9.32%), a 50% increase in serum creatinine during receiving aminoglycosides was observed. Creatinine clearance had not been calculated for any patient.

    Conclusion

    In this study, monitoring the side effects of aminoglycosides and the serum concentration was not routinely performed. Dose adjustment of aminoglycosides based on renal function test was not considered in a large number of patients and as a result, the dose was inappropriate in many patients. Therefore, it is recommended that the guidelines of drug usage were followed and the patients were monitored more closely for side effects.

    Keywords: Intensive Care Units (ICU), Rational use, Cardiac surgery, Microbial resistance, Prophylactic antibiotic, Aminoglycosides, Defined Daily Dose (DDD)
  • Jafar Ahmadpouri, Saeid Valipour Chahardahcharic*, Mahbubeh Setorki Pages 115-122
    Background

    The oxidant-antioxidants balance in the living organism is constantly challenged by internal and external pressures. Maidenhair or Adiantum capillus-veneris (Acv) is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant effects. 

    Objectives

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of Acv hydroalcoholic extract on the oxidative stress rate of blood and brain of mice in the depression model caused by acute immobilization stress.

    Methods

    In this study, 40 male Balb/C mice were randomly divided into five groups, including 1 (control, 2, 3, and 4) intervention (receiving doses of 100, 200, and 400 Acv extracts) and diazepam group. Acute stress was induced by motion limitation (2 hours) and electrochemical shock (0.5 mA, 2 min), and then the mice were treated intraperitoneally with the extract or drug for 21 days. First, the rate of depression was assessed by forced swimming. Then, the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), serum Malondialdehyde (MDA), and the MDA level of the brain were determined.

    Results

    The prescription of different doses of Acv extract and diazepam significantly reduced the duration of immobilization in the forced swimming test compared with the control group (P<0.05). Besides, Acv extract at different doses of  200 and 400 significantly increased serum FRAP (TAC) and significantly increased TAC of the brain compared with the control group. Administration of Acv extract at different doses of 200 and 400  and diazepam significantly decreased serum MDA but significantly decreased MDA of the brain of mice compared with the control group (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Acv extract can reduce the symptoms of depression and protect against acute stress-related oxidative stressors

    Keywords: Acute stress disorders, Adiantum capillus-veneris linn, Antioxidant effects, Malondialdehyde, Mice, Total Antioxidant capacity
  • Monir Doudi, Zahra Hooshmandi, Somayeh Saedi, Mahbubeh Setorki* Pages 123-132
    Background

    This research aimed to assess the effect of kombucha tea on reducing cholesterol (HCH) uptake and ameliorating biochemical and physiological side effects of high cholesterol diets. 

    Objectives

    The aim of this research was evaluate the effectiveness of Kombucha tea in reducing cholesterol uptake as well as pathological and immunological side effects  from high cholesterol diets in Rabbit. 

    Methods

    A total of 32 rabbits were assigned into four groups: 1. Control, fed with standard pellets; 2. HCh+St, fed with high cholesterol diet; 3. HCh+Kom, fed with high cholesterol diet and orally received kombucha beverage; and 4. Kom+St, orally received kombucha beverage along with standard diet. Then, the blood Cholesterol (CHO), Triglycerides (TG), Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL), Malondialdehyde (MDA), ferritin, Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and liver enzymes (alanine transaminase [ALT], and aspartate transaminase [ AST]), as well as liver histopathological features, were evaluated in all groups.

    Results

    CHO and TG showed the highest level in the blood of the HCh+St group, whereas those gavaged with HCh+Kom displayed no change in TG and LDL. Conversely, the HCh+Kom group showed a significant increase in HDL when compared with HCh+St and Kom+St groups. MDA ferritin and CPK in the Kom+St group was significantly higher than the other groups, followed by HCh+Kom. No significant difference was observed in the values of IL-1 and IL-6 as well as ALT and AST between the experimental groups and the control group. Histopathological observations of the liver tissues revealed foam cells with an acidophilic appearance in the HCh+St group and hyperemia in the sinusoid of HCh+Kom and Kom+St groups. Degradation in pancreatic acini was observed in the HCh+St rabbits. 

