فهرست مطالب

علوم تربیتی - سال بیست و هفتم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1399)
  • سال بیست و هفتم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
|
  • سید احمد پورموسوی*، بیژن عبدالهی، عبدالرحیم نوه ابراهیم، حسین عباسیان صفحات 1-24
    پژوهش حاضر کاربردی و هدف آن ارایه ی مدل مدیریت چندفرهنگی در مدارس ابتدایی ایران است پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و روش تحلیل مضمون انجام شد. جامعه آماری پژوهش، شامل کلیه منابع مکتوب مربوط به مدیریت و آموزش وپرورش چندفرهنگی در پایگاه های علمی معتبر، شامل 3201 اثر بود که بر مبنای شاخص CASP و با اشباع نظری، درنهایت 50 اثر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شد و خبرگان حوزه ی علوم تربیتی در مدارس و دانشگاه فرهنگیان بودند که در نهایت 12 نفر به روش در دسترس و به صورت هدفمند انتخاب شد. روش تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها، تحلیل مضمون و شبکه ی مضامین بود. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد، ویژگی های مدرسه چند فرهنگی شامل: خط مشی و استراتژی، برنامه های چند فرهنگی، افراد با فرهنگ متنوع، فرآیندها با رویکرد چندفرهنگی و محیط متنوع فرهنگی است. ویژگی های مدیر مدرسه شامل: ویژگی های شخصیتی فراقومی، صلاحیت های حرفه ای چندفرهنگی و مهارت های رهبری چند فرهنگی است و نقش ذینفعان مدرسه شامل: نقش معلمان، نقش دانش آموزان و نقش اولیاء و جامعه (پرسش سوم) است. این مولفه ها همراه با 44 مقوله مرتبط با هر مولفه در قالب یک مدل ارایه گردید. با اعمال نظرات خبرگان، با توجه به مقادیر CVR (بالای 75 درصد) و درصد توافق بین دو کدگذار (93 درصد) مقدار میانگین عددی قضاوت ها (مساوی یا بیشتر از 5/1) اعتبار مدل مورد تایید قرار گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت چندفرهنگی، ویژگی های مدیر، ویژگی های مدرسه، نقش ذینفعان مدرسه، مدارس ابتدایی
  • مهین مهدویه*، سهیلا هاشمی، حبیب الله نادری، علی اصغر فیروزجاییان صفحات 25-50

    هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی باورهای معرفت شناسی کودکان و ترسیم مدل مفهومی از این باورها با استفاده از رویکرد تفسیر گرایی بود. پژوهش از نوع کیفی بوده و از نظریه داده بنیاد برای جمع آوری و تحلیل داده ها استفاده شد. براساس نمونه گیری هدفمند 20نفر از دانش آموزان دختر کلاس سوم یکی از شهرستانهای استان مازندران در این پژوهش مشارکت داشتند. در نتیجه تحلیل داده ها، هفت مقوله عمده شامل: طرح واژه ذهنی فردی، آمادگی معرفتی و جو معرفتی به عنوان مولفه های مبنایی، و شک، اراده و توجیه دانش به عنوان مکانیزم تغییر و باورهای معرفت شناسی چند بعدی به عنوان پیامد پدیدار شد و درنهایت مدل مفهومی از فرآیند شکل گیری باورهای معرفت شناسی ترسیم شد. باور به دانش اکتسابی، آزمایش، پیچیده و تدریجی و تاحدی مبتنی بر استدلال همراه با استناد به مرجعیت دانا از جمله باورهای معرفت شناسی چند بعدی پدیدار شده در کودکان بود

    کلیدواژگان: باورهای معرفت شناسی، نظریه داده بنیاد، پژوهش کیفی، دانش آموزان دبستانی
  • معصومه رمضانی فینی*، نرگس سجادیه صفحات 51-72
    در دنیای امروز تعلیم و تربیت در تحقق اهداف و نیز تعارض میان اهداف علمی و اخلاقی با چالش هایی روبرو است. رویکرد ‏انتقادی با تمرکز بر وجود انسان و کنش‎ ‎گری وی، می‎ ‎تواند نظام تربیت را در بازگشت به اهداف جامع خویش یاری رساند. نوشتار ‏حاضر با تحلیل ابعاد رویکرد انتقادی، به ردیابی دلالت‎ ‎های آن در تربیت می پردازد. در گام نخست به منظور بررسی چرخش های ‏اساسی در رویکرد انتقادی از روش تحلیل زبانی استفاده شده است و در گام دوم به منظور استنتاج دلالت های تربیتی منتج از این ‏چرخش ها روش استنتاجی به کار گرفته شده است. رویکردانتقادی نسبت به رویکردهای فلسفی پیش از خود، قایل به چرخش-‏هایی است از این قرار: چرخش از تقدیرگرایی به کنش‎ ‎گری انسانی، چرخش از خرد‎ ‎ابزاری به خرد انتقادی، چرخش از یکسان‎ ‎سازی به تفاوت ها و چرخش از نظریه‎ ‎پردازی به پیوند نظر و عمل. این چرخش ها در عرصه تربیت، موجد تحولاتی خواهند شد. ‏از جمله می توان به این تحولات اشاره کرد: بررسی اهداف نظام تربیت و نسبت آنها با وضعیت موجود، حساسیت نسبت به ‏ایدیولوژی‎ ‎های ناظر بر سلطه، توجه به ابعاد اخلاقی دانش‎ ‎های فناورانه، تلاش برای ایجاد بسترهای کنش‎ ‎گری واقع‎ ‎گرایانه دانش-‏آموزان، توجه به لایه‎ ‎مندی هویت و تنوع هویت‎ ‎های فرهنگی/قومی. این چرخش ها را می توان در سه سطح فلسفی، سیاستگذاری ‏و روابط کلاسی-مدرسه ای دسته بندی کرد. نظام تربیت در وضعیت فعلی در تحقق چرخش ها با چالش هایی مواجه است که ‏تنوع بخشی به مدارس و مراجع راهبری، تقویت نهادهای علمی خارج از نهاد تربیت و تقویت اصلاحات خرد مدرسه ای -‏کلاسی می تواند راه های برون رفت از آنها تلقی شود.‏
    کلیدواژگان: تربیت انتقادی، خرد ابزاری، خرد انتقادی، رهایی بخشی، روش تحلیلی-استنتاجی
  • ایوب گرشاسبی، کوروش فتحی واجارگاه*، محبوبه عارفی صفحات 73-94

