فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:18 Issue: 43, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Ghodsiyeh Joveini*, Armin Zareiyan, Mitra Khalafbeigi, Laleh Lajevardi Pages 1-16
    Objectives

    Facilitating participation is regarded as the primary goal and outcome of rehabilitation. According to the importance of comprehensive assessment of participation in occupational areas (social participation, work, education, instrumental activities of daily living, activities of daily living, rest and sleep, leisure, and play), all available studies on the development or translation of measures, which assess participation in Persian, were systematically reviewed.

    Methods

    A search for Persian versions of measures, which assess participation in at least one occupational area, was carried out. Eight bibliographic databases, including 4 Iranian (IranDoc, Medlib, Magiran, and SID) and 4 international (Cochran, PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect) databases from 1990-2018 were searched by 2 independent researchers based on the predetermined criteria. Any disagreements during the selection processes were resolved in consultation with the third researcher.

    Results

    Through 3 refining steps, by 2 independent researchers, 68 articles exactly related to this study were selected and studied. A total of 50 measures were extracted. The content of the measures and their psychometric properties were reported; 44 were translated into Persian and 6 developed based on the Iranian population.

    Discussion

    This critical review will help Persian-speaking therapists to select an appropriate measure for assessing participation in different occupational areas. Considering the importance of participation in the outcomes of rehabilitation and since it is mostly cultural and familial-based, developing new scales based on Persian-speaking people culture seems necessary.

    Keywords: Participation, Assessment, Measure, Persian, Systematic review
  • Ahmad Mohammadi, Afsoon Hassani Mehraban* Pages 17-22

    The benefits of play-based occupational therapy for hospitalized children with cancer warrant further exploration. Pediatric cancer disease symptoms, complications from treatment, and multiple and prolonged hospitalizations restrict participation in the daily activities of a child’s life. However, occupational therapy services in pediatric oncology are limited because of the disease nature, treatment complications, hospital environment, and unclear play-based occupational therapy frame. For this purpose, we decided to introduce the process of occupational therapy in such children, using the play-based approach by reviewing the current literature. Considering limitations and problems in hospitalized children with cancer, it seems that controlling symptoms, facilitating independent doing of daily activities, improving the Quality of Life (QoL), and making hospital environment more acceptable are more accessible, using the play-based approach compared with other traditional interventions.

    Keywords: Play-based occupational therapy, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Hospitalization
  • Elahe Hojati Abed, Malahat Akbarfahimi*, Narges Shafaroudi, Armin Zareian, Akram Parand, Samaneh Karamali Esmaieli Pages 23-30
    Objectives

    Self-determination is a significant skill in the proper transition from adolescence to adulthood. Parents play an important role in assessing the self-determination of their children. Currently, there is no valid instrument in Iran to assess parents’ views about the self-determination of their adolescents. The present study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Self-determination Parent Perception Scale (SDPPS) in an Iranian population.

    Methods

    In this descriptive psychometric study, the original version of SDPPS was translated using the forward-backward method. The content validity index and content validity ratio of the questionnaire were confirmed by a panel of 15 experts, and its face validity was evaluated among 10 parents of the adolescents. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on 125 parents of adolescents (aged 14-18 years) who were selected by convenience sampling with maximum variation. Its reliability and internal consistency were also assessed using test-retest and in a group of 17 parents, respectively. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS V. 18.

    Results

    The items were modified at the face validity stage and approved at the content validity stage. Five factors by explaining 54.14% of the variance and deleting four items were confirmed at the construct validity stage using exploratory factor analysis. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93 was obtained for the total scale and 0.79 to 0.85 for the five subscales of the SDPPS. The intra-class correlation coefficient with 95% CI (0.82-0.98) was 0.83 indicating good reliability of the questionnaire.

    Discussion

    The Persian version of SDPPS showed acceptable validity and reliability in explaining the self-determination of adolescents with and without disabilities based on the parents’ perspectives and can be applied by professionals in rehabilitation centers and those studying on human behavior.

    Keywords: Adolescents, Factor analysis, Parents, Psychometrics, Self-determination
  • Omid Massah, Mehran Zarghami, Alireza Mahjoub*, Afsaneh Moradi Pages 31-38
    Objectives

    Female methadone patients need specific education on HIV. However, few studies have been conducted on the essential characteristics of designing an online HIV education program for this population. Therefore, the current qualitative study aimed at addressing this research gap.

