فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Fatemeh Nasibi *, Khosrow Manouchehri Kalantari, Zahra Manzari Tavakoli Pages 199-211
    One of the major abiotic stresses limiting the productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops is low temperature. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important signaling molecule involved in several stress-resistance processes such as drought, salinity and heavy metal stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous H2S on improving chilling tolerance of cucumber seedlings. The results indicated that seedlings exposed to chilling stress (4 ºC) increased the level of electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, proline content and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity; while sugar soluble content decreased. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a hydrogen sulfide donor, slightly reduced the malondialdehyde content, hydrogen peroxide content and electrolyte leakage, which were induced by chilling stress and also elevated the activity of antioxidant enzymes, soluble sugar and proline levels, and reduced glutathione content in plants under chilling stress condition. Pre-treatment with other Na+ and sulfur-containing components including Na2S, Na2SO4, Na2SO3 showed no significant effect on lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide content under chilling stress. It can be concluded that the effect of NaHS pretreatment on alleviation of cold stress damages is probably related to its ability to release H2S because Na+- or sulfur-containing compounds (except NaHS) had no similar effects on alleviation of chilling damages.
    Keywords: Antioxidant Enzymes, Cucumis sativus L, Hydrogen Sulfide, Lipid Peroxidation, proline
  • Md. Saidee Rahman, Md. Kamrul Hassan, Fakhar Uddin Talukder *, Md. Sohanur Rahman Pages 213-225
    A large amount of oyster mushrooms is wasted every year due to post-harvest losses/decays. An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of low temperature to extend shelf life and nutritional quality of oyster mushroom. The experiment consisted of two treatments including: mushrooms stored at ambient (25 °C) temperature or stored at 3 °C temperature. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Parameters investigated were color, firmness, freshness, appearance, flavor, texture, moisture and dry matter contents, weight loss, protein content, disease incidence, disease severity and shelf life. Highest moisture contents (85.3%) and shelf life (11.92 days) were recorded in mushrooms exposed to low temperature, while the highestdry matter content (35.25%), weight loss (15.28%), protein content(24.64%) were detected in mushrooms exposed to ambient temperature and the lowest moisture content (64.75%), shelf life (3.33%) were observed in mushrooms exposed to ambient temperature. Lowest dry matter content (14.97%) and weight loss (4%) were recorded in low temperature-exposed mushrooms. At 3 °C, mushrooms had the best quality especially in relation to weight loss, disease incidence and severity, color, firmness, freshness, appearance, flavor, texture, and dry matter content compared to those exposed to ambient temperature. Storage at 3 °C ultimately resulted in prolonged shelf life.
    Keywords: Low temperature, oyster mushroom, postharvest, Shelf life
  • Atefeh Gholizadegan, Alireza Seifi * Pages 227-233
    Fusarium wilt is one of the most destructive diseases of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), which is an economically important disease worldwide causes yield losses in muskmelon growing areas. One of the most effective controlling measures to prevent Fusarium wilt is through host resistance by using resistance genes. We used developed molecular markers for Fom-2 gene, which confers resistance to race 1 of Fusarium in muskmelon, to screen muskmelon landraces in Khorasane-e-Razavi, Iran. After validation of the markers on a differential set of resistant and susceptible lines, we identified STS312 marker as the polymorphic and easy-to-score marker. Then we used STS312 to genotype plants from five different landraces. Our results suggest that resistance allele of Fom-2 gene is present in two landraces: Eyvankey and Mashhadi. These landraces can be used by muskmelon breeders to enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in muskmelon.
    Keywords: Cucumis melo, Fusarium wilt, Landrace, Molecular markers
  • Dennis Maina Gatahi * Pages 235-262
    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is an important member of the Solanaceae family. It is mainly used as food and cash crop globally. Tomato also serves as an ornamental plant in some parts of the world. In urban areas, this crop is included in the foodscaping systems where it is grown in hanging baskets, growing pots and aquaponics for aesthetic and food purposes. Tomato production is mainly done for fresh and processing market niches. Most developed countries process a larger portion of tomato than is offered in fresh form. Cultivation of tomato is practiced on the open field and inside greenhouses. Greenhouse production has gained popularity recently. Determinate varieties are produced outdoor while indeterminate ones are produced in greenhouses and tunnels. Due to good adaptability, heirloom tomato varieties are becoming popular especially where farmers practice tomato grafting using the indigenous varieties as rootstocks. High cost of inputs, pest and diseases, postharvest losses and marketing are the major challenges facing tomato production globally. Organic tomato production is an emerging market niche. This is due to the increased consumer awareness, environmental conservation requirements and globalization. Thus, farmers have been making strides towards compliance to organic and other sustainable standards. These standards require adoption of the requisite practices, documentation, verification and certification by a third party. Value addition in tomato is an important aspect in addressing the postharvest challenges, product diversification and ultimately profitability. This review paper is expected to provide the requisite information in tomato value chain to ensure sustainable production of tomato globally.
    Keywords: Greenhouse tomato farming, sustainability, Pest management, organic standards, processing, innovative technologies
  • Masoud Haghshenas, MohammadJavad Nazarideljou *, Akbar Shokoohian Pages 263-278

