فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Giti Shams, Imaneh Abasi*, Youness Youssefi Pages 73-84
    Objective

    Recent developments in cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder posits that nearly everyone experiences unwanted intrusive thoughts, images, and impulses from time to time. The intrusions are not particularly a problematic issue; it is more probably an interpretation or attempts to control in maladaptive or unrealistic ways. So, the present article aimed to assess the nature, prevalence, appraisal, and control strategies of intrusions in the Iranian population. 

    Methods

    We employed the international intrusive thoughts interview schedule in a sample of Iranian university students (n=50) selected by the convenient sampling method. 

    Results

    Nearly all participants (100%) reported experiencing at least one type of unwanted intrusive thoughts during the previous three months. The highest prevalence of Unwanted Intrusive Thoughts (UITs) belonged to the doubt category, and a large proportion of other UITs were also detected. However, the lowest prevalence of UITs was observed in the sexual and victim categories, respectively. In all of the UIT categories, support for the importance of removing and frequency had the highest mean levels. The highest mean level of endorsement for frequency was for the doubt category. Victim category had the highest mean level for the importance of removing and mean levels of interference/distress, and difficulty removing were higher in the contamination category. Participants endorsed intolerance of anxiety, uncertainty, and responsibility more as a reason that they noticed the thought. Participants were more likely to use thought replacement, distraction, self-reassurance, and avoidance as thought control strategies. The results are discussed in terms of Iranian culture. 

    Conclusion

    Unwanted intrusive thoughts are reported by the majority of individuals in all countries, and significant cross-cultural differences, which are apparent in primary intrusive thought content, appraisals, and control strategies, are specifically related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms distress.

    Keywords: Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Unwanted intrusive thoughts, Control, Appraisal, Culture
  • Afsane Shokri, Reza Kazemi*, Mohammad Narimani, Somayye Taklavi Pages 85-98
    Objective

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the mother’s mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and cognitive emotion regulation training on externalizing disorder and self-efficacy of aggressive children. 

    Methods

    The research method was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design and a control group. The study population (N=540) included all female students in the primary schools in Namin City, Iran in 2018 with their mothers. A multistage clustering random sampling was used to choose the students under study, and a total of 217 students were selected as the samples and the aggression questionnaire was completed by the teachers. Of these students, 79 students who scored high on the Shahim’s aggression scale were selected as aggressive students and 60 mothers of these students were selected by considering the inclusion criteria and were assigned randomly in three groups of 20 mothers each. The mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and cognitive emotion regulation training were executed in the experimental groups in 8 sessions, whereas the control group received no intervention. Before and after the intervention, all three groups responded to Shahim’s relational aggression scale, Sherer and Adam’s general self-efficacy, and Achenbach and Rescolar’s child behavior checklist. The obtained data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance. 

    Results

    The calculated values ​​showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy was more effective (P>0.05) than cognitive emotion regulation training.

    Conclusion

    the findings of this study suggest that mother’s mindfulness-based cognitive therapy can be an effective intervention in reducing externalizing disorders and increasing self-efficacy in aggressive children.

    Keywords: Aggression, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, Cognitive emotion regulation training, Externalizing disorders, Self-efficacy
  • Hadi Asheghi, Mostafa Asheghi, Mohsen Hesari* Pages 99-108
    Objective

    Mental health, job burnout, and job stress have an important role in the wellbeing of nurses and their services. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job stress and burnout and mental health with the mediation of psychological capital.

    Methods

    The participants included 250 nurses from Bojnourd City, Iran who were selected by the available sampling method. The data were analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in SPSS version 23 and AMOS version 24.

    Results

    Structural equation modeling analysis confirmed the proposed pattern. The results showed the direct effect of job and indirect effect of stress through psychological capital on the mental health and burnout.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, hospitals and medical centers can benefit from psychological capital and its components to reduce job stress and burnout, and to increase mental health.

    Keywords: Job stress, Psychological capital, Job burnout, Mental health
  • ‎ Soraya ‎ Hakimi, Siavash Talepasand* Pages 109-122
    Objective

    Subjective wellbeing is a personal experience that points at high levels of positive ‎affections and life satisfaction. The relationship between happiness and life goals with subjective wellbeing provides useful insight into the prerequisites of wellbeing. This ‎study aimed to determine the role of orientation to happiness and life goals in predicting subjective ‎wellbeing.‎ 

    Methods

    Using a cluster sampling method, 285 ‎students were selected studying at first- and second-year of education at Tehran University of Medical Sciences ‎during 2016-2017. The participants responded to the questionnaires of life satisfaction, positive and ‎negative affections, orientation to happiness, and life goals. The obtained data were analyzed using ‎canonical correlation model.‎ 

    Results

    Four significant canonical functions were identified. The first function showed that ‎the orientation to meaning and engagement was associated with a high level of life satisfaction and ‎wellbeing. The second function revealed that the orientation to pleasure was used along with positive and ‎negative emotions. The third function showed that the intrinsic goals were in line with higher life satisfaction. The ‎last function indicated a direct relationship between extrinsic goals with positive and negative ‎affections.‎ 

    Conclusion

    Orientation to meaning and engagement as well as the development of intrinsic goals ‎increases the level of life satisfaction and results in wellbeing.

