فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:15 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Esmaeil Sadri Damirchi, Arezoo Mojarrad, Saeed Pireinaladin *, Andrej M Grjibovski Pages 182-188
    Objective

    Nowadays, the outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19) is one of the most stressful resources that has led to the rise of different levels of psychological crisis. In addition to the countries affected by the COVID-19, such as China, European and American countries, Iran has appeared as one of the most affected countries with high infected cases and deaths. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of self-talk in predicting death anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and coping strategies in the face of COVID-19.

    Method

    This descriptive and correlational study was conducted on 354 adults living in Ardabil, Iran, who were selected using cluster sampling from 21 January to 19 March 2020. Self-Talk questionnaires, Coping Strategies, Death Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive questionnaires were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis.

    Results

    The findings revealed a significant positive relationship between self-talk and problem-centered coping style. Also, significant negative relationships were found between self-talk and emotional coping style, death anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Furthermore, based on the results of the regression test, self-talk predicted problem-centered style, emotional-coping style, death anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Conclusion

    The results of this study emphasize the need for psychological crisis intervention during the COVID-19 outbreak. Also, this study provides an important step in shifting attention to self-talk skills from sport psychology fields toward clinical psychology, especially about the mental impacts of COVID-19.

    Keywords: Coronavirus (COVID-19), Coping Strategies, DeathAnxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Self-Talk
  • MohammadReza Mohammadi, Hadi Zarafshan *, Sahar Khayam Bashi, Fatemeh Mohammadi, Ali Khaleghi Pages 189-204
    Objective

    We investigated the level of psychological problems, perceived risk, safety behaviors, and the potential roles of demographic variables, public trust, media, and prior anxiety to illness during the COVID-19pandemic among Iranians.

    Method

    In this cross sectional study, using a convenient and snowball sampling method, we distributed an online questionnaire to participants and collected data on their demographic variables, mental health status, the consumption of and level of trust to various media, the level of public trust, and perceived risk and safety behaviors regards COVID-19. Our final sample consisted of 1881 Iranian residents. We used descriptive analysis, bivariate correlation, univariable and multivariable linear regression analysis, and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis for data analysis.

    Results

    The mental health problems have increased in comparison to past national survey; 24.1% vs 10.39% for depression, 37.93% vs 16.7% for social dysfunction, and 41.33% vs 29.5% for anxiety, and 31.12% vs 29.08% for somatization. We also found high percent of acute stress 52.71% (95% CI: 50.45-54.96). Being female, married, and having a higher educational level increased the odds of safety behaviors. Public trust and national media can regulate the negative effect of the pandemic, while increasing perceived risk and appropriate safety behaviors can decrease psychological problems and disorders. However, social media increases perceived risk, safety behaviors, and psychological problems, especially severe acute stress.

    Conclusion

    We are in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and its negative effects will increase. Many people have lost their relatives, their jobs, their social contacts, and are faced with a surge of negative news. Authorities should consider these critical issues and adopt appropriate communicative and supportive approaches to prevent their negative effects at both individual and societal levels.

    Keywords: Behavioral Response, COVID-19, Media, Psychological Response, Public Trust
  • Hossein Gharaati Sotoudeh, Seyyed Salman Alavi*, Zari Akbari, Fereshteh Jannatifard, Valentin Artounian Pages 205-212
    Objective

    COVID 19 is having a devastating effect on mankind’s life. Individuals with COVID-19 will experience high levels of stress, depression, anxiety, and low quality of life. The goals the of present study were to investigate the effect of brief crisis intervention package on stress, depression, anxiety, and quality of life in patient with COVID-19.

    Method

    In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 30 patients were randomly selected and divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was examined in four 60-minute sessions for one month. During this period, the control group received only routine treatment and therapy. Before and after the intervention, DASS21, the Symptom Checklist (SCL-25), and WHO-QOL were used to measure and record patient mental health and quality of life. Finally, data were analyzed using SPSS24 software.

    Results

    The average mental health score was assessed with WHO-QOL, DASS21, and SCL-25 before intervention and was not statistically significant (P = > 0.05), and the mean score of stress, anxiety, depression, WHO-QOL, SCL-25 after intervention was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Therefore, results showed the brief crisis intervention package was effective in improving the quality of life (P < 0.05) and mental illnesses (P < 0.05) in patients with COVID-19.

    Conclusion

    The brief crisis intervention package can reduce the negative effect of patients with COVID-19. Therefore, this intervention can be used as a beneficial treatment to improve mental disorder symptoms and to improve the condition of people who suffer from COVID-19.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Intervention, Mental Disorders, Quality of Life
  • Mohsen Mohammadpour, Vajiheh Ghorbani*, Samad Khoramnia, Seyed Mojtaba Ahmadi, Mahdiyeh Ghvami, Mahboob Maleki Pages 213-219
    Objective

    The outbreak of COVID-19 has different effects on people's psychological and social aspects. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between anxiety, self-compassion, and gender differences with self-care behaviors and fear of COVID-19 in Kermanshah.

