فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:9 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/07/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Javid Dehghan Haghighi, Asiyeh Hosseini, Reza Shafiei, Ahmad Mehravaran, Ebrahim Alijani, Hadi Mirahmadi * Page 1
    Background

     Toxoplasma gondii might lead to behavioral changes in patients with toxoplasmosis. Since addicts are considered as individuals with behavioral, social, and psychiatric changes, we need to evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in addicts.

    Objectives

     This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure Toxoplasma antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in addicted women who were kept at the Zahedan Welfare Center in 2018.

    Methods

     Ninety-six addicted women with high-risk behaviors and history of narcotic drug consumption as the case group and 96 non-addicted women (without a history of narcotic drug consumption) as the control group participated in this study. They had no history of alcohol consumption. The type of consumed narcotic drugs and the way of the consumption of narcotic drugs were indicated in the participants. After taking blood samples and separating the sera, the opium rapid strips were used to confirm the addiction status of the participants. Then, all sera were evaluated for Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA.

    Results

     All sera showed positive results for addition using opium rapid strips. The ELISA results indicated that the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma IgM in addicted women was 0.96%. Also, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma IgG was identified as 37.5% in addicted women and 27.1% in the control group.

    Conclusions

     According to the low difference in the rate of Toxoplasma IgG between addicts and controls, and the low rate of Toxoplasma IgM, the relationship between addiction and toxoplasmosis was not proven in this study. Presumably, different factors can be involved, so more studies are needed to elucidate the reasons for the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in addicts.
     

    Keywords: Toxoplasmosis, ELISA, IgG, IgM, Zahedan Addicts
  • William Leigh Atherton *, Cheryl C. Meola, Kenneth S. Pritchard Page 2
    Background

     Adolescent substance use continues to rise in the United States, and innovative interventions are needed to increase treatment outcomes. The need for innovative, complementary approaches to adolescent addiction treatment is felt. Equine facilitated psychotherapy (EFP) has demonstrated to be an innovative intervention.

    Objectives

     This study aimed to examine the impact of an innovative EFP intervention on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of adolescents with addiction.

    Patients and Methods

     Ten adolescents diagnosed with substance use disorder referred from local providers participated in a six-session EFP group intervention. The study utilized a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design. The study used the Adolescent Behavior survey, Patient Health questionnaire 9, and generalized anxiety disorder 7 scales that were completed by the participants at baseline and upon completion of the six sessions. Paired t-tests were conducted to compare the pretest and posttest scores.

    Results

     The results demonstrated a significant increase in adolescent behaviors associated with Glasser’s connecting habits, including listening, trusting, supporting, encouraging, respecting and accepting, and negotiating differences. The results also demonstrated a significant reduction in depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Conclusions

     The present study demonstrated the potential efficacy of the innovative EFP intervention integrated into a choice theory-driven treatment strategy for improving psychosocial and behavioral concerns related to adolescent addiction. Future studies should consider research design alterations to increase the generalizability and interpretation of results. Further, future studies should include a qualitative or mixed-method design to elucidate the participants’ perception of the role of the equine as part of the intervention process.

    Keywords: Adolescent, Addiction, Equine Facilitated Psychotherapy, Animal Assisted Therapy
  • Zahra Piri, Masoumeh Kourosh Arami *, Minoo Shahidi, Somayeh Nazari Page 3
    Background

     Orexin peptides that are produced in the hypothalamic nuclei are involved in opioid dependence.

    Objectives

     In the current study, we aimed to figure out the effect of orexin type 1 receptor (OXR1) antagonist on hematologic factors in morphine-dependent rats.

    Patients and Methods

     Male Wistar rats were rendered morphine-dependent by subcutaneous injection of morphine sulfate (10 mg/Kg) at an interval of 12 hours twice a day for seven days. In the control and treatment groups, SB-334867 vehicle and SB-334867 were injected during postnatal days 1 to 30 (P1-P30) daily and then before each morphine injection during for days. Data were analyzed using unpaired two-tailed Student t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The defined level of statistical significance was P < 0.05.