    هدف این پژوهش بررسی جایگاه قومیت در برنامه های درسی رسمی رشته علوم انسانی نظام جدید دوره دوم متوسطه بود. این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی و شامل تحلیل اسنادی و تحلیل محتوای آنتروپی شانون بود. واحد تحلیل محتوا؛ متن، تصاویر و فعالیت های کتاب های درسی بوده است. روش نمونه گیری پژوهش هدفمند و نمونه پژوهش شامل 6 جلد کتاب های تاریخ، جامعه شناسی دوره متوسطه دوم بوده است. روایی محتوایی ابزار پژوهش با استفاده از نظر متخصصان در مورد میزان هماهنگی محتوای ابزار اندازه گیری و هدف پژوهش تایید شد. از طرف دیگر، به منظور حصول اطمینان از پایایی آن، از روش اسکات استفاده شد که براساس ضریب پایایی بدست آمده (79) ابزار مورد استفاده کاملا پایا بود. بر اساس یافته های پژوهش فقط 4 درصد از بخش های سه گانه محتوای کتاب های بررسی شده به مولفه های مطلوب قومیت توجه داشته است. علاوه بر این یافته های حاصل از تحلیل آنتروپی شانون نشان داد میزان توجه به مولفه های مطلوب قومیت نرمال نیست. با استناد به این یافته ها می توان اذعان داشت که جایگاه قومیت در برنامه های درسی رسمی جامعه شناسی و تاریخ رشته علوم انسانی نظام جدید متوسطه دوم تا حدود زیادی مغفول مانده است. از این رو، با توجه به متکثر بودن جامعه ایران پیشنهاد می شود که در برنامه های درسی رسمی رشته علوم انسانی دوره متوسطه دوم کاملا بازنگری شود به طوری که مولفه های لازم برای آموزش چندفرهنگی و تنوع قومی ایران را مورد پوشش قرار دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: آموزش چندفرهنگی، قومیت، آنتروپی شانون، تنوع قومی، تکثر
  • طاهره نجاتی، عبدالله پارسا*، حمید فرهادی راد صفحات 95-118

    هدف از انجام این پژوهش کاربردی، بررسی رابطه ی بین اثربخشی دوره های آموزش ضمن خدمت با موفقیت کارراهه شخصی در یکی از سازمان های وابسته به وزارت نیرو است که با روش تحقیق آمیخته (کمی - کیفی) بررسی گردید. در بخش کمی، از پرسشنامه Homayoonia (2006) و پرسشننامه Gattiker & Larwood (1986) و در بخش کیفی از تحلیل اسناد و مصاحبه برای جمع آوری داده ها استفاده گردید. برای بخش کمی تحقیق با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای، 290 نفر از کارکنان رسمی و پیمانی شرکت به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. در بخش کیفی نیز از روش نمونه گیری هدفمند که با شیوه موارد مطلوب انتخاب شده بودند، استفاده شد و با 10 نفر از کارکنان که دارای سابقه خدمت بیشتر از 20 سال بودند مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته انجام شد. به منظور تجزیه وتحلیل داده های کمی از روش‏های آمار توصیفی و آمار استنباطی و برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده های کیفی از روش تحلیل محتوا استفاده گردید. بعد از تحلیل نتایج مشخص شد که اثربخشی دوره های آموزشی به جز با موفقیت بین فردی، با موفقیت شغلی، موفقیت مالی و موفقیت سلسله مراتبی رابطه معنادار و مثبتی داشته است؛ ولی بین اثربخشی دوره ها و بهبود عملکرد افراد، رابطه معناداری مشاهده نشد. می توان چنین ادعا کرد که دوره های برگزارشده توانسته اند در جهت رشد کارکنان موثر باشند ولی افرادی که از کانال های دیگری در سازمان رشد داشته اند، دچار افت شدید مداوم شده اند. شاید افراد در فرایند کارراهه ذهنی، زمانی که در سازمان جایگاه خود را تثبیت شده می بینند .

    کلیدواژگان: کارراهه شخصی، موفقیت شغلی، موفقیت بین فردی، موفقیت سلسله مراتبی، موفقیت مالی
  • پرتو یزدان فر، فروغ فرازجو* صفحات 119-138
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر سبک های مختلف معماری از لحاظ مظاهر شهری و فرمی بر روی کودکان 4-6 سال جامعه می باشد و تحلیل این موضوع که کدام یک از این سبک ها در برقراری ارتباط موثر با آنها موفق تر خواهد بود.در این مقاله با بررسی سوابق موجود از نظریه محققان و متخصصان روانشناس به موضوع کودک و ارتباط آنها با فضا به تشریح نگرش کودکان به نمود خارجی بناها در شهر و نمای موجود از بناها از سبکهای مختلف معماری پرداخته شده و همچنین چگونگی برقراری ارتباط با کودکان با این بناها ارایه گردیده است. راهبرد این پژوهش، ترکیبی شامل راهبرد همبستگی و کیفی است. روش استخراج تصاویر ذهنی به دلییل محدودیت نوشتاری کودکان در این سن، تکنیک «نقشه های کروکی وار» است که در دسته مدل های «طراحی ترسیمی» جا می گیرد. جامعه آماری در این تحقیق به سبب درک مفاهیم انتزاعی، بیان افکار و ایده ها از طریق نمادها و درک احساسی آنها از اشیاء، از میان کودکان 4 تا 6 سال از چهار مهد کودک شامل دختر و پسر انتخاب گردیده است. در طی بررسی ها به نحوه ارتباط کودک با معماری از طریق ابعاد،عمق،تعادل، سایه و المانهای اطراف بنا پرداخته شده است. نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان می دهد سبک معماری مدرن به دلیل خوانایی و ساده بودن فرم و نداشتن جزییات زیاد بیشترین مخاطب را میان کودکان داشته و سبک دیکانستراکشن به دلیل پیچیدگی و عدم خوانایی و استفاده از فرمهای نامتعارف توسط کودک کمترین مخاطب را به خود اختصاص داده است
    کلیدواژگان: کودک، معماری، سبک معماری، نقاشی، نمای شهری
  • الهه بدیعی، محمدرضا نیلی *، یاسمین عابدینی، بی بی عشرت زمانی صفحات 139-160