    The moderating role of salicylic acid (SA) and putrescine (PUS) as plant growth regulators (PGRs), on the growth parameters and phytochemical and qualitative characteristics of strawberry fruit 'Selva' under osmotic stress was investigated under soilless culture. The osmotic potential (salinity) of the nutrient solution containing different NaCl concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 mM) and foliar application of PUS (0 and 1.5 mM) and SA (0 and 1.5 mM) were studied. The results showed a significant decrease in plant leaf area (79.6%), total chlorophyll content (48%), fruit yield (73.5%), leaf relative water content (33%), total protein (33.4%), total phenol (7.8%), and vitamin C content (24.5%) under osmotic stress. Moreover, peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activity, leaf ion leakage, and soluble carbohydrate and proline content increased significantly under osmotic stress. Application of PGRs had a significant effect on all the studied traits (except for SOD activity). Interactive effects of salinity and PGRs were significant on all the traits except for leaf ion leakage, POD activity, soluble carbohydrates, and protein. The highest total phenol and vitamin C contents were obtained with 15 mM salinity along with foliar application of PGRs. In conclusion, foliar application of PUS and SA ameliorate negative effects of salt stress on growth, yield, and quality of strawberry fruit.

    Keywords: Antioxidant, salinity, yield, Soilless culture
  • Fatemeh Nazoori *, Solmaz Poraziz, Seyed Hossein Mirdehghan, Majid Esmailizadeh, Elaheh Zamanibahramabadi Pages 279-293
    In the present study, effects of edible coatings using sodium alginate (SA) and sodium alginate in combination with ascorbic acid (AA) on the shelf-life extension of strawberries at 4±1°C was studied. A factorial experiment was performed based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments included control (distilled water), SA (1%, 2%, 3% w/v), SA in combination with AA (1% w/v) and the storage periods (7 and 14 days). The results showed that lightness (L*), chroma, firmness, total acidity, vitamin C, phenols, and antioxidant activity decreased during storage, but coating improved them in the sold-stored strwberries. SA2%+AA1% coating was the best treatment in maintaining the fruit quality. Firmness, weight loss, fruit L*, fruit chroma, sepal L*, sepal chroma, total phenolics, and polyphenol oxidase activity were decreased by 15%, 1.95%, 16.7%, 2.66%, 10.23%, 16%, 19.47% and 2.5%, respectively for SA2%+AA1% samples at the end of the 14th day, which was lower than the untreated fruits. The results suggested that postharvest application of SA2%+AA1% has the potential to extend the storage life of strawberry fruits by reducing water loss and maintaining fruit quality.
    Keywords: Edible coating, fruit decay, postharvest quality, total phenolics
  • Karim Farmanpour Kalalagh, Mehdi Mohebodini *, Naser Sabaghnia Pages 295-304

    In this study, the variability of essential oil composition in different parts of summer savory was investigated. Extraction of essential oils from air-dried leaves and healthy seeds was done using water-distillation in Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h. In total, 23 and 24 components were identified in the leaves and seeds of summer savory, respectively. Carvacrol (46.023%), Estragole (Methyl Chavicol) (6.257%), Caryophyllene (4.753%), and E-Caryophyllene (4.753%) were the major constituents in the seeds and Carvacrol (56.537%), γ-Terpinene (21.377%), and p-Cymene (8.587%) were the major constituents in the leaves. Among all constituents, Carvacrol, Caryophyllene, E-Caryophyllene, β-Bisabolene, cis-α-Bisabolene, Caryophyllene oxide, Z-Citral, E-Citral, γ-Terpinene, and δ-3-Carene were present in both of leaves and seeds. Significant positive and negative correlations were detected between constituents for the investigated parts of summer savory. In addition, the correlation analysis of same volatile constituents in seeds and leaves indicated that some constituents in one part of summer savory have a significant correlation with another part. Also, γ-Terpinene in leaves has a negative significant correlation with γ-Terpinene in the seeds.

    Keywords: Carvacrol, Essential oil, estragole, p-cymene, γ-terpinene
  • Mostafa Eshghi Khas, Ahmadreza Abbasifar *, Babak Valizadehkaji Pages 305-314
    Tissue culture techniques can be beneficial for quick clonal propagation and production of disease-free plants of purple passion fruit as one of the most important medicinal and ornamental plants. These techniques are essential tools for the production of transgenic plants and high-value phytochemicals. The present study was planned to introduce an efficient in vitro propagation for purple passion fruit(Passiflora edulis Sims.). To do so, the effect of different plant growth regulators was investigated on micropropagation medium of purple passion fruit. For proliferation stage, nodal segments were cultured in media supplemented with various combinations of different plant growth regulators including: BA (0, 2.2, 4.4 and 8.9 μM), TDZ (2.3, 4.5 and 9.1 μM), GA3 (0 and 2.9 μM) and IBA (0 and 0.5 μM).  For rooting, shoots with about 1.5 cm long originating from explants were removed and cultured in half-strength MS medium containing different concentrations of auxin-based plant growth regulators including: IAA (0, 1.1, 2.9, 5.7 and 11.4 μM), IBA (1, 2.5, 4.9 and 8.9 μM), and NAA (1.1, 2.7, 5.4, 10.7 μM). For the proliferation stage, the best plant growth regulator combination was 8.9 μM BA+2.9 μM GA3+0.5 μM IBA, resulting in the maximum shoot proliferation, number of shoots per explants, and shoot length. Half-strength MS medium supplemented with 5.4 μM NAA or 8.9 μM IBA was the most effective treatment for the rooting of shoots. Gradual acclimatization of the rooted plantlets was performed and the plantlets were established in the soil successfully. The micropropagated plants did not exhibit any visually detectable variation to their mother plants.
    Keywords: Nodal explant, plant growth regulator, proliferation, rooting