فهرست مطالب

الهیات تطبیقی - پیاپی 23 (بهار و تابستان 1399)
  • پیاپی 23 (بهار و تابستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • فاطمه رفعت خواه، عباس محمدیان*، مهیار علوی مقدم، ابراهیم استاجی صفحات 1-18

    میرچا الیاده، در جایگاه پدیدارشناس و اسطوره پژوه دینی، با تاکید بر تاویل دینی - تاریخی، هرمنوتیک را بهترین شیوه برای کشف معانی و تاویل پیام های پنهان اساطیر، نمادها و آیین ها می داند. یکی از وجوه بررسی شده او در پیوند با آیین شمن ها، جنبه عرفانی آن است. در این پژوهش تلاش شده است باتوجه به دیدگاه های تکثرگرایانه میرچا الیاده در اسطوره شناسی، پدیدارشناسی دینی، مطالعه دینی مبتنی بر هرمنوتیک، باور به دین به مثابه تجربه امر قدسی، زمان و مکان قدسی واسطوره به منزله روایت کننده تاریخ قدسی، با نگاهی تطبیقی، به بررسی عرفانیات تمهیداتعین القضات همدانی بپردازد و ازاین رو، نگرش های الیاده، صرفا به مثابه رهیافتی در تحلیل نگره های عرفانی عین القضات استفاده می شود. تمهیداتعین القضات همدانی ازجمله متون ارزشمند عرفانی است که در آن، هدف غایی، رسیدن به مرتبه انسان مذهبی/ کامل و دست یافتن به زمان و امر قدسی است که در قالب کرامت رخ می نماید. درحقیقت انسان در ازل صاحب زمان قدسی بوده است؛ اما در فرایند دنیوی، این مفهوم را از دست داده و به انسان تاریخی تبدیل شده است. نگارندگان با کاربرد چارچوب فکری الیاده در شواهد مستخرج از کتاب تمهیدات، بر این باورند که بسیاری از اندیشه های اسطوره ای، ریشه در اعصاری بسیار دور و عاداتی بس کهن دارند که در گذر هزاره ها تغییر شکل داده و کارکردی دگرگونه یافته اند؛ اما هنوز موجودیت خود را حفظ کرده اند و با توجه به تقدس و ضرورت شان، تکرار می شوند. در این اثر، علاوه بر شرح چگونگی آفرینش جهان هستی و انسان و نیز چرایی آفرینش و اهداف آن، روایت های ناب و تجربه های عرفانی فراوانی آمده است. دراین مقاله کوشیده می شود به تحلیل تمهیدات عین القضات همدانی از دریچه پدیدارشناسی دینی و هرمنوتیک و با نگاهی تطبیقی در حوزه های عرفان، فلسفه و دین پژوهی پرداخته شود.

  • تحلیل تحولات روایی ولادت و عروج مسیح (ع) برپایه روابط «فرامتنی»
    مونا نوروزی، محمدامیر جلالی* صفحات 19-34

