فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Elnaz Agi, Saber Asghari, Ali Namvar, Niloofar Khairkhah, Niloofar Naderi, Ali Anvar, Alireza Azizi Saraji, Azam Bolhassani* Pages 1-6
    Introduction

    A new pathological form of HCV named as occult HCV infection (OCI) has been recently characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell specimens (PBMCs) and the absence of detectable circulating HCV RNA in plasma samples. In this study, we investigated the presence of HCV RNA in PBMCs and plasma samples of 100 hemophilia patients with negative serum HCV RNA.

    Methods

    One hundred hemophilia participants receiving IFN-free direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) regimens as a treatment of HCV infection participated in this study. PBMCs were separated with Ficoll before RNA extraction. The HCV genotypes of the positive specimens were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. Finally, data analysis was performed by SPSS software.

    Results

    Our data revealed that out of 100 hemophilia patients, three (3%, 95% CI: 0.006-0.085) were positive for OCI, showing a significant association between OCI and genotype3/drug regimens (p = 0.0203). There was no significant increase at ALT and AST levels in patients with OCI. Moreover, a genotype difference was observed between plasma and PBMCs samples of 1% (1/100) of patients.

    Conclusion

    Generally, HCV genotyping in PBMCs along with plasma subtyping before beginning the therapy is vital due to the possibility of OCI detection.

    Keywords: Hemophilia, Occult HCV, Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)
  • Sahar Hamoon Navard, Hossein Rezvan*, MohammadHossein Feiz Haddad, Mohammadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Sakineh Azami Pages 7-13
    Introduction

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an infectious disease with a high rate of prevalence worldwide. No effective vaccine is now available for CL, and the current chemotherapy ensues serious side effects. The potency of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in immunomodulatory and wound healing have shown promise for the treatment of CL.

    Methods

    In the present study, BALB/c mice were infected with leishmania major promastigotes and then injected with 1×106 MSCs at the lesion sites. After 10, 20, and 30 days, the lesion size in MSC-treated mice was measured and compared with that of controls received only PBS. Also, expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokines were assayed in lesions, neutrophils, spleen, and liver of both test and control groups using RT-PCR.

    Result

    The lesion size significantly reduced in MSC-treated mice by day 30. Soon after the treatment, the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 genes, but not IL-4 was observed in the spleen and liver of the MSC-treated mice. In neutrophils of this group, only the TNF-α gene was expressed.

    Conclusion

    our study exhibited the useful role of MSCs in the treatment of CL, which can open a new window to Leishmania research.

    Keywords: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Leishmania major, Inbred BALB, C, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Cytokines
  • Sepideh Nejatbakhsh, Mohsen Ilkhanizadeh Qomi, Mehdi Razzaghi Abyaneh, Zahra Jahanshiri* Pages 14-18
    Introduction

    Biofilm formation is one of the specific features of Candida albicans that protects it from antifungal agents and the host immune system. Also, Biofilm formation by C. albicans on the mucosal surfaces and medical devices are responsible for causing Candida nosocomial infection. Here, we investigated the effects of ellagic acid on C. albicans growth and biofilm formation regarding the expression of two essential genes that are involved in adhesion and yeast-hypha transition.

    Methods

    The yeasts were treated with serial two-fold concentrations of ellagic acid (3.125-100 µg/ml) for 48 h at 35°C. The weights of the cultured yeasts were measured as an indicator of the fungal growth, and the biofilm formation was assessed by a tetrazolium salt (XTT) reduction assay. The expressions of HWP1 and ALS3 genes were assayed by real-time PCR.

    Results

    Ellagic acid inhibited C. albicans growth 0.68%-82.44%, dose-dependently. The biofilm formation also reduced 2.61%-68.318%. Also, The expressions of HWP1 and ALS3 genes were notably suppressed by ellagic acid at different concentrations.

    Conclusion

    Our results showed that ellagic acid is a potential candidate to eliminate C. albicans-generated biofilm by suppressing the expression of the involved genes.

    Keywords: Ellagic acid, Candida albicans, Biofilm, Gene
  • Mohadeseh Nasiri, Leila Fozouni* Pages 19-23
    Introduction

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a skin condition that has become widespread in the recent decades. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effect of amniotic fluid of pregnant women on the growth of ketoconazole-resistant Malassezia species isolated from patients with seborrheic dermatitis.

    Methods

    We obtained human amniotic fluid from 20 pregnant women during amniocentesis and cesarean delivery at hospitals of Gonbad-e Kavus, northeastern Iran. Malassezia isolates were collected from 120 patients suspected of seborrheic dermatitis and were identified using species-specific biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Malassezia isolates against ketoconazole were determined by the broth microdilution method. Also, the antifungal effect of various concentrations of amniotic fluid on ketoconazole-resistant Malassezia isolates was assayed using the disk diffusion method.

