- Volume:11 Issue: 6, 2020
- تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/30
- تعداد عناوین: 16
The novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID‑19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2).
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a predictor of several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, dyslipidemia, stroke, osteoarthritis, certain cancers, and death leading to public health concern in most societies. We aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence and incidence of MetS in Iranian population through a meta‑analysis study. We included cross‑sectional and cohort studies to estimate the overall prevalence and incidence rates of MetS in Iran National databases including MagIran, Science Information Database, IranMedex, and international databases including Medline, Web of Sciences, and Scopus were searched up to October 2017. Finally, 125 studies were included. The total sample size was 472,401 with a mean age of 38 ± 7.8 years. The overall pooled prevalence and incidence rate among the general population of Iran was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.29)and 97.96 (95% CI: 75.98, 131.48), respectively. The pooled prevalence of MetS was higher in females and in urban areas. The highest and lowest prevalence of MetS was obtained by the Iranian definition criteria (0.43) and the NHANES III (0.12). The highest and lowest incidence rates of MetS were obtained by IDF (144.07 per 1000) and the JIS (89.73 per 1000). The prevalence of MetS washigher in women and those living in urban areas. Furthermore, the prevalence of MetS increased with increasing age in both genders.Keywords: Incidence, Iran, meta‑analysis, metabolic syndrome, prevalence, review
Acute diarrhea is a major cause of mortality in children. Few studies have addressed the administration of lactose‑restricted diets in breastfed children with acute diarrhea. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of a lactose‑restricted regimen on breastfed children with acute diarrhea treated with zinc supplements.
The present single‑blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on children aged 6‑24 months in Amirkola Children’s Hospital (2015‑2017). 90 children were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A was daily treated with 20 mg of zinc and a lactose‑restricted diet and breast milk for two weeks.Group B received 20 mg of zinc and breast milk and an age‑appropriate diet for two weeks. The data collected in all the subjects included the frequency of diarrhea and the mean duration of hospitalization and recovery from diarrhea.
The two groups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, weight and ratio of males to females. The mean duration of hospitalizationwas found to be 3.1 ± 0.8 days in group A and 3.2 ± 0.6 in group B (P = 0.3), the mean duration of recovery to be 2.9 ± 0.8 in group A and 2.6 ± 1.1 in group B (P = 0.2) and the mean frequency of diarrhea 2.9 ± 0.7 in group A and 2.8 ± 0.8 days in group B (P = 0.5), suggesting no significant differences between the two groups. No adverse effects associated with zinc therapy were reported.
A lactose‑restricted regimen was found not to be beneficial for children with acute diarrhea under continuous breastfeeding and zinc therapy.Keywords: Breastfeeding, children, diarrhea, lactose‑restricted, zinc
Perinatal Mortality According to Level of Perinatal Healthcare Institutions in Low Birth Weight Infants: Cross Sectional Multicentric StudyPage 4
To investigate the total survival of low birth weight infants (LBWIs) in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB and H) and selected by subgroups of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA).
This cross‑sectional study included newborns of both genders,GA of 22–42 weeks and BW of less than 2500 g of 10 cantons territory of the FB and H. In the examined period, 22,897 children were born in the FB and H, of which 669 (2.9%) had BW less than 2500 g.
Surviving of LBWIs in the FB and H out of the 669 LBWIs in the first levelperinatal healthcare institutions (PHI) was 29 (4.3%), the second level was 286 (42.8%), and the third level was 354 (52.9%). The total stillborn rate was 3.9%. The overall perinatal mortality rate for all levels of PHI was 8.6%. The overall rate of early neonatal mortality of LBWIs in all three levels of PHI in the FB and H was 12.7%. By the end of the first month of life (up to 28 days) and to the end of the neonatal period, 385 (57.5%) of LBWIs survived, and 284 (42.4%) died. TheLBWIs by subgroups of BW up to 28 days had lower survival rates in second‑level PHI than infants of the same BW subgroups (500–999 and 1000–1499) treated in third‑level PHI (</span>P </span>= 0.0089 and </span>P </span>= 0.004). Our results show that B and H belongs to developing countries according to perinatal mortality. A unique database system is necessary to follow progress and trends.Keywords: Developing countries, gestational age, infant mortality, perinatal care, pregnancy
Physical activity is affecting every aspect of our life. A sedentary lifestyle can be the risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCD) or premature death all over the world. Several studies demonstrate that school‑based physical activity promotion is an important solution to make healthy behaviors, especially in children and adolescents. In this vein, the current research evaluates a model for physical activity, which is promoted through a game among high school students.
In this study, 47 high school’s 10th‑grade boys from Tehran were requited. The game scenario included the suggestion of some behaviors which can increase daily physical activity by each student, like or dislike each behavior by other students, counting likes, selecting the most‑liked behaviors, and rewarding their proposers. After a week, the behavioral recall was assessed and compared with a control group who had been heard these behaviors in the class without gamification.
The participants in the game could recall physical activity behaviors significantly more than peers in the control group.