    Method

    In the cross-sectional study, 403 people answered online questions on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item (GAD-7) Scale, Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), and a questionnaire focusing on COVID-19-related behavior. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used for data analysis.

    Results

    There was a significant relationship between social distance and gender, and people who observed social distancing reported higher levels of fear of COVID-19 (p < 0.001). No significant relationship was found between handwashing behaviour and gender variables, marital status, and education (p > 0.05). There was a significant difference between those who answered yes to self-care behaviours related to washing and those who answered no in terms of variables of fear of COVID-19, the overall score of compassion, and subscales of compassion, including self-kindness and isolation (p < 0.05). In relation to fear of COVID-19, married status, anxiety, and common humanity had a positive relationship with fear of COVID-19. However, self-judgment was negatively related to fear of COVID-19 (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    According to the findings of the present study, men and people who are less afraid of COVID-19 are more likely not to observe self-care behaviors. Therefore, providing training about treatment protocols is necessary for these people. To reduce the fear of this disease in people with high levels of fear, psychologists, psychiatrists, and other medical staff can implement protocols to increase compassion.

    Keywords: Anxiety, Coronavirus, Fear of COVID-19, Gender Differences, Self-Compassion, Self-Care Behaviors
  • Said Ali Mohammad Mousavi, Zahra Hooshyari*, Ameneh Ahmadi Pages 220-227
    Objective

    Stressful events increase in traumatic conditions. Coronavirus is a new and serious challenge and significant public health problem, which can cause different stressors. This study has identified stressful events experienced by Iranian adults during the COVID-19 epidemic.

    Method

    Data on stressful events during the COVID-19 epidemic were collected online from 418 adults (mean age 37.16 years; 57.4% female and 42.6% male) using quota sampling method. Epidemic Stressful Events Checklist was applied for data collection. Data were analyzed by applying descriptive graphs and tables, the independent sample t-test, the Fisher’s F test, and post hoc Bonferroni test.

    Results

    The most frequent stressful event was rise in essential goods prices (84.7%); however, its perceived stress was not at the highest level. The highest severity of perceived stress was related to the death of a family member (4.83) due to COVID-19 infection, which was an event with the least occurrence, and the lowest severity of perceived stress was related to medical team performance (2.50). The results showed the severity of perceived stress is higher in women than men (t = 3.42; P value < 0.01) and also in the laboring occupations compared to other occupations (F = 3.18; P value < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Traumatic events can lead to more serious concerns, eg., worrying about those we love, concerns about the future of our life, and about what politicians and macro planners will do to protect our lives. Moreover, traumatic events can cause concerns about food, basic needs, and lack of resources to survive.

    Keywords: COVID-19 Epidemic, Coronavirus Epidemic, Infection, Stress
  • Amin Nakhostin Ansari, Alborz Sherafati*, Faezeh Aghajani, Mohammadsaeid Khonji, Reyhaneh Aghajani, Nazila Shahmansouri Pages 228-235
    Objective

    COVID-19 has spread throughout the world and has become a global pandemic. This situation can cause psychological distress among people, especially health care workers.This study aimed to determine depression and anxiety levels among Iranian medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Method

    In this cross sectional study, we designed an online survey of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaires. The survey link was sent to 500 medical clerks and interns studying at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS).

    Results

    A total of 64.6% of the students completed the survey. The prevalence of mild to severe anxiety and depression among them was 38.1% and 27.6%, respectively. Anxiety and changes in sleep patterns were the most common symptoms. Higher levels of anxiety were related to female gender, lower grade point average (GPA), and experience of COVID-19 symptoms. Students with lower GPA and prior experience of COVID-19 symptoms were more likely to feel depressed.

    Conclusion

    Depression and anxiety did not significantly differ among Iranian medical students before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Somatic symptoms of depression are more common during this pandemic and need particular attention in future similar situations. A higher GPA is related to lower anxiety and depression among medical students.

    Keywords: Anxiety, Coronavirus, Depression, Medical, Pandemics, Students
  • Ali Khaleghi*, MohammadReza Mohammadi, Gila Pirzad Jahromi, Hadi Zarafshan Pages 236-242
    Objective

    Health care systems and professionals worldwide are relying on technology as an essential partner to manage the COVID-19 epidemic. This paper explains how digital technologies can benefit the public, medical workers, and health care systems.

    Method

    This nonsystematic literature review was conducted on different technologies and their impact and applications in the COVID-19 epidemic using proper search keywords on the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases.

    Results

    We found various helpful technologies, which can help us to appropriately contain and manage the COVID-19 pandemic through broad areas of clinical care, logistics, maintenance of socioeconomic activities, and inspection. However, main challenges still need to be addressed for obtaining the full capacities of the technologies to support health care systems.