    Results

     Morphine increased white blood cell count (WBC), platelet cell count, and hematocrit. Application of SB-334867 reduced several hematologic factors in morphine-dependent rats, including mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), WBC, and platelet count compared to morphine-dependent rats.

    Conclusions

     Inhibition of OXR1 may improve morphine-induced changes in hematologic factors in morphine-dependent rats.
     

    Keywords: Morphine, WBC, Leukocyte Count, PLT, SB-334867, Dependent Rat MCHC, Hematologic Factors
  • Tahmineh Peirouvi *, Yasaman Mirbaha, Anahita Fath Azarbayjani, Ali Shalizar Jalali Page 4
    Background

     Co-administration of opioid agonists and antagonists at low doses has been reported to significantly enhance and/or prolong the analgesic effects and reduce or prevent tolerance to or dependence on opioids.

    Objectives

     The current study aimed at evaluating the naloxone effect on morphine-induced histopathological and hematologic changes in rats.

    Materials and Mehods: 

    Thirty mature male Wistar rats were categorized into three groups (n = 10) in a random manner, including the control group receiving normal saline, the morphine-sole group receiving morphine (5 mg/kg/day), and morphine + naloxone group receiving morphine and naloxone (5 and 0.4 mg/kg/day, respectively). After 50 days, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured in the serum. Moreover, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured to assess the serum antioxidant capacity. Histopathological changes were investigated via hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff staining. Inter-group comparisons were made by GraphPad Prism software using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test.

    Results

     The animals in the morphine + naloxone group showed higher AST, ALP, ALT, and CAT levels in comparison with the control and morphine-sole groups (P < 0.05). Our findings revealed no changes in the cholesterol, TG, SOD, and GPx levels among the groups (P > 0.05). However, the morphine-sole group exhibited higher serum levels of HDL compared with the controls (P < 0.05). The morphine-sole group showed fibrosis, local necrosis, immune cell infiltration, and diminished intra-cytoplasmic carbohydrate storage.

    Conclusions

     The findings suggest that apart from unchanged serum markers, morphine can potentially induce hepatotoxicity, and at the same time, naloxone is able to ameliorate morphine-induced histopathological damages.

    Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Liver, Morphine, Naloxone, Histopathological Changes, Enzyme
  • Somayeh Motazedian, Sepehr Entezam, SeyedShahab Banihashem, Ghazal Zahed, Ali Kheradmand * Page 5
    Background

     Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is one of the most common treatments for drug use complications. Sexual disorders are reported as common side effects of these treatments, the most important of which is erectile dysfunction.

    Objectives

     The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dose-dependence and duration of methadone treatment on erectile dysfunction in patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy.

    Patients and Methods

     This cross-sectional study was performed on 192 opioid-dependent men undergoing methadone maintenance treatment at Shariati Hospital in Fasa (Iran) in 2018. Samples were selected by the available sampling method. Each individual was given a demographic questionnaire, methadone consumption questionnaire, and standard erectile dysfunction questionnaire. The one way ANOVA test and, in some cases, Pearson correlation coefficient with chi-square test for qualitative variables were used.

    Results

     Mean age of patients was 41.41 ± 8.41, the mean duration of MMT was 60.53 ± 37.8 months, and the mean therapeutic dose was 83.68 ± 27.07mg. 171 (86.8%) were married, 13 (6.8%) had no erectile dysfunction. While 37 (19.3%) had mild, 78 (19.3%) mild to moderate, 48 (25%) moderate, and 16 (8.3%) had severe erectile dysfunction. The results showed that erectile dysfunction was significantly associated with age and duration of methadone consumption. However, the type of methadone and marital status had no significant association with erectile function.

    Conclusions

     Erectile dysfunction is common in men receiving MMT. The severity of erectile dysfunction is related to the duration of MMT and is not dose-dependent. Therefore, subjects who are on long-term MMT need more frequent erectile dysfunction assessment.