    Keywords: Orientation, Happiness, Life, Goal
  • Khoshdavi Ebrahimzadeh, Farhad Ghadiri Sourman Abadi*, Soraya Anvari Anbi, Karim Abdolmohamadi Pages 123-132
    Objective

    This study aimed at evaluating the factor validity of the Kearny school refusal assessment scale-revised: parent version among parents of school students in Urmia City, Iran.

    Methods

    The study population comprised students in the first, second, and third grades of elementary schools in Urmia (N=18750). Of them, 351 students from 5 schools were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. Then, They responded to the Kearny school refusal assessment scale-revised: parent version. To assess the construct validity of this scale, confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency were used. 

    Results

    The goodness of fit index of the confirmatory factor analysis model indicated a relatively good fit of the data with factor structure of the school refusal assessment scale-revised and confirming the existence of four characters of school stimulus, evaluative situations, seeking caregivers’ attention, and tangible reinforcements, as school refusal characters. Also, the Cronbach alpha coefficient values indicate the stability of the measurement of the whole scale as well as its subscales.

    Conclusion

    Based on these results, the school refusal scale has good statistic characters and the 4-factor mentioned model has good construct validity and help clinicians to determine the symptoms and causes of school refusal behavior.

    Keywords: School refusal, Confirmatory factor analysis, Internal consistency
  • Mona Etemadi, Asma Aghebati, Fatemeh Ayatmehr, Ahmad Ashoori* Pages 133-142
    Objective

    The present study aimed to predict borderline personality traits in adolescents based on parenting styles and emotion regulation strategies.

    Methods

    This research was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population included all female high school students in Sanandaj City, Iran in the academic year 2016-17. Out of them, a total of 261 students were selected as the study sample using a random multistage cluster sampling method. The following instruments were used to gather the study data: the schizotypal trait questionnaire-B, the emotion regulation questionnaire, and the parenting styles inventory. The study data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis and the Pearson correlation coefficient.

    Results

    According to the findings, authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles significantly predicted borderline personality total score and its components (P<0.01). But, in this model, permissive parenting was not a significant predictor (P>0.01). In addition, the results indicated that both emotion regulation strategies of reappraisal and suppression significantly predicted borderline personality total score and its components (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    According to the study results, parenting styles and emotion regulation strategies could be regarded as important variables in predicting borderline personality symptoms, and they should be targeted in therapeutic interventions to reduce borderline personality symptoms.

    Keywords: Parenting styles, Emotion regulation strategies, Borderline personality traits, Adolescents
  • Zahra Ahmadnia, Arsalan Salari, Seyede Shiva Modallalkar, MohammadEbrahim Ghaffari, Arezoo Javadzade Moghtader* Pages 143-152
    Objective

    In recent years, psychology and psychotherapy have received particular attention, especially concerning hospitalized patients. Because of the growing number of mental disorders among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, it is necessary to identify factors affecting the mental health of these patients. The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between psychological wellbeing and exercise among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. 

    Methods

    In this case-control study, 176 patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and one of their relatives (third-degree relatives) were investigated. The study data were collected through interviews with the patients. The study questionnaire had three parts comprising demographic, clinical, and Ryff standard questionnaires and exercise frequency (the average hours of exercise per day, and the number of days per week). To analyze the variables, the independent samples t-test and multiple linear regression models were used. The significance level was set as <0.05.

    Results

    In each group, 88 subjects were investigated. The results showed no significant difference between the two groups in the positive relationship (P=0.206) and autonomy (P=0.057) subscales. In other subscales and the total score of healthy subjects, the mean score was higher (P< 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference between the two groups in just the autonomy subscale (P=0.038). Furthermore, the increase in the number of exercise days, and especially 1 to 2 hours per day had a positive and significant effect on the total score and the subscale of autonomy.

    Conclusion

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery should be encouraged to perform the exercise, which in turn improves their aspects of mental health such as psychological wellbeing.

    Keywords: Exercise, Psychological wellbeing, Patients, Cardiac surgery
  • Maryam Mazloom*, Shahram Mohammadkhani, Mehdi Akbari, Jafar Hasani Pages 153-162
    Objective

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Committed Action Questionnaire (CAQ-8) in a non-clinical sample. The study evaluated the factor analyses, reliability, and validity of the CAQ-8 in an Iranian sample.

    Methods

    The psychometric properties of the CAQ-8 were investigated in a Persian student (n=180), through convenient sampling for data gathering. Participants filled out a battery of questionnaires, including CAQ-8, medical outcomes study questionnaire 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), and Depression, Anxiety, And Stress Scale (DASS-21). Confirmatory factor analyses and goodness of fit indexes were used to examine the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the CAQ-8.

    Results

    The Persian version of the CAQ-8 revealed satisfactory levels of internal consistency (α=0.77), and significant association with various indexes of theoretically-related instruments such as DASS-21, SF-36, and AAQ-II. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the Persian version of the CAQ-8 yielded a 7-item questionnaire by the two-factor model. 

    Conclusion

    The Persian version of CAQ appears to be a valid, reliable, and adequate measure for the assessment of the concept of committed action in the Iranian sample.

    Keywords: Committed action, Validity, Reliability, Psychometrics, Confirmatory factor analyses