    این پژوهش با هدف تاثیر درس‌افزار طراحی شده بر اساس اصول یادگیری مبتنی بر مغز، بر یادگیری دانش‌آموزان دختر هنرستانی، در هر یک از سطوح شناختی بلوم، در درس برنامه‌نویسی کامپیوتر، انجام گرفت. این پژوهش از نوع نیمه آزمایشی با طرح پیش آزمون-پس آزمون با گروه کنترل نابرابر بود. تعداد 6 کلاس پایه یازدهم رشته کامپیوتر از هنرستان‌های دخترانه شهر اصفهان به روش خوشه‌ای انتخاب شدند. هر 2 کلاس به‌صورت تصادفی به هر یک از گروه‌های آزمایش1، آزمایش2 و کنترل انتصاب یافت. در گروه کنترل، آموزش به روش معمول انجام گرفت. در گروه آزمایش1، علاوه بر روش متداول، از درس‌افزار محقق ساخته سازگار با مغز استفاده شد. در گروه آزمایش2 علاوه بر روش متداول، یک درس‌افزار معمولی به کار رفت. یک آزمون محقق ساخته برنامه‌نویسی شامل اهدافی در سطوح مختلف یادگیری شناختی تهیه و روایی آن توسط گروهی از آموزشگران کامپیوتر و گروه آموزشی کامپیوتر استان اصفهان تایید و پایایی آن به روش کودر-ریچاردسون برابر746/0 محاسبه گردید. این آزمون به عنوان پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون برای سه گروه اجرا شد. نتایج تحلیل کوواریانس چند متغیری نشان داد که درس‌افزار سازگار با مغز باعث افزایش معنادار (P<0.05) یادگیری دانش‌آموزان در سطوح دانش و فهم شده است. درس‌افزار غیر سازگار با مغز یادگیری شناختی را در سطح ترکیب به-طور معنادار (P<0.05) کاهش داده و در سطوح دیگر هم نتوانسته است یادگیری را افزایش دهد. همچنین درس‌افزار سازگار با مغز در سطوح دانش، فهم، کاربست و ترکیب به طور معناداری (P<0.05) نسبت به درس‌افزار معمولی تاثیر بهتری داشته است.

    کلیدواژگان: یادگیری شناختی، یادگیری مبتنی بر مغز، درس افزار، برنامه نویسی کامپیوتر
  • سعید محمدی مولود*، تقی زوار صفحات 161-182

    با توجه به پژوهشهای متعدد انجام یافته در حوزهی رابطه هوش هیجانی و پیشرفت تحصیلی و نیز کسب نتایج متفاوت و متناقض در این پژوهشها؛ پژوهش حاضر با هدف ترکیب نتایج پژوهشهای متعدد، این حوزه انجامگرفته است. روش مورد استفاده در این پژوهش فراتحلیل میباشد. جهت نیل به اهداف پژوهش، از نتایج کمی 30 پژوهش منتخب، که با توجه به مالکهای ورود و خروج و بهره گیری از کلیدواژه های تعیین شده از طریق بانکهای اطلاعاتی مختلف کشور به دست آمده بود، استفاده گردید و درمجموع 137 اندازه اثر همبستگی از آنها به دست آمد؛ که با نرم افزار CMA2 مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. در این پژوهش دو مدل تصادفی و ثابت محاسبه گردید که با توجه به تحلیل ناهمگنی از طریق شاخصهای Q و مجذور I ،و حذف 18 اندازه اثر، مدل ثابت به عنوان مدل نهایی در نظر گرفته شد. اندازه اثر ترکیبی پژوهشهای مورد بررسی 0/169 به دست آمد و از لحاظ آماری معنی معنادار میباشد (0/01 >P).همچنین نتایج آزمون Z فیشر نشان داد که میان دانش آموزان و دانشجویان از لحاظ شدت روابط موجود، تفاوت معناداری وجود ندارد. بنابراین میتوان نتیجه گرفت هوش هیجانی یکی از همبسته های عاطفی پیشرفت تحصیلی بوده و رابطه مثبت و معنادار میان این دو وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: اندازه اثر، پیشرفت تحصیلی، فراتحلیل، هوش هیجانی
  • هانیه سلملیان، معصومه ملکی پیربازاری*، سیروس صالحی صفحات 183-202

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی رابطه طرحواره های ناسازگار اولیه دانش آموزان با تحلیل رفتگی تحصیلی و اضطراب اجتماعی آنان انجام گرفت. جامعه آماری شامل تمامی دانش آموزان دختر دوره دوم متوسطه شهرستان رامسر و شاغل به تحصیل در سال 98-1397 بود. تعداد جامعه شامل 1238 نفر بود که از این تعداد با توجه به جدول مورگان 288 نفر به روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای چند مرحله ای انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات شامل سه پرسشنامه طرحواره ناسازگار اولیه یانگ و براون (1999)، پرسشنامه تحلیل رفتگی تحصیلی برسو و همکاران (2007) و پرسشنامه اضطراب اجتماعی جرابک (1996) بود. در این پژوهش جهت تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از آزمون همبستگی کانونی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد مجموعه متغیرهای طرحواره های ناسازگار اولیه با مجموعه مولفه های تحلیل رفتگی تحصیلی و اضطراب اجتماعی به طور معنی داری بر اساس همبستگی کانونی پیوند داشته اند. همچنین در رابطه متغیرهای پیش بین و ملاک، می توان گفت که «خودکنترلی ناکافی» و «استحقاق/بزرگ منشی» بهترین پیش بینی کننده های مجموعه ملاک یعنی تحلیل رفتگی تحصیلی و اضطراب اجتماعی هستند. بنابراین توجه به طرحواره های ناسازگار اولیه جهت کاهش تحلیل رفتگی تحصیلی و اضطراب اجتماعی دانش آموزان مهم است.

    کلیدواژگان: طرحواره های ناسازگار اولیه، تحلیل رفتگی تحصیلی، اضطراب اجتماعی، همبستگی کانونی، دانش آموزان
  • امجد زبردست، شبنم بهرامی*، جمال سلیمی صفحات 203-220

     پژوهش حاضر باهدف آگاهی از تجارب و برداشت اعضای هییت علمی از مفهوم هویت حرفه ای و تنوع موجود در تجارب آنان صورت گرفت. رویکرد پژوهش تفسیری و راهبرد انجام آن پدیدار نگاری و میدان تحقیق دانشگاه کردستان بود، روش نمونه گیری هدفمند بود و با رعایت حداکثر تنوع صورت گرفت. حجم نمونه با استفاده از ابزار مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته و با توجه به ملاک رسیدن به اشباع نظری به 14 نفر رسید. کدگذاری و تحلیل داده ها با روش کدگذاری هفت مرحله ای Sjöström & Dahlgren(2002) انجام شد. حاصل تحلیل داده ها، استخراج پنج طبقه توصیف از مفهوم هویت حرفه ای شامل: هویت حرفه ای به عنوان ((استقلال حرفه ای))، ((اخلاق مداری))، ((بدون مرز بودن))، ((آفرینش)) و ((تعامل حرفه ای)) بود که بیانگر تفاوت های کیفی برداشت اساتید از مفهوم هویت حرفه ای و نحوه ایفای نقش های حرفه ای چندگانه توسط آنان بود. لازم به ذکر است که هر یک از اساتید همه یا ابعادی از این هویت های حرفه ای را در خود داشتند یا به آن می اندیشیدند، اما آنچه برای فرد در بازه زمانی یا موقعیت یا زمینه خاص، در اولویت و درجه اهمیت بیشتری قرار داشت، هویت حرفه ای مسلط و غالب وی را تشکیل می داد.