    Conclusion

    The data suggest that kombucha consumption is effective in preventing problems caused by high cholesterol diets.

    Keywords: Kombucha tea, Hypercholesterolemia, Biochemical side effects, Physiological side effects
  • Elias Adikwu*, Emmanuel Nnaedozie Pages 133-142
    Background

    Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the frequently used chemotherapeutic agents, especially in hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

    Objectives

    MTX hepatotoxicity symptoms range from elevations in serum aminotransferases to hepatocyte necrosis and fibrosis. The time of medication administration significantly impacts treatment outcomes. Hence this study evaluated the protective effect of time-modulated cimetidine (CT) against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

    Methods

    Thirty-six adult male albino rats were randomized into 6 groups. Group A (control) was injected intraperitoneally (IP) with normal saline (0.2 mL) for 24 h. Group B received CT (20 mg/kg IP) for 24 h. Group C was treated IP with MTX (20 mg/kg) for 24 h. Group C (pre-treatment) was injected IP with CT one hour before MTX administration for 24 h. Group E (co-treatment group) was co-treated IP with CT and MTX for 24 h. Group F (post-treatment group) was treated IP with one dose of MTX one hour before CT injection for 24 h. After treatments, the rats were weighed and euthanized. Blood samples were collected and their blood samples were evaluated for serum liver function markers, also liver samples were excised and used for biochemical and histological studies.

    Results

    The liver of MTX-treated rats was characterized by hepatocyte necrosis. Aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, conjugated bilirubin, total bilirubin, and malondialdehyde activities were significantly (P<0.001) up-regulated in MTX-treated rats. However, glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly (P<0.001) down-regulated in MTX-treated rats. The above hepatotoxic changes were significantly attenuated in rats pre-treated (P<0.001), co-treated (P<0.01), and post-treated (P<0.05) with CT when compared to MTX group. 

    Conclusion

    However, pre-treatment with CT was most effective, hence it may be clinically useful for MTX-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Keywords: Methotrexate, Liver, Toxicity, Cimetidine, Time
  • Salsabil Islam*, Md. Sohan, Faysal Ahmed, Zabun Nahar, Md. Rabiul Islam Pages 143-150
    Background

    Studies of the pharmacotherapeutic pattern on schizophrenic patients are few clinical therapy is one of the bases for the assessment of the treatment of Schizophrenia.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to analyze the demographics of these patients along with current trends of drug prescribing practice in Bangladesh.

    Methods

    This survey was conducted over 6 months at the National Institute of Mental Health, Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 250 subjects were investigated and their prescriptions were verified to obtain necessary information regarding pharmacotherapy. Non-cooperation and negative consent lead to exclusion from the study sample.

    Results

    Out of 250 patients, the frequency of female patients was higher (54.4%) than that of the male patients (45.6%). Therefore, the gender ratio was female-biased. We found that 63.6% of the patients suffering from schizophrenia were above 25 years old. The treatment approach of schizophrenia includes pharmacotherapy and or psychotherapy. In this study, we found that the highest medication used in the treatment was antipsychotic drugs (n=388, 46.58%) followed by anticholinergic drugs (n=217, 26.05%) and anxiolytic drugs (n=172, 20.65%).

    Conclusion

    The overall prescribing method for schizophrenia in Bangladesh complies with the authorized practiced guidelines and treatment pattern of the developed countries as well as authorized guidelines.

    Keywords: Evaluation, Pharmacotherapeutic pattern, Schizophrenia, Treatment, Bangladesh
  • Rebecca Parr*, Hal Robinson, Gary Cameron, Gillian Broadbent, Keith Charlton, Heather Wallace, Thomas Engelhardt Pages 151-156
    Background

    Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block (FICB) is commonly used in older patients to provide effective analgesia following hip fracture. 

    Objectives

    However, only limited Pharmacokinetic (PK) data about levobupivacaine are available to help clinical practice and establish safe volumes and amounts of local anesthetics.