    به اعتقاد ژرار ژنت، هرگاه متنی متن دیگر را نقد و تفسیر کند، نسبت به متن اول فرامتن محسوب می شود. رابطه فرامتنی در تشریح، انکار یا تایید متن اول عمل می کند. پژوهش حاضر در پی آن است تا اجزای روایت ولادت و عروج مسیح (ع) را بر مبنای مقایسه روایات موجود در میان اناجیل اربعه، قرآن کریم، متون برگزیده تفسیری اسلامی (تفاسیر طبری، عتیق نیشابوری و ابوالفتوح رازی از سده های سوم تا ششم)، قصص الانبیاء های نیشابوری و بوشنجی (قرون پنجم تا ششم)، و متون برجسته شعر فارسی (تا پایان قرن ششم) بررسی کند و با تعیین شباهات میان هریک از این منابع در تشریح، انکار یا تایید آنها نسبت به دیگر منابع، چگونگی تحول روایات و وجود روابط فرامتنی میان آنها را مشخص کند. مشخص شد منابع شعری بررسی شده درباره شیوه آبستنی مریم، فرامتن تفسیر طبری اند که با انجیل لوقا مطابقت بیشتری دارند؛ اما سروده منوچهری دامغانی و تفسیر عتیق نیشابوری درین باره فرامتن یکدیگر دانسته شده اند. سروده ناصرخسرو در عین تاویل و انکار عبارات عیسی (ع) در انجیل، سخن خاقانی درباره «اتهام عیسی به خدایی» و نیز تعبیر نظامی از «زنده بر دار رفتن مسیح» باوجود انکار همگی، به نوعی فرامتنی از انجیل محسوب می شوند. متون شعر پارسی تا قرن ششم درخصوص روایات نقل شده درباره آغاز و پایان زندگانی مسیح، فرامتنی از منابع اسلامی و مسیحی اند. نه تنها تفاسیر اسلامی در این باره فرامتنی از قرآن کریم و پس از آن عهد جدیدند، میان تفاسیر اسلامی نیز رابطه فرامتنی برقرار است.

    کلیدواژگان: تحول روایت، رابطه فرامتنی، مقایسه روایت های اسلامی و مسیحی، ولادت و عروج مسیح(ع)
  • مهدی امامی جمعه* صفحات 35-46
    این مقاله از چشم انداز علامه محمدباقر مجلسی، نگاهی به فلسفه اسلامی و مکتب تفکیک دارد. درحقیقت تلاش شده است از منظر مجلسی دوم، صاحب کتاب مرآهالعقول فی شرح اخبار آل رسول، محاکمه ای بین فلسفه اسلامی و مکتب تفکیک به عمل آید. میدان پژوهش، بیشتر کتاب العقل و الجهل و کتاب التوحید اصول کافی و شرح و تفسیر علامه مجلسی بر این دو کتاب است. شیوه عقلانی و نیز اصول و مبانی وجودشناسی مدنظر علامه برای استخراج و استنباط مراد امام معصوم، بررسی و با مرام مکتب، تفکیک و ادعاهای آنها مقایسه و تحلیل شده اند. علامه مجلسی در شرح کتاب عقل و جهل عقل شناسی را قبول کرده که در فلسفه اسلامی پذیرفته شده است. همچنین در شرح کتاب توحید از قواعد و براهینی استفاده کرده که کاملا مغایر و متعارض با مبانی است که بعدها در اندیشه های تفکیکی مطرح شدند و الهیات خود را بر آنها استوار کردند و با توجه به آنها معارف دینی را می فهمیدند و تفسیر می کردند.
    کلیدواژگان: تفکیک، عقلانیت فلسفی، وجود، علیت، سنخیت، مجلسی
  • یدالله رستمی* صفحات 47-59

    جان هیک از فیلسوفان دین است که به سازگاری وجود خدا (صفات او) و شرور معتقد است. او انسان را موجود نابالغ و ناقص می داند و شرور عالم را برای پرورش روح و تکامل انسان و ایمان واقعی به خداوند ضروری می داند و معتقد است هدف خداوند از ایجاد شرور اخلاقی و طبیعی، رشد فضایل اخلاقی و معنوی انسان است. گریفین از منتقدین جان هیک، نظریه او را نامعقول و غیرقابل دفاع می داند؛ زیرا به نظر او، دیدگاه هیک با صفاتی که به خدا نسبت می دهد، به ویژه قدرت مطلق او سازگار نیست. خدای قادر مطلق هیک، شرور بی دلیلی را در فرآیند طولانی خلقت بر بشر تحمیل می کند؛ درحالی که می تواند جهانی بیافریند، غیر از آنچه شاهد آنیم.

