فهرست مطالب

Anatomical Sciences Journal - Volume:17 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:17 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Leila Elyasi*, Hamed Ghazvini Pages 1-6
    Introduction

    Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative condition among the elderly. Considering the limited symptomatic improvement associated with PD treatments, introducing more effective agents is necessary. Citrus aurantium flower extract (CAE) is recognized as a neuroprotective and hepatoprotective agent with bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids, phenolics, and vitamins. Considering the mitigating role of CAE against oxidative damage, the present study examined the neuroprotective effects of CAE in a PD model.

    Methods

    Overall, 60 male rats were classified into 6 groups, as follows: sham (SH); control (C); lesion (L); and CAE-treated lesion (200, 400, and 600 mg/mL CAE+L). For the hemi-PD model, 6-hydroxydopamine (12.5 g/L of saline ascorbate) was injected intrastriatally. Intraperitoneal pretreatment with hydroalcoholic CAE (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) was applied in the E+SH and E+L groups at one week pre-surgery. At two weeks post-surgery, rotational behaviors were examined by apomorphine hydrochloride. Moreover, stained neurons were measured in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNc).

    Results

    In comparison with the C group, significant contralateral turning was reported due to apomorphine, in the L group at two weeks post-surgery (P<0.0001); while the neuron count reduced on the left SNc (P<0.05). The rotational behaviors reduced using alcoholic CAE, and reduction in the neuron count of SNc was attenuated in the lesion groups (P<0.05). However, in the SH group, CAE caused no significant effects on apomorphine-induced rotation and neuron count in the SNc. CAE could decrease the number of degenerated neurons in the SNc. Cell count assessment revealed that neural cell count significantly increased in 200, 400, and 600 mg/mL CAE groups.

    Conclusion

    According to the present findings, CAE can be suitable for preventing PD in rats.

    Keywords: Citrus aurantium, Parkinson’s disease, 6-Hydroxydopamine, Apoptosis
  • Mehdi Ahmadifar*, Mahdi Panahian, Nazila Vahidi Eyrisofla Pages 7-12
    Introduction

    Spermatogenesis is a process in which sperm is produced, and its disruption at any stage can lead to infertility. Plant extracts have strong phytochemicals, like s anthocyanin. Applying decoction of this plant’s leaves could relieve nausea, and its roots are used to treat dysentery. 

    Methods

    The Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were used and grouped into two control and treatment groups. The control group received distilled water and, the treatment group was fed with 250 mg/kg.bw mixture of plants daily after the disruption with Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) for 60 days. After this period, the mice got unconscious, and their testicles were removed from the abdomen. After conducting the morphologic study, including measuring the samples’ dimensions and weight, their testicles were transcended and stained with eosin hematoxylin method.  All data were analyzed by SPSS V. 22. The significance level was set at P<0.05. 

    Results

    The study results revealed significant differences between the testicular size and weight. Moreover, the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and Leydig cells increased in the experimental group, compared to the controls (P<0.01).

    Conclusion

    The mixture of the plant caused a significant increase in spermatogenesis cells in male mice and increased their fertility.

    Keywords: Mice, Spermatogenesis, Infertility, Extract
  • Behrokh Marzban Abbasabadi*, Omid Hajian, Saber Rahmati Pages 13-20
    Introduction

    The present study aimed to evaluate the morphometric differences of the skull in male and female Zell sheep. 

    Methods

    A total of 30 Zell sheep skulls (15 adult males and 15 adult females) were used in this investigation. The skulls were cleaned by boiling maceration, and the mandibles were disarticulated from the temporomandibular. Then, 19 parameters of the skull and 13 parameters on the mandibles were measured using a digital Vernier caliper. The obtained results were analyzed in SPSS by Independent Samples t-test (P<0.05).

    Results

    The distance of lateral alveolar root to mental foramen was significantly higher in male Zell sheep (accuracy rate: 83.33%); however, no statistically significant difference was observed in other cases. Furthermore, the mandible and the skull of Zell sheep were the smallest among the other studied sheep breeds.

    Conclusion

    The distance of lateral alveolar root to mental foramen on mandible can be an appropriate landmark in gender estimation in Zell sheep.