    کلیدواژگان: هویت حرفه ای، اعضای هیئت علمی، پدیدارنگاری، اساتید
  • مجتبی حاج خزیمه، خدایار ابیلی*، جواد پورکریمی صفحات 221-240

    هدف اصلی این پژوهش، ارایه الگوی توسعه حرفه ای مدیران گروه های آموزشی دانشگاه ها و موسسات آموزش عالی ایران بر اساس رویکرد ناب است. این پژوهش در چارچوب رویکرد کیفی انجام شده است. به همین منظور تعداد 20 نفر از خبرگان و صاحب نظران دانشگاهی مطلع نسبت به موضوع و با راهبرد نمونه گیری هدفمند انتخاب شده و به صورت نیمه ساختاریافته مورد مصاحبه قرار گرفتند. برای تحلیل داده ها از تکینک تحلیل موضوعی (تم) استفاده شد. برای اطمینان از روایی و پایایی داده های کیفی پژوهش، از راهبردهای:1. تحلیل و بازبینی توسط اعضاء (مصاحبه شوندگان) 2. تحلیل و بازبینی توسط همکاران و 3. روش چند سویه نگری منابع داده ها استفاده گردید. پس از پیاده سازی محتوای مصاحبه ها و تحلیل مقدماتی آن ها، کدها یا مفاهیم اولیه شناسایی و به منظور دستیابی به مقوله های اصلی کدهای مشابه در طبقه ای خاص قرار گرفتند. درنهایت برای هریک از طبقات عنوانی که دربرگیرنده کل کدهای آن طبقه باشد، انتخاب گردید. درنتیجه این مطالعه پنج مولفه اصلی (مهارت های رهبری/مدیریتی ناب، مهارت های دانشگری ناب، مهارت های پژوهشگری ناب، مهارت های رفتاری ناب و مهارت های فردی ناب) برای الگوی توسعه حرفه ای مدیران گروه های آموزشی دانشگاه ها و موسسات آموزش عالی بر اساس رویکرد ناب شناسایی و کشف گردید. پنج مولفه اصلی حاصل از این پژوهش، می تواند الگویی اثربخش برای توسعه حرفه ای مدیران گروه های آموزشی در دانشگاه ها و موسسات آموزش عالی باشد و نتایج مفیدی در ارتقای کیفیت، کارایی، اثربخشی و کاهش اتلافات در آموزش عالی داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: توسعه حرفه ای، رویکرد ناب، مدیران گروه های آموزشی
  • زهرا طهاسبی زاده، غلامحسین رحیمی دوست*، قدرت الله خلیفه صفحات 241-262

    هدف پژوهش حاضر ساخت و اعتباریابی آزمون شایستگی های فناورانه برای معلمان دوره ی ابتدایی ابتدایی بود. بدین منظور پرسشنامه ای حاوی 69 ماده تهیه شد و بر روی 414 معلم دوره ی ابتدایی شهر اهواز که به روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای دو مرحله-ای انتخاب شده بودند، اجرا گردید. سپس داده های جمع آوری شده تحلیل عاملی شدند و بدین وسیله آزمون شایستگی های فناورانه ی معلمان مشتمل بر 3 عامل و 47 ماده استخراج گردید که نزدیک به 60 درصد از واریانس سازه را تبیین می کرد. در این آزمون 20 ماده روی عامل اول (شایستگی های تلفیق فناوری در آموزش)، 17 ماده روی عامل دوم (شایستگی های شناسایی، انتخاب و کاربست ابزارهای فناورانه) و 10 ماده روی عامل سوم (گرایش به کاربرد فناوری) قرار داشت. نتایج بررسی پایایی آزمون شایستگی های فناورانه ی معلمان به روش آلفای کرونباخ برای عوامل 3 گانه آزمون به ترتیب 91/0، 95/0، و 97/0 محاسبه گردید. نتایج کلی نشان داد که اکثر سوالات پرسشنامه، شایستگی های فناورانه ی معلمان را می سنجد و از اعتبار و روایی مناسبی برخوردار است و عوامل بدست آمده از تحلیل عاملی می تواند شایستگی های فناورانه ی معلمان را به گونه ای مناسب اندازه گیری کند.

    کلیدواژگان: شایستگی معلم، شایستگی های فناورانه، معلمان ابتدایی، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات
|
  • Sayed Ahmad Pourmoosavi *, Bijan Abdollahi&Rlm, Abdolrahim Naveh Ebrahim, Hossein Abbasian Pages 1-24
    Introduction
    Education in the face of developments, in the field of communication and information, the issue of preserving the linguistic and cultural identity of ethnicities, and the emergence of theories such as pluralism, globalization and so on cannot act passively. Undoubtedly, monocultural education in a multicultural society will not work well. The need for a multicultural approach to education is that education must strengthen the areas of participation, emancipation from specific identity prejudices, good citizenship, thinking and rationality, new identity creation, socialization, development. Education justice and peaceful coexistence. An important step on the path to multicultural education is to transform school management.
     
    Method
    The present study was conducted using thematic analysis method. The statistical population consisted of written sources related to the subject in famous scientific databases and at the time of publication from 2000 to 2019, finally 50 cases were selected as sample. and experts in the field of educational sciences. Finally, 12 people were selected by purposeful method.
     
    Results
    The results led to the development of a conceptual model with three general components: multicultural school characteristics with 5 categories and 19 subcategories, school principal characteristics with 3 categories and 16 subcategories, and the role of stakeholders with 3 categories and 9 subcategories.
     
