فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Israel Oghenevwodokohwo Okoro* Pages 131-138
    Background

    In Nigeria, the leaves of Manihot esculenta (Crantz) are eaten as vegetables. The leaves are rich in phytochemicals, valuable and natural sources of antioxidants, and are highly useful for human health and disease prevention. This study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effects of two extracts derived from the plant leaves on α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents of the extracts were also assessed. 

    Methods

     The leaves of M. esculenta were processed and extracted with ethanol and acetone. The extracts were evaluated for their α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. Also, their total flavonoid and phenolic contents were determined, using standard in vitro assays. 

    Results

    The ethanol extract exhibited a higher α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity than the acetone extract, which positively correlated with their total flavonoid and phenolic contents. In addition, the ethanol extract strongly inhibited the α-glucosidase activity (IC50: 0.77±0.03 mg/mL) than Acarbose (IC50: 1.52±0.14 mg/mL). However, both extracts of ethanol (IC50: 1.29±0.02 mg/mL) and acetone (IC50 1.66±0.05 mg/mL) were less effective in inhibiting  α-amylase compared with that of Acarbose (IC50 0.99±0.02 mg/mL). Comparatively, the percent inhibition of the extracts and Acarbose were in this order: ethanol extract > Acarbose > acetone extract.

    Conclusion

    The results suggest that the extract of M. esculenta leaves have anti-hyperglycemic effects. They are potential alternative antioxidants that could be used to reduce oxidative stress in the body and in the management of diabetes.

    Keywords: Manihot esculenta, alpha-Amylase, alpha-Glucosidase, Flavonoids, Phytochemical
  • Mahboobeh Talebi Mehrdar* Pages 139-144
    Background

    Antibacterial proteins are widely expressed in snake venoms. Previously, we have isolated two immunodominant proteins with molecular weights of 14 and 65 kD from the snake venom of Naja naja oxiana (N. oxiana). It was demonstrated that they had potent inhibitory effects against gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus and B. subtilis but were less effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli and P. aeruginosa. This study aimed at investigating the potential antibacterial effects of the two proteins against Bacillus anthracis and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Methods

    The proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis, and isolated by Gel Electrophoresis (Electro-elution). The antibacterial effects were tested against the strains of Bacillus anthracis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, using broth microdilution and disc-diffusion assays. For comparison, the antibacterial effects of standard antibiotics, such as Gentamicin, Ampicillin, Penicillin, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin were also tested on the same B. anthracis and S. pneumoniae batches under identical laboratory conditions.

    Results

    The two proteins showed high immunogenicity and strongly inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria, B. anthracis, and to a lesser extent S. pneumoniae.

    Conclusion

    The isolated proteins demonstrated strong antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria, B. anthracis and S. pneumoniae, in addition to their previously known effects against S. aureus and B. subtilis.

    Keywords: Naja naja oxiana, Immunodominant proteins, Antimicrobial effects, Pathogenic & Gram-positive bacteria
  • Seyed Mohammad Hosseini*, Reza Amani, AmirHossein Moshrefi, Seyed Vahid Razavimehr, MohammadHasan Aghajanikhah, Zahra Sokouti Pages 145-154
    Background

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are used for various industrial and domestic purposes and its release into the environment leads to the adverse effects among humans. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of rat exposure to ZnO nanoparticles on the histopathology of the liver and pancreas tissues, and serum oxidative stress parameters. 

    Methods

    Eighty female adult Wistar rats were divided into eight experimental, control and sham groups. They received ZnO nanoparticles at 4, 8, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, or normal saline intraperitoneally for 30 days twice a week. Then, the blood samples of the rats were collected by heart puncture for biochemical analyses, and then sacrificed. Finally, the liver and pancreas tissues were harvested for histopathological examinations. 

    Results

    Significant amounts of nanoparticles were accumulated in the liver and pancreas of the rats, causing tissue and cellular damages. The ZnO nanoparticles reduced the levels of serum triglyceride, glucose, cholesterol, albumin, and increased the bilirubin and liver enzymes, such as ALT, AST, ALP, amylase and lipase at high doses. In addition, the evidence of histopathological lesions, hyperemia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrosis were noted in the liver and pancreas tissue slides upon microscopic examinations. Finally, the body and liver weights decreased in the rat groups receiving ZnO nanoparticle dose dependently. 

    Conclusion

    ZnO nanoparticles had toxic effects on the liver and pancreas, leading to destructive tissue and cellular changes in the rats.

    Keywords: Histopathology, Zinc oxide nanoparticles, Liver, Pancreas impairments, Chronic toxic exposure
  • MohammadJavad Khoshnoud, Majid Keshavarzi, Neda Mokhtari, Amirhossein Sakhteman, Amin Derakhshanfar, Marzieh Rashedinia* Pages 155-164
    Background

    Gastric ulcer is among the most serious stomach disorder universally. Several effective drugs are employed in the management of this disease, although there have been adverse effects in some cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nortriptyline to protect against gastric lesions, induced by indomethacin or cold-stress in rats.

    Methods

    Gastric lesions were induced by oral indomethacin (30 mg/kg) or cold-shock at 2-4°C. Animals were pre-treated with 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg nortriptyline.  After 4hr of exposure to indomethacin or cold shock, the stomach was removed for histological examinations and the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative stress markers were determined in the tissue samples.

    Results

    The results showed that nortriptyline at 20 mg/kg significantly restored the activity of the oxidative stress markers, such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) enzymes. It also decreased the tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. In addition, nortriptyline at 20 mg/kg, ameliorated the gastric tissue damages caused by indomethacin or the cold shock. 