    Keywords: Zell sheep, Skull, Mandible
  • Zoleikha Azari, Zahra Kherullahi, Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Monireh Aghajany Nasab, Farideh Hoseini, Rouhollah Gazor* Pages 21-32
    Introduction

    The liver, as an insulin target organ, undergoes numerous pathological changes in diabetes patients. This study investigated the effect of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of violets on histologic changes and biochemical parameters of the liver in diabetic adult Wistar rats.

    Methods

    In total, 64 rats were examined in 8 groups of 8 rats (1 control group and 7 diabetic groups treated by streptozotocin). The rats were treated in 6 diabetic groups by different concentrations of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of violets (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). Biochemical tests were performed to evaluate the liver enzymes, glucose, and serum albumin using the photometric method on the blood of rats. Furthermore, Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) and Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stains were performed to investigate the number of Kupffer cells, hyper eosinophilia, inflammation, congestion, changes in the perimeter and the central vein area, and glycogenic deposits from the liver tissue of rats. 

    Results

    The obtained results suggested a decrease of Kupffer cells in the concentration of 100 in extracts. Moreover, inflammatory accumulations decreased in the concentrations of 100 and 400 in the aqueous extract. In addition, a decrease of congestion in the concentrations of 400 in the aqueous extract and the concentrations of 100 and 200 in the hydro-alcoholic extract; a decrease of AST and ALT of serum in the concentrations of 100 and 400 in the aqueous extract; and a decrease of glucose in the concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 in the hydro-alcoholic extract and the concentration of 400 in the aqueous extracts were observed.

    Conclusion

    The prescription of the extracts of violets can improve the liver tissue in terms of Kupffer cell count, inflammation, and congestion. Furthermore, they reduced AST and ALT enzyme levels and serum glucose levels in diabetic rats.

    Keywords: Violets, Diabetes, Liver, Kupffer, Hyper Eosinophilia
  • Alborz Jafaee Sough, Forouzan Absalan* Pages 33-36

    Understanding the regional anatomy and variations of femoral nerve -as highly essential in daily life activities- is important for surgeons, orthopaedicians, and anesthetists. It helps to prevent iatrogenic femoral nerve palsy in clinical practices. During the dissection of the right lower limb of the cadaver of a 35 years old male, we observed one additional cutaneous branch separated from the posterior division of the femoral nerve. This branch crossed with femoral artery at the beginning and continued to descend into the medial side of the thigh medial to Gracilis muscle. At the end, it pierced through the deep fascia near the knee joint.

    Keywords: Femoral nerve, Anatomic variation, Cutaneous innervation
  • Preeti Dnyandeo Sonje, Neelesh Kanaskar*, Puranam Vatsalaswamy Pages 37-42
    Introduction

    The middle rectal artery is a vital artery supplying the rectum, along with the superior and inferior rectal arteries. We explored the middle rectal artery due to its importance in rectal carcinoma surgeries. 

    Methods

    In total, 40 pelvises were obtained from the Department of Anatomy of Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College in Pune City, India.

    Results

    Variations were found in the origin of the middle rectal artery, including arising from the internal pudendal artery in 9 cases. In 2 cases, it was arising from the common stem of internal pudendal and inferior gluteal arteries. Arising from the inferior vesical artery was observed in 1 case; while in 2 cases, middle rectal artery was arising from the obturator artery. This is the artery that penetrates the fascia of rectum, which is essential in mesorectal excision in rectal carcinoma cases. It forms anastomosis with superior rectal artery.

    Conclusion

    In the low anterior resection of the rectum, the middle rectal artery is always exposed.

    Keywords: Middle rectal artery, Variations, Rectal carcinoma, Mesorectal excision
  • Amirhossein Mohammadi, Rafieh Alizadeh, Morteza Rajai, Sepehr Ebrahimi, Farideh Gholamnejad, Fatemeh Moradi* Pages 43-46

    The upper limb vascular pattern shows a significant number of diversities in the arterial or venous system. Although variations are usually found in the forearm region, the brachial artery variations are less common. In this report, we described a rare case of a higher bifurcation level of the brachial artery giving rise to the radial and ulnar arteries at the middle portion of the arm. It is crucial for surgeons or even radiologists to be familiar with the diverse morphological patterns of the brachial artery and its branches. Moreover, they should be aware of latent hazards in the therapeutic procedures to diminish surgical complications while operating on the upper extremities.

    Keywords: Brachial artery, Clinical variation, Bifurcation