    Methods

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 female patients and 19 methadone treatment providers in 11 methadone treatment centres in Tehran, Mashhad and Sari, Iran. Both focus group discussions and individual interviews were conducted and a narrative analysis approach was implemented. The NVivo 9 software was used for data analysis.

    Results

    The qualitative analyses of the data revealed three major themes and six minor themes as follows: a. information for focused action (knowing the epidemic response) using the effective visual presentation and audio presentation; b. interventions for impact evaluation (covering the needed services) by short-term documentary movies and animations; and c. program delivery for understanding (covering the population in need of services) using problem-solving and taking quizzes.

    Discussion

    Audio and visual components, as well as the role of documentary movies and animations, should be considered in HIV education. The active role of women in learning using problem-solving and taking quizzes was highlighted. The findings of this study can be used in designing women-specific HIV education programs in Iran. Randomized controlled trials are suggested to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

    Keywords: Drug, HIV, Methadone, Women, Iran
  • Bahman Moulodi, Akram Azad*, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Mahtab Roohi Azizi, Parvaneh Mohammadi Pages 39-48
    Objectives

    An appropriate and accurate assessment tool is needed to predict the risk of falling in older adults. This study aimed at investigating the construct validity, factor analysis, internal consistency, test-retest and inter-rater reliability, and ceiling/floor effects of the Persian version of Performance-oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) in community-dwelling elderly.

    Methods

    One hundred and forty-five older adults aged 65 years and older (mean age: 73.68 years) were recruited from daily care centers of Tehran by convenience sampling method. Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) were used to investigate the construct validity of the POMA. Test-retest (7-14 days with interval) and inter-rater reliability of the gait and balance subscales and the total score of the POMA were determined by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC2,1). 

    Results

    A moderate to very high correlation (r=0.67-0.9, P≤0.05) was found between the total score of the POMA and BBS, Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale, step test (right and left), TUG, Dynamic Gait index, and walking speed, whereas the correlation between the total score of the POMA and step length was poor (r=0.39, P≤0.05). The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed a poor goodness-of-fit of POMA with the two-factor model (balance and gait) in community-dwelling elderly. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.94), test-retest reliability (ICC2,1)=0.97), as well as inter-rater reliability (ICC2,1)=0.92) of the POMA were excellent. The results revealed no floor effect for the total score of the POMA; however, its ceiling effect was 3.44%. 

    Discussion

    The Persian version of POMA showed excellent psychometric properties for evaluating different aspects of balance in community-dwelling elderly.

    Keywords: Elderly, Fall, Gait, Mobility, Balance, Reliability, Validity
  • Hosein Hoseinnejad, Farhad Chopaniyan, Omid Sarvi Moghanlo, Mohammad Rostami, Asghar Dadkhah* Pages 49-56
    Objectives

    The present study was conducted to compare the relationship between marital satisfaction and happiness in parents of autistic and normal children.

    Methods

    This causal-comparative research was conducted on all parents of autistic and normal children who referred to the rehabilitation clinics in Tehran in 2017. Using available sampling, 220 parents (110 parents with autistic and 110 parents with normal children) were selected. Data collection was done using the Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney and independent t-tests were used for data analysis. 

    Results

    The obtained results showed that in all components of marital satisfaction and happiness, except for conflict resolution, parents of normal children had significantly higher scores than the parents of children with autism (P<0.05).

    Discussion

    According to the results, there is a possible relationship between the autism disorders of children and their marital satisfaction and their parents’ happiness.

    Keywords: Autism, Marital satisfaction, Happiness
  • Seyyede Zohre Mousavi, Azar Mehri*, Delaram Nabavi, Marziyyeh Faraji, Saman Maroufizadeh Pages 57-64
    Objectives

    Speech Diadochokinesis (DDK) is defined as the ability to produce repetitive and fast speech movements. This study aimed at comparing the DDK rate between Farsi-speaking young and older adults. 

    Methods

    In this study, 244 normal adults (122 males and 122 females) were divided into two groups of young people (20-49 years) and elderly (50-69 years). DDK tasks was performed based on two ways: the participant was asked to produce /pa/,/ta/,/ka/,/pata/,/paka/,/taka/, and /pataka/ sounds in 5 s; and to repeat single syllable sounds (/pa/,/ta/,/ka/) 20 times, two syllables sounds (/pata/,/paka/,/taka/) 15 times, and a three syllables sound (/pataka/) ten times, separately and quickly. The independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis.

