فهرست مطالب

Human, Environment and Health Promotion - Volume:6 Issue: 2, 2020
  • Volume:6 Issue: 2, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Abdullah Al Nayeem*, Ahmad Kamruzzaman Majumder, Md. Sahadat Hossain, William S Carter Pages 47-52
    Background

    Exposure to air pollution adversely affects the respiratory system. This study aimed to assess the lung capacity of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city, Bangladesh and their exposure to polluted air and determine their perception toward air pollution-induced disorders.

    Methods

    In this survey, a questionnaire and spirometry analysis were used to measure the lung function of 35 subjects, who were nonsmokers and had no prior respiratory problems. A SP10BT spirometer was used in a standing position to measure the forced vital capacity (FVC), one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Data were analyzed using independent t-test.

    Results

    The mean values of FVC, FEV1, and PEF were significantly lower in the experimental group (urban rickshaw pullers) than the control group (rural rickshaw pullers) (P < 0.001). FEV1/FVC was also lower, while the difference was not significant. The majority of the subjects had various seasonal and environmental disorders since coming to Dhaka, and 46% of the respondents mostly had eye irritation, fever, and cough during winter, which decreased their ability to pull their rickshaws.

    Conclusion

    Air pollution had a measurable adverse impact on the pulmonary function of the urban rickshaw pullers compared to the rural control group.

    Keywords: Rickshaw pullers, Air pollution, Lung function, Perception
  • Amir Hossein Baghaie*, Amir Ghafar Jabari, Roya Sattari Pages 53-59
    Background

    This research was done to evaluate the effect of corn and white clover intercropping on bio-degradation of diesel oil in arsenic (As) contaminated soil in the presence of Piriformospora indica (P.indica).

    Methods

    Treatments included corn planting with three plant density of white clover (0, 20 and 30 seeds per pots) as an intercropping system, As polluted soil (0, 12 and 24 mg/kg soil) and diesel oil (0, 4 and 8 % (W/W) in the presence and absence of P.indica .  After 10 weeks, plants were harvested and the soil and plant as concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. In addition, the soil microbial activity and the percentage of diesel oil degradation were measured.

    Results

    The results of this study showed that cultivation of corn in intercropping system with white clover (1:20 seeds corn to white clover) relative to monoculture significantly (P < 0.05) increased the diesel oil degradation in soil by 14.6%. In addition, the soil microbial activity was increased by 13.4%. Plant inoculation with P.indica had additive effect on degradation of diesel oil in the soil.

    Conclusion

    Plant inoculation and intercropping system can effect on increasing the percentage of diesel oil degradation in As contaminated soil that is an important role in environmental studies.

    Keywords: Arsenic, Fungi, Soil, Pollution, Biodegradation
  • Aghdas Moghaddam, Hassan Hassanzadazar*, Mohammad Masoud Vakili, Fatemeh Jafari, Majid Aminzare Pages 60-68
    Background

    The studies on children and adolescents provide the basic information for educational interventions such as the assessment of the knowledge of community health promotion. The present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of secondary high school students regarding food safety and hygiene in Khorramdarreh, Zanjan, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 640 secondary high school students during December 2014-December 2015. The participants were selected via cluster sampling, and data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire after assessing its validity and reliability. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16.

    Results

    The mean scores of the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the students were 36.6±6.96 (moderate), 57.95±6.88 (favorable), and 40.59±5.80 (favorable), respectively. The lowest knowledge level of the students was observed in milk and egg hygiene (27%), meat hygiene (35%), effect of temperature on microorganisms (35%), and brucellosis-related aspects (7.33%).

    Conclusion

    Although the students had a positive attitude toward food safety, they had inadequate knowledge of the effects on their practices. Therefore, it seems that training is essential in the food safety and hygiene fields for students and their parents.

    Keywords: Attitude, Food safety, hygiene, Knowledge, Practice, Secondary high school students
  • Rana Roshani Neshat, Mandana Bimakr*, Ali Ganjloo Pages 69-76
    Background

    Verbascoside is the major biophenolic compound of Lemon verbena leaf. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the binary solvent system on the free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) and verbascoside recovery from L. verbena leaves, as well as the kinetic mass transfer of verbascoside.

    Methods

    Classic extraction was performed using various ratios of ethanol (EtOH) and water (H2O) (50:50-90:10% v/v). The FRSA was analyzed using spectrophotometric methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] and hydroxyl radical [HO˙] assays). Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used for the qualification and quantification of verbascoside, and the Peleg model described the kinetic mass transfer of verbascoside.

    Results

    The hydroethanolic solvent was composed of EtOH:H2O (80:20% v/v) as the optimal medium for the maximum recovery of verbascoside (19.20 ± 0.12 mg/g) and FRSA of the extracts (45.25 ± 0.95% DPPHsc% and 31.17 ± 1.20% HOsc%). The Peleg model had a proper fit for the observed data with the highest coefficient of determination (R2 =0.999), the lowest root mean square error (RMSE = 0.093), and the mean relative percentage deviation modulus (E = 0.968).