    کلیدواژگان: جان هیک، دیویدگریفین، خدا، مسئله شر
  • حسن رهبر* صفحات 61-74

    یکی از مسایل مهمی که فیلسوفان در نظام فکری خود آن را پی جویی می کنند، دستیابی به معرفت حقیقی و تبیین چگونگی امکان حصول آن است. مالبرانش و ملاصدرا از زمره فیلسوفانی اند که تلاش می کنند دستیابی به معرفت حقیقی و چگونگی امکان آن را در چهارچوب نظام فکری خود به منصه ظهور برسانند. مالبرانش با طرح نظریه «رویت در خدا» بر این باور است که برای ادراک حقایق باید آنها را در خدا مشاهده کرد. در باور او، انسان ابتدا ایده های اشیا را ادراک می کند و سپس به واسطه آن و با اتحاد با خدا به ادراک حقایق نایل می آید. ملاصدرا نیز معرفت حقیقی را مبتنی بر اراده الهی و شهود نفسانی انسان از رهگذر پیوند با عالم مجرد می داند که نگارنده از آن به «رویت با خدا» تعبیر می کند. ملاصدرا با ارجاع همه علوم به علم حضوری و نیز امکان معرفت حقیقی به واسطه شهود نفسانی، معرفت را مبتنی بر افاضه الهی می داند. از وجوه مشابهت آن دو، دریافته می شود نظریه معرفت شناختی آنها از نتایج دیدگاه هستی شناختی ایشان مبتنی بر اکازیونالیسم و وحدت وجود است که در مراحل بعد به نظریه بازنمایی ادراک منجر می شود. از وجوه مخالفت آن دو نیز دریافته می شود مالبرانش نظریه خود را امری فلسفی می داند و آن را در چهارچوب نظام فلسفی خود تبیین می کند؛ اما ملاصدرا دیدگاه خود را امری متعالی و در درجات والای عرفانی قلمداد می کند که انسان با پیوند با عالم مجرد به آن نایل می آید.

    کلیدواژگان: رویت در خدا، رویت با خدا، معرفت شناسی، مالبرانش، ملاصدرا
  • حمیدرضا پاشازانوس* صفحات 75-91

    دین، یکی از مهم ترین حوزه های روابط ایران و چین در دوره باستان است که تاکنون به صورت مستقل بررسی نشده است. مطابق منابع چینی، همه ادیان و آیین های مهم چین به غیر از دین تایویی و آیین کنفوسیوسی، مذاهب غیربومی چین اند و ادیان و آیین های دیگر ازجمله بودایی، زرتشتی، نسطوری، مانوی و اسلام همه از خارج از چین و توسط ایرانیان وارد چین شده اند؛ ازاین رو، نخبگان ایرانی علاوه بر ترویج دین های ایرانی در چین، نقش مهمی در ترویج دین های غیربومی ایران ازجمله مسیحیت در چین داشتند. با توجه به اینکه تاکنون مطالعه ای مستقل درباره میزان تاثیرگذاری این ادیان در چین باستان و براساس متون چینی صورت نگرفته، در نوشتار حاضر سعی شده است با روش مطالعه تطبیقی داده های تاریخی و باستان شناختی، با واکاوی متون چینی و دیگر مواد باستان شناسی مکشوفه در چین، نحوه ورود این دین ها به چین و میزان تاثیرگذاری آنها بر فرهنگ چین بررسی شود.

    کلیدواژگان: ایران باستان، چین، زرتشتی، مسیحیت، بودایی و مانویت
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  • Fatemeh Rafatkhah, Abbas Mohammadian *, Mehyar Alavi Moghaddam, Ebrahim Estaji Pages 1-18