    Discussion
    Generally in multicultural schools, policies, strategies and Programs should be based on cultural pluralism. The processes of planning, organizing material and human resources, teaching and learning, staff empowerment, and monitoring and evaluation with a multicultural approach should be done. The school should be in full contact with the diverse social and cultural environment around it; the physical environment of the school should be influenced by the diverse culture of the individuals and individuals act and behave on the basis of justice, non-prejudice and mutual respect. The leader of a multicultural school must have a transcendental personality, free from racial prejudice, with interactive psychological traits, and ethics and collectivistic behavior. Also he must have multicultural professional competencies such as awareness of other cultures, multicultural specialist knowledge and multicultural life experience, and multicultural leadership skills such as intercultural communication skills, managing a diverse environment, managing change for pluralism, and managing cultural conflicts. . In multicultural school, stakeholders include teachers, students, parents and the community have roles such as: facilitating multicultural education; participating in school management; tackling inequality, racism and cultural domination; modifying social behavior; transforming cultural values of individuals and ethnic groups; encouraging students, especially minority groups; social and cultural participation; social responsibility and sharing of cultural experiences; supporting school principals; extracurricular social education; enrichment of leisure time.
    Keywords: Multicultural Management, Principal Characteristics, School Characteristics, Role of School Stakeholders, Primary Schools
  • Mahin Mahdavieh *, Soheila Hashemi, Habibollah Naderi, AliAsghar Firozjayan Pages 25-50
    Introduction

    The epistemological beliefs research is about how people know the phenomena of the universe, what theories and beliefs they have about to know, and how epistemological assumptions affect to cognitive processes of thinking and reasoning. In recent years, there has been growing interest in researching children's epistemological beliefs. As Feucht(2017) in his study provided evidence that the level of complexity cannot necessarily be associated with more advanced developmental stages of personal epistemology and the complexity of elementary school children's epistemic beliefs was underestimate in the field of personal epistemology; The purpose of this research is to investigate the epistemological beliefs of children. For this purpose, the questions were: 1) What beliefs do elementary students have in third grade, and 2) which conceptual model could be designed based on students' beliefs.

    Methods

    The primary method used in this research is Grounded theory. By using a purposeful sampling method, 20 girl students of the third grade in elementary school with a mean age of 9 years old were select. Various techniques, including "draw, write, tell," an in-depth and semi-structured interview with students, were conducted. Then the data about their beliefs and experiences in the process of acquiring these beliefs were collected and analyzed.

    Results

    By coding, data categorized, and seven categories emerged. These categories are Individual Mental Scheme, Epistemic Susceptibility, Epistemic Climate, Doubt, Volition, Justification of knowledge, and Multi-dimensional beliefs. The results showed that participants in this research hold multi-dimensional beliefs, which include five dimensions named "Ownership: Authority or Reason, Innateness: Innate or Acquired, Exactness: Certain or Tentative, Simplicity: Simple or Complex, Pace: Quick or Gradual. Dimensions of Exactness, Simplicity, and Ownership have illustrated on nature of knowledge and dimensions of Innateness and Pace have indicated on nature of knowing. All these dimensions can appear in a continuum from naive to sophisticated.

    Discussion

    Based on the conceptual model developed in this research, the categories of individual mental schema, epistemic susceptibility and epistemic climate as "Fundamental Components" and categories of doubt, volition, and justification of knowledge in the form of "change mechanism" had contribution in the process of creating and developing epistemological beliefs of students in a way that can lead to formation the multi-dimensional epistemological beliefs. The results of this study will help educators to find new findings of student's beliefs about knowledge and knowing as well as its development process. They can lead to better educational planning by understanding the epistemological beliefs of students.

    Keywords: Epistemological beliefs, grounded theory, qualitative research, elementary school students
  • Masoumeh Ramezani Fini *, Narges Sajjadiyeh Pages 51-72
    Introduction
    ‎ ‎ Nowadays, the educational system encounters some challenges in achieving to ‎its aims and ‎confliction between its moral and scientific aims. Regarding human existence and ‎agency in the ‎social state, critical theory can help the educational system in returning to its ‎inclusive aims. ‎Analyzing different dimensions of the critical theory as a philosophical view, this ‎paper ‎attempts to trace implications of these dimensions in the education. For this purpose, the views ‎of Horkheimer and Adorno in various philosophical-social fields has been considered This article seeks to answer three questions‏:‏‎ ‎1. What are the characteristics of a critical theory on social issues?‎ ‎2. Based on critical theory, in what areas does the education system need reform to revive itself?‎ ‎3. What are the ways out of the current educational challenges?‎ Therefore this paper seeks to provide a new way out of the present situation by presenting a new ‎formulation of the views of Horkheimer and Adorno in the form of rotations that link the status ‎quo to the desired situation.‎ ‎
    Methodology
    The methodological approaches in this paper will be mainly linguistic analysis and deductive ‎method. ‎ ‏ ‏At the ‎first part, the linguistic analysis method is applied to In the context of Horkheimer's and ‎Adorno's thought, the concepts re-analyzed for examining the main turns proposed by ‎critical ‎theory and at the second part, for deducting the educational implications of these ‎turns we apply ‎practical deductive method. ‎ ‎
    Result
    ‎ ‎ Comparing to previous philosophical approaches, critical theory has proposed new ‎turns. Some ‎of these are: turn from fatalism to human agency, turn from instrumental reason to ‎critical ‎reason, turn from homogenization to differences and, turn from theorizing to ‎conjunction ‎between theory and action. These shifts, in these turn, can cause a series of ‎revolutions in the ‎educational area. Among these, it can be mentioned: examining aims and ‎comparing them with ‎the real educational affairs, sensitivity about ideologies of domination, ‎regarding moral ‎considerations of technological knowledge, preparing appropriate contexts for ‎realistic ‎students agency and regarding layering of human identity.‎
    Discussion
    ‎ We can categorize these turns in ‎three philosophical, policy making and school-class relational ‎levels. It seems that educational ‎system encounters challenges for their realization. Some ‎enterprises like permission to diversity ‎of schools and references of strategies, reinforcement of ‎scientific institution which are external ‎to educational system and, supporting micro-level class-‎school revolutions can be assumed as ‎exit ways of those challenges.‎‏ Key words: Critical education, instrumental reason, critical reason, emancipation, ‎ deductive-‎analytical method
    Keywords: Critical education, instrumental reason, critical reason, emancipation, deductive-analytical method
  • Ayoub Garshasbi, Kourosh Fathi Vahjargah *, Mahboubeh Arefi Pages 73-94
    Introduction

    Considering that the Iranian society is a rainbow of different cultures of different ethnic groups, the prerequisites and requirements of life in this country should be considered based on the principles of multicultural life. Accordingly, it is necessary for the country's curricula to play the role of multicultural education and disseminate it in different ways. Therefore, examining the status of ethnicity in one of its most special areas, namely curricula, is an urgent and vital need and should be considered in curriculum studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of ethnicity in formal curricula of Humanities discipline in the new secondary education system.