    Conclusion

    The valuable bioactive compounds of L. verbena could be successfully extracted using the binary solvent system. The Peleg model is also an efficient non-linear model to describe the verbascoside release rate during extraction.

    Keywords: Lemon verbena, Verbascoside, Binary solvent system, RP-HPLC, Kinetic mass transfer
  • Reza Ghanbari, Rohollah Kalhor, Milad Mousazadeh, Shirin Naderi, Saeideh Moosavi, Ehsan Mohammadi* Pages 77-82
    Background

    This study aimed to determine the correlations between the emotional intelligence, conflict management strategies, and communication skills of the environmental health personnel of the health centers of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 116 environmental health personnel in 2018, who were selected via census sampling. Data were collected using Shring’s emotional intelligence scale, Burtonchr('39')s communication skills scale, and the conflict management scale. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 18 using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation-coefficient, t-test, and ANOVA.

    Results

    The emotional intelligence of the personnel had significant, direct correlations with verbal and feedback skills (P < 0.05). Verbal skills were prominent in the evaluated environmental health personnel. Emotional intelligence and communication skills were relatively favorable in the personnel. In addition, the results of the Scheffe’s test indicated a significant difference between the personnel with bachelor’s and master’s degrees.

    Conclusion

    In order to improve the emotional intelligence and communication skills of environmental health personnel, it is essential to design proper educational interventions and develop educational packages.

    Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Self-concept, Problem-solving, Health personnel
  • Seyyedeh Maryam Seyed Mohammadi Fard, Peymaneh Ghasemi Afshar*, Morteza Adeli Milani Pages 83-90
    Background

    Olive oil is one of the healthiest oils in the world with a high nutritional value. Zanjan province has the highest acreage under olive cultivation in Iran. Given the importance of olive oil purity, this study aimed to investigate the quality and authenticity of the olive oils produced in Tarom region, Iran during January-March 2019.

    Methods

    Bulk samples consisting of five virgin olive oils and brand samples consisting of two virgin and three refined olive oils were collected. The fatty acid profile, sterol and squalene contents, and iodine and Cox values of the samples were determined.

    Results

    In terms of fatty acid composition, 30% of the samples were adulterated with other vegetable oils and contained more than 1% linolenic acid. The total sterol in the samples conformed to the standards (>1,000 mg/kg). However, the concentrations of campesterol and delta-7-stigmastenol in two bulk samples were above the national standard limits. The high content of squalene (55.37%) in a bulk sample was attributed to the soybean oil presence.

    Conclusion

    The quality properties of the brand samples complied with the national and Codex standards. Due to possible adulteration with other vegetable oils, the continuous monitoring of bulk olive oil supplies is recommended.

    Keywords: Olive oil, Refined, Virgin, Quality, Tarom region
  • Afsaneh Pashapoor, Seeyamak Mashhadyrafie*, Pejman Mortazavi Pages 91-96
    Background

    The present study aimed to assess the phenolic content and in-vitro antioxidant capacity of the petroleum ether extract of nutmeg, as well as its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Methods

    Forty-eight male rats were allocated into six groups of eight each: non-diabetic control, diabetic control, and diabetic rats receiving 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the nutmeg petroleum ether extract or 100 mg/kg metformin. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively.

    Results

    The nutmeg extract contained considerable levels of phenols (112.41 mg GAE/100 g) and flavonoids (26.12 mg QE/100 g) and showed a remarkable scavenging effect on the DPPH radicals with the IC50 value of 123.36 𝜇g/ml. The administration of the nutmeg extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) to the diabetic rats caused a significant reduction in the serum levels of malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein, while a significant increase was observed in the total antioxidant capacity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol serum levels.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, nutmeg extract is an abundant source of natural antioxidants, which might have beneficial effects on patients with diabetes mellitus develop educational packages.

    Keywords: Diabetic rats, Myristica fragrans, Extract, Total phenols, Oxidative stress
  • Joyal Alias Saji, Abel K Samuel Johnson*, Koshy M. Cherian Pages 97-100
    Background

    Wells are the main source of water supply in rural areas. Bleaching powder is the most effective and inexpensive method for well water disinfection. In the great floods of 2018 in South India, community volunteers (ASHA) were trained on promoting preventive measures (e.g., well water chlorination) and use of boiling water.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional survey was conducted on 101 households in the field practice area of the Rural Health Training Center of a teaching institution in Central Kerala affected by flood to assess the extent of the correct method of well water disinfection during September 2-12, 2018.

    Results

    All the wells were disinfected by chlorination using bleaching powder, and most of the wells (86%) were super-chlorinated. To determine the amount of the required bleaching powder, the well water volume was calculated by guesswork in 91 households (89%). All the households used a bleaching powder solution rather than directly sprinkling the powder.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, effective health awareness campaigns, community participation, and the use of appropriate technologies could change the behavior of the community. All the households practiced well water disinfection with some minor lacunas.

    Keywords: Well water disinfection, Calamities, Kerala, Perception, Lacuna, Chlorination