     Mircea Eliadeh, in the role of a phenomenologist and mythologist of religious scholars, emphasizes on the religious-historical interpretation of hermeneutics as the best way to discover the meanings and interpretation of hidden messages of mythology, symbols and rituals, and one of its aspects examined. With the shamanism, it is a mystical aspect. This research seeks to study the Tamhidat-e of Ayn al-Qudat Hamadani provisions in view of the pluralistic views of Mircea Eliade in mythology, religious phenomenology, and hermeneutical religious studies. The mentioned work is one of the most valuable mystical texts in which the ultimate goal is to reach the level of complete religious and complete humanity and to attain the holy time which is in the form of dignity; in fact, man has been holy from the beginning of the time, But it has lost its growth in the world and it is considered a historical person. By adopting the intellectual framework of Eliade, based on the evidence in the Tamhidat, the authors of the paper try to obtain the result that many mythological thoughts are rooted in many years and very old habits that have evolved over the years of the year Data and other functions have been found, but still retain their existence and are repeated with respect to their sacredness and necessity. In this work, in addition to the description of how the creation of the universe and man, as well as the cause of its creation and its purposes, there are abundant narratives and mystical experiences. Mircea Eliadeh, as the interpreter of religious symbols, believed that religion refers to the experience of the sacred one, and the phenomenal religion uses historical documents to express the holy manifestation  and the existential position and religious meanings presented in these phenomena. He believes that the myth is based on ontology, and it speaks only of facts and things that have actually happened and are fully manifested. According to Eliadeh, the truth is the Holy One, which is, in fact, really true; hence, the analysis based on the distinction between holy and unholy is the focus of his work. Mystical texts have received a great deal of mythological beliefs. Tamhidat is also full of cultural and religious information of the writer's time and can be reviewed and reviewed by the rules and principles of the science of religious mythology. In this research, in view of the necessity of knowing more scientifically how the reflection of mythological beliefs in the culture and the way of thinking and life of the people, especially the circle considered among Sufis and Gnostics, has been abandoned unconsciously by the abandonment of mythological rituals and thoughts. This text, which is one of the most important texts of Sufism, is examined according to the views of religious mythology, Mircea Eliadeh and his theoretical frameworks in his works. The study of the part of the phenomenology of religion, the views and views of Mircea Eliadeh, and the study of the quality and the nature of the relationship between mystical texts and religious mythological issues are urgently needed. One of the manifestations of mythology can be sought in its relation to religion and religious elements, and the topic that has been considered in most of the views of mythologists is the functions of myth. How the context is based on what the myth is shaped is more related to its origin, but along with this approach, awareness of the functions of myth is also considered. In this context, the link between myth and religion and the religious functions of the myth emerges as a subset of religious mythology. Mircea Eliadeh, with his research on myths and the symbolism of them, has been instrumental in explaining and illustrating the symbols in the myth. In his studies, he first emphasizes the sacredness of myths among the tribes, and in defining what this scholar presents to the history of religions of myth, the myth is "a manifestation of all and all sincerity".For experimental and rational minds, a natural situation or process, in the magical-religious experience, is manifested as the manifestation of power or manifestation of the sanctity, and nature, exclusively by virtue of this manifestation of power and manifestations of holiness are a magical-religious theme, and thus are taken into account in religious phenomenology and religious history.The present study sought to address the multidimensional views of Mircea Eliadeh in mythology, religious phenomenology, and religious studies based on hermeneutics, which speaks in conjunction with the correlated points of religion and myth, and the mythical features, the symbolic of religions discusses the comparative study of the mystical text of the Provisions of the Imperialism of Hamedani.

    Keywords: comparative analysis, Mythology, Tamhidat, Holy Time, Mircea Eliadeh, Hermeneutics
  • A Metatextual approach in the transformation of narratives on Christ's birth and death
    Mona Norouzi, Mohammadamir Jalali * Pages 19-34