    Conclusion

    Technologies can offer many innovative ideas and solutions against global and local emergencies. In this time of great vagueness and danger, we require all the resources we can collect to rescue ourselves and our patients. Barriers and challenges, such as lack of technology proficiency, confidentiality requirements, and reimbursement matters, need to be recognized and resolved rapidly, accurately, and compassionately.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Health Care, Informatics, Robotics, Technology, Telehealth
  • Atefeh Zandifar, Hossein Karim, Mostafa Qorbani, Rahim Badrfam* Pages 243-247
    Objective

    The mental health status of health care workers (HCWs) related to COVID-19 is of great importance. By designing cross sectional studies, we evaluated disorders related to the mental health of these health workers. Short-term and long-term diagnostic and treatment interventions are other components of this care protocol.

    Method

    This study includes a collection of studies and interventions in the form of analytical cross sectional study at the level of educational hospitals of Alborz University of Medical Sciences. In this study, HCWs were evaluated for mental health disorders in quantitative and qualitative studies. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DAS), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) questionnaires, and Stigma questionnaire in quantitative studies with thematic approach in qualitative study were used to evaluate and analyze the data.

    Conclusion

    A series of coherent measures have been taken to prevent, screen, and treat mental healt
    disorders of the staff who provide services to patients with COVID-19. We hope the results of these measures will be used as a guide for other professionals and academic and hospital centers in similar conditions to effectively control the disease and improve the mental health of HCWs.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Cognitive Counseling, Mental Health, Medical Staff, Iran
  • Parandis Pourdehghan, Seyed Ali Mostafavi* Pages 248-251
    Objective

    The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a considerable psychological stressor that has a significant impact on every facet of people’s life. Since 2002 that the first Coronavirus epidemic has emerged, many pieces of researches have indicated several psychological problems during this period. In circumstances such as COVID-19, researchers could deploy previous resources to identify the most prevalent psychological effects of Coronavirus diseases. We aim to systematically review and quantitatively assess the psychological problems during Coronavirus epidemics to identify the most prevalent psychological problems.

    Method

    A systematic review of the literature will be conducted on psychological problems during previous and the new Coronavirus epidemics. Electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO/ProQuest, Scopus, and Google Scholar will be systematically searched using predefined search terms to identify relevant articles published from January 1, 2002 to June 20, 2020. Two authors independently identify papers that reported the prevalence rates of the psychological problems during Coronavirus outbreaks. The outcomes will include the most prevalent psychological problems during Coronavirus outbreaks. To ensure we have gathered all the evidence, we will conduct another search on the specific psychological problems revealed in the previous search. Study selection will follow the Cochrane library guideline. Afterward, data synthesis will be performed via the meta-analysis of the prevalence rates using the random effect model.

    Conclusion

    The findings can allow identifying the most prevalent psychological problems since the first Coronavirus epidemic in 2002. This can help health policymakers and clinicians to be informed of the priorities of the psychological problems related to COVID-19.

    Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, Mental Health, Psychological Problems
  • Maryam Salmanian, Mona Salehi *, Zahra Hooshyari Pages 252-255
    Objective

    Studies conducted on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19 epidemics have shown PTSD can occur during and after infectious diseases. However, more studies are needed to explore PTSD during and after COVID-19 outbreak. The objective of this study is to provide a protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis to report the global prevalence of PTSD during and after coronavirus pandemics among general population, health care workers, survivors, or patients with coronaviruses.

    Method

    We include all studies that reported the prevalence of PTSD during and after coronavirus pandemics and search databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar from first of November 2002 to May 18, 2020. Two authors independently use relevant checklists to quality assessment of the included studies and extract data. We use the graphical methods and fixed or random effect models to aggregate prevalence estimates. Also, we will assess heterogeneity between the included studies using the I2 heterogeneity statistic and use subgroup and sensitivity analysis to assess the sources of heterogeneity.

    Discussion

    We infer that PTSD is a common experience during and after infectious disease pandemics, especially COVID-19. The findings of this study can be used by health policymakers and other stakeholders and will provide a path to future studies.

  • Abhijit Chakraborty *, Soumen Karmakar Pages 256-259
    Objective

    Handwashing is now considered as one of the best safety measures to prevent COVID-19 infection. The effect of excessive handwashing for health on OCD patients who are already having washing compulsion is not known. Furthermore, the fear of contamination of COVID-19 in patients who already have obsession of contamination is not known. This study aims to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on OCD patients.

    Method

    Phone interviews were done with 84 patients previously diagnosed with obsession of contamination and compulsive washing. Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was used and the scores of the participants were compared to their prepandemic scores.

    Results

    Only 5 patients (6%) had exacerbation of symptoms after the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the patients did not report any deterioration of symptoms due to the pandemic.

    Conclusion

    Handwashing protocol does not aggravate the washing compulsion of patients. Similarly, the fear of infection with COVID-19 does not increase their fear of contamination.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Contamination, OCD, Washing
  • Mona Salehi* Pages 260-261
  • Morteza Heidari, Akram Heidari *, Sadegh Yoosefee Pages 262-263
  • Rahim Badrfam, Atefeh Zandifar* Pages 264-265