    Method

    The research method used in this study was documentary analysis and Shannon's entropy content analysis. The content analysis unit consisted of text, images, and textbook activities. The statistical population included 51 books in the field of humanities in the second secondary school. The research sampling method was purposeful sampling and the research sample included 6 volumes of history and sociology books of the second secondary school.

    Results

    The findings of the present study showed that out of 2467 recorded units, only 122 units were in the case of the 22 desirable components of ethnicity. In other words, only 4% of the content of the books have paid attention to the desirable components of ethnicity. In addition, the findings of Shannon's entropy analysis showed that the highest amount of information load and the significance coefficient among the desirable components of ethnicity related to the component of "addressing the concept of peace and friendship between different ethnic groups" with the value (0.1280) and the lowest of information load and significance coefficient to the components of "Iintroducing different ethnic groups", "creating mutual understanding between different ethnic groups", "The role of all cultures in the formation of Iranian civilization", " Introducing different religions and sects of Iranian ethnic groups", "Awareness to prevent prejudice against different ethnic groups "," Introduction of language and ethnic dialect of different ethnic groups "," Awareness of the geography of life of different ethnic groups "," Helping to tolerate dissenting opinions ", and finally Reflecting the language, literature and music of different ethnic groups .

    Discussion

    Research findings showed that ethnicity in formal curriculum of Humanities discipline in the New Secondary School System remained largely neglected. Various causes have been effective in this situation. Factors such as the ignorance of policy makers about how to design and develop appropriate curricula with multicultural components; confrontation and resistance of educators And learners in learning different cultures, the inflexibility of the centralized educational system, the trustworthy and taboo view of ethnicity, the belief in the distorting role of ethnicity in national unity. Therefore, given the multiplicity of Iranian society, it is suggested that the official curriculum of Humanities discipline in the New Secondary School System be thoroughly revised to cover the components necessary for multicultural education and Iranian ethnic diversity.

    Keywords: Content Analysis, Shannon's entropy, Ethnicity, Multicultural Education
  • Tahereh Nejati, Abdullah Parsa *, Hamid Farhadirad Pages 95-118
    Introduction

    Human resources development theories emphasized on the importance of training and it is effects on the powerment of human resources of organizations. The training goal is the some important functions such as socialization, learning skills, succession planning, employment capability and helping to job career success. The most general use of job career success is the advancement path in job. Mental career of job success is the criteria of individual assessment of his/her job success that reffered to individual attitudes to his/her job and it is determined by psychological terms such as professional commitment. Job success, between individual success, hierarchical success and financial success are 4 parameters of job career. Although some researcher add life satisfaction as fifth parameter of job career.

    Method

    This applied study aimed to investigate the relationship between In-service training programs efficiency with staff career success in one of power ministry organizations, which conducted by confirmatory mixed method (quan.+ qual.). In quantitative section, data were collected with Homayounia (2005) and Gattiker and Larwood (1986) questionnaires, and in qualitative section, documentary analysis and interview were used for data collecting. Qualitative data derived from semi-structured interviews with 10 experts of that organization in Ahvaz Power & Water Organization. Stratified random sampling method was used in quantitative part, 290 persons were selected based on Morgan table, and to determine the sample size in qualitative section, and the desirable cases choice method was used. Pearson correlation, regression and repeat measure ANOVA used for quantitative data analysis and interview inductive content analysis method was used for qualitative part.

    Results

    The results showed that in-service training programs efficiency except of interpersonal success, have positive relationship with job success, financial success, hierarchical success but trainings programs efficiency can not improve individual performance in their career. Analysis of interviews showed that personnel believed that the courses had the some effects on job success, financial success and hierarchical success. This qualitative result is the same as quantitative results about the relationship between training courses and job career success. Also in both Qual. and Quan. results, there is not found the relation between job some of career success’ parameters such as:friendly relationships, formal communications, team moral, and fitness of courses with needs.

    Disscution

    In this organization, the training courses are being conducted with the purpose to become familiar personnel with their jobs and their work environment. Therefore it can be comprehend that the results of both sections of research are confirmed each other.

    Keywords: Job success, interpersonal success, hierarchical success, financial success
  • Parto Yazdanfar, Fourough Farazjou * Pages 119-138
    Introduction
    In accordance with this context, contemporary and abstract art refers to any activity that has aroused and restrained itself. Art painting is a reflection of the idea of being an illustrator. An image is the stimulus showing the global tendency to express the inner workings of man. The use of painting and drawing in clinical work provides access to the mental organs of children and share their emotions and experiences. It provides an effective way of starting the diagnosis and diagnosis process, and it provides an opportunity to communicate freely with the child through the colors and lines of emotion and emotions. painting is like a mediator between the inner world of the child and the reality of his life and opens a way to the child unconscious for his psychological exploration.
    Method
    The strategy of this research is a combination of correlation and qualitative strategy. The method of discovery and extraction of mental images due to the limitations of writing at this age is the technique of 'crocodile' maps that as one of the most appropriate methods for extracting the representation of environmental perception. Children drawing and questionnaires are used in this essay, which is more appropriate for drawing out the perspective and experiences of children. the sample size of 200 people, including girls and boys, is 4 to 6 years, which have been randomly selected as case samples between 4 kindergartens. in order to analyze data collected from descriptive analytical method and to analyze the collected paintings, psychologist expert theory was used to provide the results.
    Results
    Finally, we conclude that modern architectural style has the lowest audience because of its simplicity and readability, and single architectural and deconstruction style due to inability to read, complexity and use of installations and structures in the view of the building.
    Discussion
    Art is also an expression of emotion and thoughts while trying to produce an image. In fact, some forms of emotion transmission can be more important than producing an image, many people believe Everyone, whether they have been trained in art or not, expresses an emotional state when drawing or painting an unconscious image. Color as an element of architecture has a profound effect on children's morale and behavior, affecting their psychological state. The visual and psychological impact of colors in children depends on darkness, brightness, coldness, warmth and quantity of color. From this point of view the paintings were drawn up by children from observing all kinds of structures and buildings assigned to them, in terms of colour given by them to be measured in terms of their attitude towards buildings.
    Keywords: child, Architecture, architectural style, Painting, urban elevation
  • elaheh badiee, Mohammad Reza Nili *, Yasamin Abedini, bibieshrat zamani Pages 139-160
    Introduction

    With the advent of information technology in the modern era, the use of e-learning has facilitated the education. But in many courses there is a problem with a lack of efficient courseware. Brain-based learning theory has provided effective strategies for increasing efficiency in education that can be well applied in courseware development. One of the most difficult lessons is computer programming. Teachers look for ways to improve student learning in this lesson. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of courseware with brain-based learning approach on students' cognitive learning levels in computer programming course compared to conventional courseware.