    A text relation with other texts has been an important subject, which attracted the attention of researchers such as Kristeva, Barthes, Riffattere, Genette, ete. In the 1960s, it was Julia Kristeva who used "Intertextuality" for the first time, indicating any relation between different texts. Thereafter, Gérard Genette expanded the study domain of Kristeva, and called relation between a text with other texts or different from its own as "transtextuality" and subdivided this type into five categories where intertextuality was only one type. Other categories were called "arcitextuality", "paratextuality", "metatextuality" and "hypertextuality", each with their own subcategories. According to Gerard Genette's theory, whenever a text sets to criticize and interpret another text, it will be considered as a Metatext for that text. In Metatextuality as a form of Intertextual intercourse, a text can explain, condemn or endorse another text. This paper studies and discusses all the elements of narratives related to the birth and death of Christ based on comparison of the narratives in New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John), Quran, Islamic interpretations (Tafsir al-Tabari, Tafsir-i Sur abadi, Rawz al-jinan wa ruh al-jinan, Qisas Al-Anbiya) and Persian poems (until 6th century AH). Furthermore, this paper sets out to analyze the transformation of narrations as well as similarities and differences based on a Metatextual approach. This study documents that not only there are various narratives between Christian and Islamic sources, but also there are differences among Islamic sources (even in a single text) that have been reflected in Persian poems. A way of determining "Metatextual" relationships is examining of the similarities between two or more texts in the type and manner of the narrative differences of these references in a single subject compared to other sources. Moreover, it turned out that differences in narrations is depends on interpretations and interpretations itself is depends on translation. (As the term "taqi" is translated both in the noun and adjective; causing to make two different narratives of Mary's life) Considering Persian poems, especially poetic texts until 6th century AH, such as poems of Muslim poets who were living in Arranand Shirvan, we found out that both Christian and Islamic narratives have been reflected on poems. It shows that not only the author's ideological background makes narrative differences, but also cultural and historical context is effective. This study documents that, on Mary's getting pregnant, there are four interpretations based on the verse 12 of Surah At-Tahrim, as well as four narrations: 1. Blowing into her mouth (based on Tafsir-i Sur abadi's narrative) 2. Blowing into her sleeve (based on Tafsir al-Tabari's narrative) 3. Blowing into her vagina (based on Qisas Al-Anbiya's narrative) 4. Blowing into her dress (based on another story of Qisas Al-Anbiya). The poetic sources that have been examined on Mary's pregnancy are metatext of Tafsir al-Tabari that shows Blowing into her sleeve is the reason of getting pregnant; however, Mary's pregnancy in Manuchehri Damghgani's poems has been narrated based on Tafsir-i Sur abadi's narrative. Therefore Blowing into her mouth is the reason of pregnancy; these two texts can be considered as metatext of each other. Among interpretations are mentioned above, overall, Tafsir al-Tabari is more consistent with Luke's Gospel. While the going of Jesus near "his Father" is rejected by Nasser Khosro's poem, it is can be a metatext of Bible. While Khaghani's belief on the "accusation of being God" is a criticism of Christian belief, and also Nezami's interpretation of "being alive during crucifixion", is a denial of Jesus's crucifixion, all of them are metatext of the bible. Examination of Persian poetry until 6th century AH shows that there are the frequency of vocabulary such as blowing, sleeves and virginity which are related to birth of Jesus, as well as the cross, the fourth heaven, the position of the sun, Baitul Ma'mur, and the needle, that are related to the crucifixion / ascension of Jesus. We can say that these words are influenced by Christian and Islamic narratives in the same way; therefore, these words, which confirm the Christian and Islamic narratives, can be considered as metatext of both of them. As the Islamic interpretations (both Shi'i and Sunni) on Christ's birth and death are the Metatext of the Holy Qur'an and New Testament, there is also a Metatextual relationship between the Islamic interpretations. Consequently Persian poems (until 6th century AH) can also be a Metatext of Islamic interpretations, and hence they are a Metatext of the Holy Quran as well as Christian sources.