    Methods

    Ten patients aged between 53 and 87 years, who underwent hemiarthroplasty following femoral neck fracture were recruited into this study. A fixed volume (40 mL) of 0.25% levobupivacaine was injected before the induction of anesthesia using ultrasound guidance. Venous blood samples were obtained at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 min time points and analyzed using mass spectrometry.

    Results

    The median (interquartile range) maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) of levobupivacaine was 0.48 (0.45-0.61) µg/mL, with the time to reach Cmax (tmax) of 38 minutes (30–105) after administration, a half-life of 2.8 h (1.65–5.8), and clearance rate of 0.72 L/min (0.36–1.26). The fixed volume (40 mL) of 0.25% levobupivacaine FICB did not exceed the recognized toxic threshold in adults (2.6 µg/mL). 

    Conclusion

    The data described here indicate a similar levobupivacaine PK profile for older patients undergoing FICB for hip arthroplasty compared with the levobupivacaine PK profile for the general population.

    Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, Levobupivacaine, Local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST), Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS, MS)
  • Fatemeh Khodabandeh Shahraki, Mohammad Nabiuni*, Mona Farhadi, Elaheh Amini Pages 157-168
    Background

     Maternal sleep deprivation is known to reduce neurogenesis in the hippocampus during pregnancy. Also, it damages and impairs cognitive functions such as learning and memory in the neonates. 

    Objectives

    Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) extract can play an important role in the treatment of cognitive impairments by inhibiting oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the role of hydroalcoholic extract of rosemary in the treatment of cognitive impairment caused by decreased hippocampal neurogenesis in neonates, which was attributed to maternal sleep deprivation during pregnancy.

    Methods

    For this purpose, pregnant rats in the control group underwent sleep deprivation for 72 hours inside a total sleep deprivation machine. The treatment groups comprised pregnant rats, receiving 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of rosemary extracts per day during pregnancy and underwent sleep deprivation for 72 hours. Next, the avoidance memory of 21-day-old neonatal rats was examined using a shuttle box. These 21-day-old rats were then subjected to evaluate the structure of the hippocampus. Neurogenesis in the neonatal hippocampus was examined under light microscopy by staining of brain slices and counting of neurons and cells shape study.

    Results

    Compared with the control group, the neurogenesis and avoidance memory decreased in neonates affected by maternal sleep deprivation.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study showed that rosemary extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg was able to improve disorders in the infants affected by maternal sleep deprivation.

    Keywords: Maternal sleep deprivation, Cognitive impairment, Memory deficit, Hippocampus, Neurogenesis, Oxidative stress, Rosemary
  • Hamzeh Hosseini, Neda Zamani, Amirhossein Ahmadi* Pages 169-172
    Background

     Diplopia, or double vision, is a common ophthalmologic complaint with many underlying causes, ocular and neurological. Aripiprazole has been reported to have fewer adverse effects and better efficacy than other atypical antipsychotics. Although ocular side effects of aripiprazole are not remarkable, two cases of diplopia associated with aripiprazole have been reported in the literature.

    Objectives

    Herein, we report the third case of diplopia, after the aripiprazole prescription in a woman with depressive disorder.

    Case Presentation

    A 37-year-old woman was brought to our clinic with symptoms of sleep loss, displeasure, auditory hallucination, and pessimistic thoughts. After a clinical interview, the patient was diagnosed with depression with psychotic features according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) of mental disorders. She underwent treatment with 15 mg/d aripiprazole and 20 mg/d fluoxetine. Her symptoms reduced after three months as indicated by the visual analog scale. However, the patient returned to the clinic and complained of double vision. Neither neurological nor ophthalmological problems were observed following examinations by specialists. When the dose of the drug decreased and eventually discontinued, diplopia disappeared over 24 hours.

    Conclusion

    Since the patient had no history of diplopia and two cases of diplopia associated with aripiprazole were previously reported in the literature, we expected that the diplopia was related to the recently prescribed aripiprazole treatment. Physicians should be aware of the possible risk of diplopia-induced by aripiprazole and recommend patients discontinuing the drug immediately if complications have occurred.

    Keywords: Diplopia, Aripiprazole, Adverse drug reaction, Antipsychotics, Case report