    Keywords: Methadone, Erectile Dysfunction, Opiate Substitution Treatment
  • Nasrin Motazedian*, Mehrab Sayadi, Shohreh Beheshti Page 6

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, with the highest prevalence among young adults. We investigated the risk factors of this infection among men. A total of 224 men referred to a dermatology clinic in Shiraz to treat anogenital warts from June 2015 till Feb 2016 were enrolled. Data collection form included demographic characteristics and risk factors. The participants’ mean age was 28.84 ± 8 years, and half of them (54.5%) were in the second decade of their life. Nearly half of them were single, 110 (49.1%), and 103 had high education (48.4%). Among our participants, the mean age of sexual relationship onset was 20.31 ± 3.71; 69 (60.5%) of the married participants had experienced sexual intercourse before marriage, and 58 (61.05%) had extramarital sexual relationships. The mean number of sex partners was 2.8. More than half of the participants (n = 146, 66.4%) were not aware of STI symptoms. Our participants were young, and more than half of the married ones had extramarital relationships. Altogether, low awareness of STI symptoms was seen. HPV could be a public health challenge in our young male adults because of their risk factors and lack of knowledge.Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, with the highest prevalence among young adults. We investigated the risk factors of this infection among men. A total of 224 men referred to a dermatology clinic in Shiraz to treat anogenital warts from June 2015 till Feb 2016 were enrolled. Data collection form included demographic characteristics and risk factors. The participants’ mean age was 28.84 ± 8 years, and half of them (54.5%) were in the second decade of their life. Nearly half of them were single, 110 (49.1%), and 103 had high education (48.4%). Among our participants, the mean age of sexual relationship onset was 20.31 ± 3.71; 69 (60.5%) of the married participants had experienced sexual intercourse before marriage, and 58 (61.05%) had extramarital sexual relationships. The mean number of sex partners was 2.8. More than half of the participants (n = 146, 66.4%) were not aware of STI symptoms. Our participants were young, and more than half of the married ones had extramarital relationships. Altogether, low awareness of STI symptoms was seen. HPV could be a public health challenge in our young male adults because of their risk factors and lack of knowledge.

    Keywords: Risk Factor, Knowledge, Warts, Men, Genitalia
  • Nasrin Rashan, Mona Bahmani, Ashraf Direkvand Moghadam * Page 7
    Introduction

     Confrontation with COVID-19 has threatened all people of the world, including pregnant women, as a high-risk group.

    Case Presentation

     The present study presents a 29-year-old female G1P0 at 33 weeks’ gestation. The patient’s initial complaint was the premature rupture of membranes. The patient’s vital signs showed an abnormal pulse rate and temperature. Initial assessments were carried out, including regular monitoring and recording of vital signs, mother’s blood ABG, uterine contractions, laboratory tests, and fetal heart rate. Treatment for chorioamnionitis began with intravenous ampicillin, gentamicin, and oral erythromycin. Because of the epidemic of COVID-19 in Iran and Ilam, a throat swab specimen was obtained from the upper respiratory tract of the patient. The RT-PCR assay confirmed that the throat swab sample of the patient was positive for COVID-19. A throat swab specimen was taken from the newborn for RT-PCR. Also, the mother’s chest CT scan was done that showed abnormality; however, the RT-PCR throat swab specimen was negative for the newborn. The patient was transferred to the COVID-19 care unit. She was healthily discharged from the hospital with two negative RT-PCR tests. Her newborn was followed for two weeks, and no symptoms of COVID-19 were reported.

    Conclusions

     Some major prenatal complications, including fetal distress, preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, and amniotic fluid abnormalities, have been reported among some pregnant women infected with COVID-19 (7); however, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are deceptive. Therefore, low attention to all aspects of COVID-19 and late examination would increase the risk of spreading the disease among therapists providing services and other hospitalized mothers. These concerns make pregnant mothers afraid of even the most necessary referrals for appropriate and necessary midwifery interventions. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to two important issues: first, the concerns and anxieties of pregnant mothers and second, making the diagnosis in suspected cases as soon as possible.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Labor Complications, Obstetric Complications
  • Ata Pourabbasi*, Parastou Kordestani Moghadam, Sepideh Nikfarjam Page 8