    Keywords: Transformation of narrations, comparison of the Islamic, Christian narratives, the way of reflection of Christ's life in Persian poems
  • Sayyed Mahdi Emamijome * Pages 35-46
    Abstract The present paper looks through Islamic Philosophy and Detachment Theory from the point of view of Mohammad Bāqir Majlisi. In fact, it aims to set a tribunal between Islamic Philosophy and Detachment School of thought in the view of the Second Majlesi, the author of Mir’āt al-Uqul fi Sharh Akhbār al-Rasul (the Mirror of Intellects on Description of Traditions of Prophet’s Descendants). The source for the study is mainly the book Al-Aghl val-Jahl (Intellect and Ignorance) and Al-Tawhid fi Kitab al-Kafi (Oneness of God in Kitab al-Kafi) along with Mohammad Baqer Majlesi’s interpretation of these two books. Majlesi’s rational method and the ontological principles he utilized to extract and deduce the impeccable Imam’s intention from his words are also investigated, compared to and analyzed with ideologies of Detachment Theology. Summary of the Paper Detachment Theology in this paper is a particular movement in the arena of religious knowledge pursuing thoughts originated from Mirza Mahdi Esfahani and expanded by his disciples. The axis of this school of thought is to seek ways to understand religion from religion itself and avoid utilizing philosophical and mystical methods and therefore their achievements to perceive divine knowledge. Claims and principles of Detachment Theology have a long history in the Islamic world; however, it was systematically processed in the school of Mirza Mahdi Esfahani and his disciples. Nevertheless, the point neglected is Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi’s point of view and his critique on these principles. In his book The Mirror of Intellects which is an extended interpretation of Kitab al-Kafi and especially in his interpretation of Book of Intellect and Book of Oneness of Kitab al-Kafi, Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi discusses and overtly criticizes principles and intellectual roots based on which Detachment Theology is developed. Majlesi’s critique is based on a philosophical view and such a view was and is completely neglected by him. In his interpretation of the Book of Intellect, Majlesi defines the term “Intellect” according to traditions and refers to its philosophical definition as an acceptable one. Furthermore, in his interpretation of the Book of Oneness, Majlesi bases understanding of traditions on philosophical ontology and uses terms like existence, nature, possibility, necessity, cause, cognation, necessarily existent by itself and possibly existent by itself repetitively so that an understanding of traditions is formed. He refers to the creator and the creature as necessarily existent by itself and possibly existent by itself, believes in a cause and effect relationship between them and accepts the cognation between cause and effect and especially the necessary and the possible and therefore he, like philosophers, believes that if there is no cognation, theology will break down when it comes to cognition. In this regard, he admits all principles around causality rules and the rule of “the one who gives something could not lack it”. Concepts and principles all criticizing and rejecting Detachment Theology are discussed and analyzed in the present paper to show that Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi possessed a philosophical view.
    Keywords: Detachment (Tafkik) Theory, Philosophical Rationality, Existence, Causality, Cognation, Majlesi
  • Yadollah Rostami * Pages 47-59

    The problem of evil is a rational problem for theism. The root of this problem is to ask why the omnipotent and absolute benevolent God creates evil or does not prevent its genesis. John Hick explains and justifies evil by proposing the theory of Soul-Making. He argues that the omnipotent and absolute benevolent God can create a world in which there is no evil and has complete control over its creatures, especially human beings, but in this case, the world will become a stagnant place, and its inhabitants will be caught up in the indolence and comforting of the body, which will be incompatible with God's purposes. He also agrees with Iranaeus in his theory that human beings are created imperfect and evolve in the long process of creation, which is accompanied by pain and affliction. John Hick uses both types of moral and natural evil to explain his theory. In the field of moral evils, he emphasizes the authority and freedom of man, which have been granted to him by God. Because in his view, a world in which free beings can freely choose goods and through which the growth of moral and spiritual virtues can be achieved is better than a world in which the non-committed sin (moral evil) is more valuable than freedom. Of Course, Hick believes that man has an epistemological distance from God that man must be able to attain religious growth in situations where he has relative independence from God. Hick believes that God's reason for prescribing natural evils is that their fulfillment is necessary and that they exalt  human soul and acquire his moral acts in such a way that man obtains virtues such as compassion, empathy, devotion, and so on by experiencing evils. He also appeals to the afterlife and compensation in the other world to justify some evils that have no benefit for human beings in this world. David Griffin, a philosopher of religion, considers Hick's view as inconsistent and indefensible and notes some fundamental critiques about his theory. Griffin believes that the situation in the world, which includes many horrible evils, is incompatible with the belief in Hick's omnipotent God because God must exercise his power to prevent the evils by seeing them. Such evils not only do not exalt the human soul but also cause despair and mental defect in humans. He believes that there is no correlation between the acquisition of values and virtues with real freedom in Hick theory. Because God can create human beings in such a way that they always do good deeds freely or instill in them the idea that they are free, while only God is aware of their lack of freedom. Griffin sees Hick's view in justifying evil as a kind of promoting immortality because his concern is to create virtues in exchanges for enduring evils. He believes that Hick's view requires the denial of the genuine evil, which is contrary to the conventional understanding and common sense of the man. Finally, according to Griffin, Hick's belief in the resurrection is incompatible with justifying the unjustified evils, because the God of Hick has an epistemological distance from man, for whom the existence of God does not seem obvious for believing.