    Results

    The results indicated a significant negative and weak correlation between age and all syllables in the specified time (range: -0.139 to -0.254), and a positive and weak correlation between age and time with respect to the repetition of all syllables (range: 0.121 to 0.245). There was no significant difference between genders in both ways (P>0.05).

    Discussion

    The results indicated different DDK rate between the young and elderly subjects that can be used as a benchmark for the diagnosis of disabled individuals in producing repetitive and fast oral movements and also as a basis for clinical assessments.

    Keywords: Diadochokinetic, Elderly, Young, Persian adults
  • Fahimeh Mohseni, Elie Moghimi Khorasani, AliAsghar Nadi Ghara, Raheleh Rafaiee* Pages 65-72
    Objectives

    Illicit drug abuse and drug-related crimes are still a growing problem worldwide. Understanding the increasing number of individuals arrested for drug charges, as well as their characteristics is necessary to predict and establish preventive and treatment programs. 

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shahroud, Northeast of Iran from 2015-2018. Data were collected at the time of arrest from all homeless addicts and drug offenders arrested by the police and were sent to the rehabilitation camps or prisons (n=5486). 

    Results

    Drug-related charges were the largest category of arrest charges in Shahroud. The mean age of arrestees had significantly decreased each year. In total, 19.1% of the arrestees were referred to the rehabilitation camps (18.6% male and 40.3% female). The number of cases arrested for drug charges referred to the rehabilitation camps had significantly increased over time in both men and women. The number of arrestees showed an increase each year, whereas their mean age had decreased significantly. 

    Discussion

    Drug-related laws in Iran have been reformed, emphasizing the judicial supervision of arrest, treatment, and release processes. Treatment of arrestees with drug abuse provides opportunities for decreasing substance abuse and criminal behaviors and rearrests.

    Keywords: Addiction, Drug abuse, Arrest, Rehabilitation camp, Prison
  • Mania Sheikh, Hossein Asghar Hosseini* Pages 73-80
    Objectives

    Fear of falling (FoF) is a common complication after stroke affecting gait and balance performance in individuals with a history of stroke. The current study aimed at determining the influence of the level of FoF on gait and balance performance after chronic stroke.

    Methods

    A total of 76 persons with chronic stroke (including 41 women), who had no cognitive impairment and could walk at least 10 meters without walking aids, participated in this cross-sectional observational study. The participants walked at their preferred speed to calculate gait asymmetry ratios for stance time, swing time, and step length. The Asymmetry Index determined standing balance asymmetry measures of medial-lateral and Anterior-Posterior (AP) Center of Pressure (CoP) velocity. The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) evaluated the severity of FoF. Thirty-one participants had no FoF, 25 had low FoF, and 20 had high FoF. A multivariate analysis of variance test was used to compare standing balance and gait parameters among 3 groups. The Pearson correlation test was also used to define the relationships between FES-I and gait and standing balance asymmetry measures in individuals with FoF.

    Results

    The Mean±SD age of the participants was 57.53±9.28 years. The Mean±SD time since stroke onset was 17.29±3.6 months. The participants with a high FoF had a significantly more asymmetrical swing time and step length and higher AP CoP asymmetry compared to those without FoF (P=0.02, P=0.007, P=0.03, respectively). Increased FES-I was related to increased swing time (r=0.65, P=0.001), step asymmetry (r=0.45, P=0.002), and AP CoP asymmetry (r=0.44, P=0.003).

    Discussion

    A high level of FoF affects gait and balance asymmetry after chronic stroke. Future research to develop therapeutic programs should consider the effects of FoF.

    Keywords: Stroke, Gait, Balance, Fear, Accidental falls
  • Rezvan Akbari Manie*, Maryam Tarameshlou, Raheleh Izadifar, Saman Maroufizadeh, Nahid Jalilevand Pages 81-90
    Objectives

    Studies have shown that most children before the age of 5 are capable to comprehend and express wh-questions in daily conversations. This study aimed at comparing the ability of wh-questions’ production in 4-6-year-old children in spontaneous and elicited conditions.