    Conclusion

    The results suggest that improvement in gastric mucosal lesions can be mediated by nortriptyline pretreatment, which is likely due to its antioxidant property.

    Keywords: Indomethacin, Cold-shock response, Nortriptyline, Stomach, Oxidative stress
  • Rouhullah Dehghani, Tahereh Khamechian, Azar Dehghani, Mojtaba Limoee*, Mazdak Limoee, Hooshyar Hossini Pages 165-170
    Background

    Aggressive behaviors in human and experimental animals have previously been described following induced pain. Aggression in rodents has been attributed to genetic and environmental factors, such as pain. A major complication of scorpion envenomation is severe pain in animals and humans. Considering that envenomation by black scorpion (Androctonus crassicauda) induces severe pain, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the venom on inducing aggressive behaviors in rats due to the pain from stinging. 

    Methods

    Rats in the control (n=20) and experimental groups (n=20) were injected with 0.5ml physiological serum or 1µg/ml of black scorpion venom dissolved in 0.5ml physiological serum, respectively, in the dorsal vein near the tail. Changes in behaviors were monitored photographically among the rats in both groups.

    Results

    Following the injection of the scorpion venom, considerable agitation and fights occurred among the experimental rats, presumably due to the severe pain induced by the venom.  However, there was no such abnormal behavior observed in the control rats and in the experimental rats before the venom injection.

    Conclusion

    The induced pain post envenomation in rats caused violent changes in their behaviors, which were highly likely associated with the venom injection.

    Keywords: Androctonus crassicauda, Scorpion venom, Manifestation, Behavior problem, Rats
  • Mehran Shahi, Hossein Sanaei Zadeh* Pages 171-178
    Background

    Compsobuthus Persicus scorpion is endemic to Iran and exists in Hormozgan, Bushehr and Fars provinces. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical manifestations of envenomation by C. persicus and the effect of its venom on the biochemical, hematological, and urinalysis parameters of the stung patients.

    Methods

    In this analytical and retrospective study, all medical charts of patients who had been stung by C. persicus and admitted to the Emergency Departments of Shahid Mohammadi and Children's Hospital of Bandar Abbas, Iran, between May 2014 and November 2015 were assessed. Data from the patients’ test results were recorded including age, gender, clinical manifestations, urinalysis, blood chemistry, and Complete Blood Cell count (CBC). 

    Results

    A total of 275 cases of scorpion stinging were assessed. Of them, 55 cases consisting of 28 males (50.9%) and 27 females (49.1%) at ages of 2 to 57 years old had been stung by C. persicus. Localized pain was the most frequent presenting patients’ complaint (90%). The most frequent symptom reported was vertigo (70%). However, the results of the urinalysis, biochemical, and hematological parameters of the blood samples were in normal ranges.

    Conclusion

    The severity of envenomations by C. persicus was mild and the biochemical and hematological parameters of the patients’ blood and urinalysis were within normal ranges, and there is no need for antivenin administration.

    Keywords: Clinical manifestations, Iran, Envenomation, Venom, Compsobuthus Persicus, Scorpion sting
  • Lisa Ilobekemen Ekakitie, Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo*, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye Pages 179-186
    Background

    Chrysobalanus orbicularis is commonly used as food, the seeds as a spice for the popular pepper soup, and the leaves are traditionally utilized for managing Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Due to the limited scientific evidence on C. orbicularis, this study investigated its antioxidant and inhibitory properties against major enzymes linked to T2DM. 

    Methods

    The antioxidant activity was measured via methods for possible scavenging potentials. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were examined using a standard model.

    Results

    The C. orbicularis aqueous leaf extract compared well with the standard compounds, revealing the high antioxidant and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α- glucosidase. 

    Conclusion

    The findings validate the conventional application of C. orbicularis in the treatment of patients with type II diabetes mellitus and other oxidative stress-related disorders.

    Keywords: Antioxidant activity, C. orbicularis, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, Diabetes mellitus, Medicinal plants
  • Solmaz Nekoueifard, Mohammad Majidi* Pages 187-192
    Background

    Methanol is a highly toxic alcohol and causes such severe side effects as CNS depression, blindness, acute renal failure and even death. 

    Methods

    Patients were three male referrals (aged 29-56 years) to the poisoning center at Taleghani Hospital, Urmia, Iran, in 2020. They had unknowingly ingested methanol. Their chief problems were bilateral blindness and metabolic acidosis. Upon taking medical history and physical examinations, they were assessed by an ophthalmologist, while testing the arterial blood gases and standard laboratory tests. They were given standard treatments and antidotes 3-4 days, which did not reverse the blindness. Subsequently, each patient was injected with five doses of subcutaneous erythropoietin every second day. The visual acuity progress was monitored daily until their discharge from the hospital.

    Results

    Following 3-4 days of ineffective standard treatments, patients were injected with low doses of subcutaneous erythropoietin, which gradually reversed the visual acuity to normal level over the next 7 to 9 days. The patients were discharged from the hospital 10-12 days post admission, with normal visual acuity and without having any side effects. 

    Conclusion

    The subcutaneous erythropoietin effectively relieved the acute optic neuropathy and reversed the blindness to normal vision. This study is the first to investigate the therapeutic effects of subcutaneous erythropoietin in the treatment of optic neuropathy secondary to methanol intoxication.

    Keywords: Methanol, Blindness, Optic neuropathy, Subcutaneous erythropoietin