    Keywords: John Hick, David Griffin, The problem of Evil, Soul-Making
  • Hassan Rahbar * Pages 61-74

    Although Mulla Sadra believed in sensory, imaginary, and intellectual perceptions, he sought true knowledge within a framework beyond the senses, intellect, and the material world and considered it to be the result of divine enlightenment and exaltation, as well as the promotion of the soul to the world of meaning, and in other words, the knowledge of God. At the same time, in the West, with the advent of Descartes (1650) and his philosophical tradition, epistemology received more attention, which was the result of the emergence of the age of skepticism, which itself was the outcome of the emergence of modern science and the rejection of Aristotelian tradition. Among the Cartesians, Malebranche (1715) proposed a new theory in the field of epistemology, calling it the ‘vision of God’. This theory was quite different from the epistemological views of others such as Descartes and his followers. According to Malebranche, knowledge depended on God and His will. Also, in the works of Mulla Sadra and Malebranche, the truth of perception is interpreted as a kind of representation. This means that we cannot perceive objects directly, but we perceive them through intermediaries. However, the main question of the present article is how to obtain true knowledge and how to acquire it in the philosophy of Mulla Sadra and Malebranche, which is based on the will of God? On the other hand, what are the similarities and possible contradictions between the theory of vision in God in the philosophy of Malebranche and the theory of acquiring knowledge through the enlightenment of God in Mulla Sadra? The author of the present study interprets the latter as ‘vision by God’. In this article, the author tries to answer the mentioned questions in this field by the analytical and descriptive methods based on library research. By proposing the theory of ‘vision in God’, Malebranche believes that to understand the facts, one must observe them in God. According to him, man first perceives the ideas of things and then through them, and by union with God, he realizes the truths. Mulla Sadra also considers true knowledge to be based on the divine will and human psychic intuition through connection with the spiritual world, which the author interprets as ‘vision by God’. Mulla Sadra, by referring all sciences to knowledge by the presence on the one hand and the possibility of true knowledge through psychic intuition, on the other hand, considers knowledge to be based on divine forgiveness.  From the similarity of the two, it can be pointed out that their epistemological theory is based on the results of their ontological view based on occasionalism and the unity of existence, which in the later stages leads to the theory of representation of perception. From the opposition of the two views, it can be noted that Malebranche considers his theory as a philosophical matter and explains it within the framework of his philosophical system. But Mulla Sadra considers his view to be transcendent and in the highest mystical degrees, that man attains by connecting with the spiritual world.

    Keywords: Vision in God, Vision by God, Malebranche, Mulla Sadra
  • Hamidreza Pasha Zanous * Pages 75-91