    Method 

    This research is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design with unequal control group. This study aimed to investigate the effect of courseware designed based on brain-based learning principles on the learning of eleventh grade female students in computer field in Isfahan work-knowledge vocational schools in computer programming course at each of Bloom's cognitive levels. Six 11th grade computer field classes were selected from work-knowledge vocational schools of Isfahan through cluster sampling method. Two classes were randomly assigned to each group, and 20 students were assigned to each of the Experimental 1, Experimental 2, and Control groups. In control group, training was performed in the conventional method. In Experimental1 group, in addition to the conventional method, a brain-compatible researcher-made courseware was used to learning. In Experiment2 group, in addition to the conventional method, a conventional courseware was applied that was available on the market. A researcher-made test containing the objectives of computer programming course at different levels of cognitive learning was conducted as pre-test and post-test for the three groups. The validity of this test was confirmed by a group of computer educators and the Isfahan Computer Training Department, and its reliability was calculated 0.746 by the Kuder-Richardson method. The multivariate analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data.

    Results

    The results of data analysis showed that brain-compatible courseware significantly increased students' cognitive learning in knowledge and Comprehension levels (P <0.05). Also, the non-brain-compatible courseware significantly reduced students' cognitive learning at the synthesis level (P <0.05), and has not been able to enhance learning at other levels. In addition, brain-compatible software was significantly (P <0.05) more effective than non-brain-compatible courseware at knowledge, Comprehension, application and Synthesis levels of learning.

    Discussion

    the courseware designed based on Brain-based learning strategies has been able to significantly enhance learner learning at cognitive levels of knowledge, comprehension, application, and synthesis compare to non-brain-based courseware. These findings indicate the remarkable superiority of brain-compatible courseware over non-brain-based courseware.

    Keywords: Cognitive Learning, Brain-Based Learning, Courseware, Computer Programming
  • Saeed Mohammadi Molod*, Taghi Zavvar Pages 161-182
    Introduction 

    For many years, intelligence and mental abilities were considered the only factors influencing student’ s academic achievement but recently, several studies have examined the impact of non-cognitive aspects such as emotional and social factor. Emotional intelligence is one of the factors that impact and its relation to academic achievement have been studied in different studies. Some researchers found a weak relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement, some found a moderate and significant relationship, and some believe the impact of emotional intelligence on academic achievement more than cognitive intelligence. According to this, the purpose of the present study was to analyze and combine the results of the researches in this field and reach a general conclusion and resolve the existing contradictions and discover possible moderators.

    Method

    According to the purpose of this study, the present study was conducted by meta-analysis method. The statistical population of the present study was all research published in scientific valid journal which was available in computer databases and examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. Using the purposive sampling method and extensive search based on the specified keywords and applying entry and exit criteria, 30 studies were selected as sample and entered the meta-analysis process. The extracted data were analyzed with CMA software.

    Results 

    From selected studies as sample, in total, 137 effect sizes were extracted which 18 extreme effect sizes were eliminated in sensitivity analysis and the next analyzes were performed on 119 effect sizes. The value of “fail-safe N” statistic was obtained 4132, which indicated that after entering this number of non-significant studies, the combined effect size will be non-significant. The amount of combined effect size calculated 0.169 in fixed model and 0.165 in random model that both of them were statistically significant (p<0.01) which indicated that the positive and significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. Values for Heterogeneity indices such as I2 also showed 38% of the observed heterogeneity between the effect sizes of early research, because of the existence of moderating variables. Fisher z test results also showed that the correlation coefficient of emotional intelligence and academic achievement was not significantly different between two groups of students.

    Discussion

    The amount of combined effect size of relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement was evaluated poorly. But its direction and significant indicated a relationship between emotional intelligence and academic. So it can be argued that people with high emotional intelligence have more ability in knowing their emotions and others and use this cognition to guide behavior and peer pressure and able to overcome unpleasant emotions in the school environment and family and create motivation in yourself, coping with stress, and provide a desirable educational status for himself.

    Keywords: Effect size, Academic Achievement, Meta-Analysis, EmotionalIntelligence
  • Hanie Salmalian, masoume maleki pirbazari *, Sirous Salehi Pages 183-202
    Introduction

    Students are the future capital of the country and it is important to pay attention to their academic problems. Some students have problems such as academic burnout and social anxiety. Academic burnout can be defined as a negative emotional, physical and mental reaction to prolonged study that results in exhaustion, frustration, lack of motivation and reduced ability in school Social anxiety is the fear of social situations that involve interaction with other people. A variable in related to academic burnout and social anxiety is early maladaptive schemas. An early maladaptive schema is a pervasive self-defeating or dysfunctional theme or pattern of memories, emotions, and physical sensations, developed during childhood or adolescence and elaborated throughout one's lifetime, that often has the form of a belief about the self or the world. According to what was said, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship early maladaptive schemas of Students with their academic burnout and social anxiety.

    Method 

    The research was descriptive correlational study. The statistical population included all secondary high school girl students of Ramsar City who were educated in the academic years 1397-1398. There are 1238 students in the statistical population. 288 students of the population were selected by multistage cluster sampling according to Morgan table. At first 6 secondary high schools were randomly selected among all secondary high schools of Ramsar city. Then from each secondary high school, 2 classes were randomly selected. Data gathering tools included three questionnaires: early maladaptive schema questionnaires by Yang and Brown (1999), educational burnout questionnaire by Breso et al (2007) and Jerabek social anxiety questionnaire (1996). This study describes the data collected from a variety of statistical indices including descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation, and formulation of tables. In the inferential statistics section, the canonical correlation model was used to test the research hypotheses

    Results 

    The results showed that the variables of early maladaptive schemes and educational burnout and social anxiety sets were significantly correlated with canonical correlations. Also, in relation to predictor and dependent variables, it can be said that "insufficient self-control" and "entitlement/grandiosity" are the best predictors of the criterion set, ie academic burnout and social anxiety.