    Methods

    In this descriptive-analytic study, 72 (n=72) 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children were selected randomly from kindergartens of Hamadan, Iran. Three different probes were used to evaluate the spontaneous and elicited conditions in the expression of questions with “what, where, who, why, and when”. In the first probe, children were encouraged to ask questions spontaneously about experimental pictures. While in the second probe, the verbal prompt was presented about wh-questions, and wh-words were provided as key-words in the third probe. Repeated measures analysis of variance test with between-subjects’ factors of sex (male, female) and age group (4-5 years, 5-6 years) and within-subjects’ factor of the method (I, II, III) was performed in the study.

    Results

    There was a main effect of probes in “where, who, and when” questions and the mean scores of the II and III probes were significantly higher than those of probe I. Children in probe I received higher scores for why questions than the other probes. “What” questions were expressed more by children in probe II. “Why, when, and where” scores were significantly higher for 5-6 years group than for 4-5 years group. There was no significant effect on all wh-questions.

    Discussion

    The higher accuracy of wh-questions in probe II and III compared to probe I suggested that this competence is significantly developed by the use of elicited procedures (verbal prompt or providing wh-words as key-words) in comparison with no elicitation.

    Keywords: Wh-question, Expression, Persian-speaking children
  • Hamidreza Mokhtarinia*, Mahta Rafinia, Akram Shahbazi, MohammadReza Khodaie Ardakani, GholamReza Ghaedamini Harouni, Charls Philip Gabel Pages 91-98
    Objectives

    instruments and methods evaluate addiction to the Internet, mobile, and smartphone use. Subject-reported outcome measures, such as the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) assess such addiction. The objectives of this study were to cross-culturally adapt the SAS into Persian (SAS-Pr) and to evaluate the properties of reliability and validity in the Persian setting.

    Methods

    The English version of the SAS was translated into Persian according to the published guidelines, using forward-translation, synthesis, back translation, consolidated consensus translations from an expert committee, and in pilot-testing. The pilot trial was performed with recruited medical students (n=50) with an interview used to determine the comprehensibility, readability, understandability, interpretation, and cultural relevance of the questionnaire. A further sample of medical students (n=100) was recruited for test-retest reliability performed at baseline and 7-14 days later, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) and internal consistency using Cronbach’s α.

    Results

    The translation of SAS-Pr was achieved with minimum difficulty. During this process, item 15 was revised and in items 24 and 25, the “telegram” phrase was added. The participants found the comprehensibility, readability, understandability, interpretation, and completeness of the questionnaire conclusive. Furthermore, high levels of test-retest reliability (ICC2,1=0.81) and internal consistency (α=0.948) were obtained.

    Discussion

    The SAS-Pr adaptation was successful and the translated version showed promising positive psychometric properties. The SAS-Pr can be applied in research settings and in identifying Persian-speaking people at risk of addiction to the smartphone.

    Keywords: Psychometrics, Validation, Smartphone, Addiction
  • Yalda Kazemi*, Fatemeh Mohebinejad Pages 99-112
    Objectives

    This study aimed at adapting and examining the applicability of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review model of the Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) approach for improving Iranian mothers’ language strategies while interacting with their toddlers with expressive language delay.

    Methods

    In a single-subject multiple-baseline across-behavior study, the mothers of 3 toddlers with expressive language delay attended a series of intervention sessions to be taught how to modify their interaction strategies/behaviors, including noticing and responding, turn-taking, and expanding. Their behaviors were video-recorded, and the percentages of mother’s behaviors were calculated. Visual analysis and an Improvement Rate Difference (IRD) metric were provided to document the mothers’ progress. Fidelity was checked, using a checklist of items taught by the clinician, as well as a quality check of the sessions.

    Results

    Mothers indicated the improved levels of strategy usage after receiving EMT and maintained their skills at criterion levels after the termination of the intervention. IRD for notice-respond, turn-taking, and expanding was 0.88, 0.91, and 0.88 for FA’s mother, respectively. IRD was 0.92 and 1 for AM’s mother. The two strategies of notice-response and turn-taking showed IRDs of 1 and 0.66 for KA’s mother.

    Discussion

    Iranian speech therapists employ a Persian-adapted edition of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review model of EMT with confidence to follow the improvement of parents’ strategies usage within an early intervention course of management of child language delay. The model provides a systematic education of parents to address the communication needs of their children.

    Keywords: Language delay, Early intervention, Parenthood education, Milieu therapy