    Results

     The mean MIC of ketoconazole against Malassezia isolates was 0.3 μg/mL, with the most changes observed at 0.5 μg and 1 μg/mL. Ketoconazole  inhibited the growth of Malassezia isolates completely, at a concentration of 8 μg/mL. Moreover, amniotic fluid showed inhibitory effects on 60% of ketoconazole-resistant Malassezia furfur isolates and 45% of Malassezia globosa isolates. There was a significant correlation between amniotic fluid concentration and the diameter of the growth inhibition zone (P<0.01).

    Conclusion

    Our findings indicated that amniotic fluid could exhibit favorable dose-dependent antifungal activity against ketoconazole-resistant Malassezia isolates from patients with seborrheic dermatitis. Further studies are required to confirm the efficiency of amniotic fluid for the treatment of such infections.

    Keywords: Dermatitis, Seborrheic, Amniotic Fluid, Antifungal Agent
  • Parisa Sabbagh, Azadeh Ferdosi Shahandashti, Mehdi Rajabnia, Amirhosein Maali, Elaheh Ferdosi Shahandashti* Pages 24-28
    Introduction

    Integronsare are mobile genetic elements which play an essential role in the distribution of antibiotic-resistant genes among bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the Class I integron in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates and its association with multiple drug resistance (MDR).

    Methods

    We obtained 30 K. pneumoniae isolates from patients admitted to the ICU at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Babol City, Mazandaran province, Iran. Different classes of antimicrobials were used to determine the resistance pattern. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the int1 gene of the class I integrons. We also investigated the suitability of the two pairs of primers for the detection of the intl gene.

    Results

    Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed 90% resistance to ceftizoxime, cefotaxime, and cefepime, 88.6% to cefazolin, gentamicin, ticarcillin, and ceftriaxone, 83.3% to imipenem, 60% to ciprofloxacin, 56.6% to ofloxacin, and 36.6% to amikacin. The PCRs with two pairs of primers, one designed previously and the other in this study, detected int1 in 36.6% and 60% of samples, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The int1 gene was of high prevalence (60%) in K. pneumoniae isolates. This factor could play a significant role in the spread of MDR strains. Also, failure to adhere to essential points in the design of the primer can lead to the production of primers with low specificity and efficiency, which reduces the proper identification of antibiotic resistance genes.

    Keywords: Klebsiella pneumonia, Integron, Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Ramona Massoud, Anoosheh Sharifan*, Kianoush Khosravi Darani, Gholamhassan Asadi Pages 29-33
    Introduction

    The application of biosorbents like bacteria, yeast, and algae is a biotechnological method for eliminating heavy metals from the environment. These microorganisms can also be used for the decontamination of heavy metal in food and water.

    Methods

    In this study, we investigated the Cadmium (Cd) biosorption in milk by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For this purpose, Cd and S. cerevisiae were added to milk, and the bioremoval process was monitored for four days. We evaluated six variables, including exposure time, temperature, S. cerevisiae concentration, viability yeasts, shaking rate, and initial Cd concentration in the bioremoval process.

    Results

    The analysis of ANOVA showed that among the above six variables, S. cerevisiae concentration, initial Cd concentration, and exposure time were statistically significantly associated with Cd removal (P values ≤0.05). The highest biosorption (70%) was observed after 4 days with 30×108 CFU S. cerevisiae in milk containing 80 μg/L of Cd.

    Conclusion

    Our findings provided further evidence for S. cerevisiae as a powerful biosorbent for Cd removal from milk and a potentially safe and green tool for providing safe and healthy food supply.

    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cadmium, Bioremoval
  • Marzieh Saremi, Leila Saremi, Fatemeh Feizy, Somayeh Vafaei, Ali Lashkari, Zohreh Saltanatpour*, Razieh Nazari Nazari Pages 34-39
    Introduction

    An increase in the consumption of antibiotics has raised significant concerns over the treatment of Klebsiella pneumonia-infected patients. In this study, the resistance pattern of K. pneumoniae to antibiotics such as imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem, as well as the frequency of Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) genes, namely VIM, IMP, and NDM-1 were investigated.

    Methods

    Following the isolation of 200 K. pneumoniae isolates from 650 clinical samples, the antibiotic resistance pattern of these isolates against different antibiotics was evaluated. The isolates resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem were identified, and the presence of VIM, IMP, and NDM-1 genes was examined by using PCR methods.

    Results

    The K. pneumoniae isolates exhibited different resistance patterns in response to various antibiotics. The frequency of VIM, IMP, and NDM-1 genes showed that 48 strains are resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem in which 15.6% was positive for IMP, 2.42% for VIM, and 1.92% positive for NDM-1 gene. The isolates showed the highest antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (97.5%) and the lowest to meropenem (5.5%).

    Conclusion

    Considering carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem which are known to be among the most frequently used antibiotics for the treatment of K. pneumoniae infections and the involvement of MBL genes in this scenario, we aimed to screen and identify MBL genes responsible for the resistance of K. pneumoniae to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem.

    Keywords: Klebsiella pneumonia, Metallo-beta-lactamase genes, Antibiotic resistance, PCR