    Discussion 

    According to the results, we can understand that early maladaptive schemas play an important role in the occurrence of other variables. Therefore, the directors of the Education Organization and people who are related to this field can use these results and improve the psychological status of students through continuous consultation with students in order to reduce their pressures and improve students' academic and social performance to help the community.

    Keywords: Early maladaptive schemes, Academic Burnout, social anxiety, Canonical correlation, students
  • mohammad amjad zabardast, shabnam bahrami *, jamal salimi Pages 203-220

    The purpose of this study was to find out the perceptions and experiences of faculty members about the concept of professional identity. Professional identity provides an understanding of how and why particular teaching and learning approaches are used and shapes one's self-image as a faculty member and provides a framework for them on how to act and how perceive their work and role in society. Although there is no single definition of professors' professional identity that fits all university faculties, it is possible to identify specific core norms that all professors agree with. Understanding the professional identity of faculty members is a difficult but necessary task. The constituent factors of professors' professional identity should be sought in the context of their lives.

    Methodology

    The Approach of study was qualitative and research method was phenomenography and it was conducted in Kurdistan University. The sampling method was purposive with maximum diversity and according to the theoretical saturation, by using semi-structured interview sample size arrived 14 peoples. The Sjostrom and Dahlgren (2002) seven-stage method used to coding and analyzing data.

    Results

    The result of data analyze was elicitation five classes of description categories include: professional identity as (professional independence), (being ethical), (acting beyond boundaries), (creation) and (professional interaction), which illustrate the qualitative differences between faculty members' perceptions of professional identities and ways that they play multiple professional roles.

    Keywords: Professional Identity, Faculty Members, Phenomenography, Professors
  • Mojtaba Haj Khozeymh, khodayar abili*, Javad Pourkarime Pages 221-240
    Introduction

    Universities and institutes of higher education need more than ever lean and effective managers and leaders to face the threats and challenges of the modern world. The main purpose of this study is to present a model for professional development of heads of departments in Iran universities and institutes of higher education based on a lean approach.

    Method

    This research was conducted based on the framework of a qualitative approach. For this purpose, 20 experts and academic experts on the subject were selected through purposeful sampling and were interviewed in a semi-structured way. To analyze the data, the thematic analysis technique was used. To ensure the validity and reliability of the qualitative research data, the following strategies were followed: 1. Analysis and reviewing by members (interviewees) 2. Analysis and reviewing by colleagues; and 3. Triangulation of the data sources methods was used. After implementing the content of the interviews and their preliminary analysis, codes or basic concepts were identified and in order to achieve the main categories, similar codes were placed on specific categories. Finally, for each category, the title containing the entire codes was selected.

    Results

    As a result of this study, five main components (Leader/Administration Lean Skills, Lean Knowledge Skills, Lean Research Skills, Lean Behavioral Skills, and Lean Personal Skills) for the model of Professional Development of heads of departments of universities and institutes of higher education based on a lean approach were identified and presented.

    Discussion

    The five main components of this research can be an effective model for the professional development of department heads in universities and higher education institutes and have beneficial results in promoting quality, efficiency, effectiveness and waste reduction in higher education.

    Introduction

    Universities and institutes of higher education need more than ever lean and effective managers and leaders to face the threats and challenges of the modern world. The main purpose of this study is to present a model for professional development of heads of departments in Iran universities and institutes of higher education based on a lean approach.

    Method

    This research was conducted based on the framework of a qualitative approach. For this purpose, 20 experts and academic experts on the subject were selected through purposeful sampling and were interviewed in a semi-structured way. To analyze the data, the thematic analysis technique was used. To ensure the validity and reliability of the qualitative research data, the following strategies were followed: 1. Analysis and reviewing by members (interviewees) 2. Analysis and reviewing by colleagues; and 3. Triangulation of the data sources methods was used. After implementing the content of the interviews and their preliminary analysis, codes or basic concepts were identified and in order to achieve the main categories, similar codes were placed on specific categories. Finally, for each category, the title containing the entire codes was selected.

    Keywords: professional development, Lean Approach, Heads of departments
  • Zahra Tahmasebizadeh, Gholamhosein Rahimidoost*, Ghodratallah Khalifeh Pages 241-262
    Introduction

    Despite research on teachers' technological skills and competencies, it is unclear what technological skills and competences teachers need to be effective for teaching-learning processes. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a research in this field rather than through the results teachers the power of maneuvering to enhance the level of education and initiative in teaching. Therefore, this study attempts to identify and classify the technological competencies of elementary school teachers and to test and validate their related competencies.

    Method

    Purpose of the present study was to explore the technological competencies of elementary school teachers; therefore, research was a descriptive research. The statistical population of this study consisted of all elementary school teachers in Ahvaz in the academic year of 1397-98 with more than 5000 teachers in the year. In this study 6 to 7 samples were considered for each item, ie, according to 69 items in the researcher-made questionnaire, the minimum desirable sample size was 414 people. The sampling method was multistage cluster sampling. The face and content validity of the instrument was calculated in several steps and confirmed by experts. Reliability of the test was calculated based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.98).

    Results

    In order to develop teachers' technological competencies scale a Factor analysis was performed. The test revealed teachers' technological competencies, comprising 3 factors and 47 items, which accounted for approximately 60% of the variance of the construct. The test consisted of 20 items on the first factor (competences of technology integration in education), 17 items on the second factor (identification, selection, and application of technological tools) and 10 items on the third factor (tendency to use technology). The overall results showed that most of the questions in the test measure teachers 'technological competencies and have good validity and reliabilityand. The factors derived from factor analysis can adequately measure teachers' technological competencies.

    Discussion

    Considering the increasing importance of the role and application of various technologies in education and consequently teachers' competencies and competencies, the present study aimed to construct and validate the technological competencies of primary school teachers. Based on the results of factor analysis, three components were identified and named by the technology integration competencies in education; the competencies of identifying, selecting and applying technological tools, and the tendency to use technology. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to identify the path coefficients and confirm the extracted model. The obtained data through the comparative fitness, goodness of fitness and root mean variance estimation supported the three-component structure of the questionnaire. Finally, the overall results of this study showed that the validity and reliability indices of psychometric evaluation are appropriate and this test can be used for technological competencies of elementary school teachers.

    Keywords: Teacher Competence, Technological Competence, ElementaryTeachers, nformation, Communications Technology (ICT)