    One of the most important aspects of the relationship between Iran and China in ancient times is religion that has so far not been addressed independently. According to Chinese sources, all major religions of China, except Taoism and Confucianism, are non-indigenous, and other religions such as Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Nestorianism, Manichaeism, and Islam are all from outside China. These religions were brought to China by the Iranian elites. Apart from the expansion of Iranian religions in China, Iranian elites have played an important role in introducing non-Iranian religions, including Christianity, to the Chinese people. In the second century BC, some Parthian Buddhists immigrated to China. For several centuries, they persisted in China in translating Buddhist texts into Chinese. The first school for translating and teaching Buddhism was established in Luoyang (capital of the Han dynasty) by the Parthian prince, An Shigao. In addition to An Shigao, other teachers of the school were Iranians such as An Xuan and Yan Fotiao. There they engaged in teaching Buddhism for two hundred years.  The prefix “An” in China, pertained to the people who lived in the Parthian Land. The progeny of An Shigao was active in two areas from the 4th to 8th century AD. The Chinese kings sent some of them as their ambassadors to Central Asia. For example, some of them reached high positions in Sabao 薩保, the Chinese state agency for foreign trade. In his study, Forte tries to recognize the descending branches of An Shigao and other Parthian Iranians residing in China. It is said that some descendants of An Shigao found high stature within the Chinese Court. Governmental and religious posts of the “An” clan in China is an indication of the high status this elite Parthian clan held. Their power and influence were to the extent that they hold the highest governmental ranks in the Chinese Court. Their status, however, was tottered in the middle of the 8th century after the uprising of An Lushan安禄山 (703-757 AD). An Lushan’s uprising, which persisted after his demise, was referred to as the “An Shi Rebellion 安史之乱” in the Chinese sources, probably referring to his Parthian origin. The result was the Tang Empire’s feeling of anger toward the Iranian originals, inasmuch as the Iranians and Sogdians residing in China concealed their foreign origin. The best example can be An Chongzhang 安重璋, the war minister of Tang Court. He changed his surname in 756 AD, and upon being asked about the reason, he reiterated that he is ashamed of having a name similar to An Lushan. He chose Li Baoyu 李抱玉 as his name. Religion activity of the Iranians in China continued in the Sassanid era as well. As the official religion of the Sassanid Kingdom, the Zoroastrian religion paved its way to China probably in the advent of the 6th century AD as the two nations experienced a thaw in their political and economic ties. Gradually, four Zoroastrian temples were established in Chang'an, two in Luoyang, and some in Kaifeng. The Zoroastrian religion was called “Xiān祆” in China. No doubt, the Sogdian tradesmen played a pivotal role in the dissemination of Zoroastrianism as they did for Buddhist, Manichaean, and Christian religions. For example, Zoroastrian symbols found in China on the gravestone of a Sogdian tradesman named Wirkak is an indication of the fact that the Sogdian immigrants following Zoroaster lived in China.  Later, Nestorian Christianity is another non-Iranian religion disseminated in China by Iranians. The oldest available document about the Chinese Christians is the writings on a Nestorian inscription belonging to the year 781 AD, containing matters on the 150-year history of Chinese Christianity. Found in Chongren temple in China, the inscription is written in Chinese and Syriac languages and is currently in the Beilin Museum in Xi’an.  It tells that a group of Nestorian Christians arrived in Xi’an in 635 AD under the guidance of a Persian monk named Āluóběn.  The Manichaean religion was also imported into China by the Iranian elites. According to the Chinese Manichaean tradition, the religion was formed, thereupon, the arrival of a Manichaean Mōzak at the time of Emperor Gaozong who reigned from 649 to 684 AD. From 762 AD, the Manichaean religion set to be the formal religion of the Khanate of Uighur.  After the fall of the Great Khanate of Uighur in 840 AD and due to the propagation of the Manichaean religion in China, the Emperor Wu zong of Tang (840-846 AD) issued an order in 844 AD, prohibiting the Manichaean religion along with some other Iranian religions including Zoroastrianism.  However, this was not the end of Iranian religions in China and some of these religions persisted in China. For example, the Manichaean followers and priests shuttled between Central Asia and the Chinese Court until the end of the 10th century AD, constantly wearing white garments and hats.  By the same token, according to a Chinese reference called Mingshu, a Manichaean priest escaped to a southern area in China called Fu-tang and propagated his religion in Fujian province. The religion endured in southern China from the 10th to the 17th century (1600 CE). All this information mentioned above will be discussed more so that the ways of the introduction of these religions into China and the level of their influence on Chinese culture could be realized.

    Keywords: Ancient Iran, China, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Buddhism, Manichaeism