The findings show gamification could significantly improve the effectiveness of education for normal behaviors in physical activity.Keywords: Adolescent, gamification, physical activity, schools
Effect of Donepezil on Cognitive Impairment, Quality of Life, and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Randomized Clinical TrialPage 6
Cognitive impairment is one of the debilitating consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS) with negative effects on daily life, individual and social activities, quality of life (QOL), and depression. No approved medication is introduced so far for affected individuals. We aimed to evaluatethe efficacy of donepezil on cognitive performance, QOL, and depression in MS.
This is a double‑blinded randomized clinical trial conducted on 100 patients with MS during 2018. Patients were assessed prior to intervention abbreviated mental test (AMT), prospective and retrospective mental questionnaire (PRMQ), everyday memory questionnaire (EMQ), digit span test, Beck depression inventory (BDI), and MSQOL questionnaire. Then patients were randomly divided into two groups of treatment (daily regimen of 10 mg donepezil) and placebo for 3 months. Subjects were reassessed using the same instruments at the end of intervention.
Fifty patients remained in each group at the end of study. The mean age in donepezil and placebo groups was 31.9 ± 5.89 and 30.65 ± 5.43 years, respectively. EMQ, PRMQ, digit span test, MSQOL, and depression scoresimproved following donepezil therapy (P < 0.001) while no statistically significant difference was found in the placebo group (P > 0.05). Comparison of two groups also showed more favorable scores in donepezil group with respect to all assessment tools (P < 0.001).
Donepezil could effectively improve cognitive impairment in MS patients. Also, its positive effect on QOL and depression could result in a smaller number of interventions in this group of patients.Keywords: Cognitive dysfunction, depression, donepezil, multiple sclerosis, quality of life
The Impact of High‑Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate‑Intensity Continuous Training on Carotid Intima‑Media Thickness and Ankle‑Brachial Index in Middle‑Aged WomenPage 7
Obesity has been linked to cardiovascular risk factors characterized by endothelial dysfunction and arterial wall thickening. Regular exercise training is recognized as a powerful tool to improve endothelial function and cardiovascular risk profile, but it is unknown which of high‑intensity interval training or moderate‑intensity continuous training is the best exercise.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 33 inactive and overweight women aged 40–50 years old and body mass index >27 kg/m2 were randomized to high‑intensity interval training, moderate‑intensity continuous training, or control. The exercise intervention consisted of 12 weeks of training and three supervised sessions per week. The moderate‑intensity group was trained continuously for 47 min at 60–70% of maximal heart rate. High‑intensity interval training consisted of four interval bouts of 4 min at 85%–95% of maximal heart rate with 3 min breaks at 50%–60% of maximal heart rate between the intervals. For all analyses, statistical significance was assigned at P < 0.05.
According to our findings, while carotid intima‑media thickness decreased in both training groups, this reduction was not statistically significant. In the high‑intensity training group, the right ankle‑brachial index increased significantly (P = 0.007).
Twelve weeks of exercise training, especially in high‑intensity interval training, have led to improving lipid profiles and endothelial function, it can be said that regular and prolonged exercise can probably be a preventivefactor in cardiovascular disease in overweight women.Keywords: Atherosclerosis, high‑intensity interval training, overweight, vascular stiffness
The Incidence and Awareness of Hypertension, among Adults in Ahvaz: A 5‑Year Cohort Study in Southwestern IranPage 8Background
According to the World Health Organization in 2009, hypertension is responsible for 13% of all deaths. Hypertension can increase the risk of stroke, coronary artery disease, dementia, heart disorder, kidney, and other chronic diseases. In this study, the prevalence and incidence of hypertension and knowledge and awareness of it among adults in Ahvaz are investigated.Methods
This cohort study was carried out on 688 participants in a study on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome investigated in adults in the city of Ahvaz in 2009. In 2014, participants were again recruited. Based on the standard method and disease history, blood pressure, height, and weight were measured, and a demographic information questionnaire was completed through interviews.Results
In this study, 688 individuals over 20 years of age participated with an average age of 42.7 ± 13.3 years, 300 men (43.6%), and 388 women (56.4%). Hypertension incidence was 65/1000 person‑years which included 67.7 and 57.8/1000 person‑years in men and women, respectively. The awareness of patients about hypertension was 51.2% in phase 2 (hypertension new cases).Conclusions
In this study conducted in Ahvaz, the incidence rate of hypertension was 65/1000 person‑years, higher in men than women. Hypertension awareness was 50.5%, 45.1% in men, and 55.1% in womenKeywords: Awareness, cohort studies, hypertension, incidence
Bacterial or viral infections often cause acute and severe systemic inflammation, which affects the lungs lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pathogenic component of the membrane of gram‑negative bacteria, stimulates active innate immune cells, monocytes, macrophages to produce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Excess production of this compound occurs in COVID‑19 resulting in inflammatory cascade and thromboembolism. We intend to propose the use of sildenafil to reduce this production.Method
The analysis of biochemical pathways shows that viral infection produces a high amount of nitric oxide (NO), with an acute inflammatory process.Results
In the case of COVID‑19 infection we verified that numerous biochemical processes activate a cascade of inflammatory processes through the activation of iNOS with uncontrolled generation of (NO).Conclusions
iNOS is the cause of damage to host cells with a consequent pulmonary thromboembolic lung phenomenon in a contest of interstitial pneumonia. This study proposes the use of sildenafil to counter the inflammatory cascade and thromboembolic episodes.Keywords: COVID‑19, nitric oxide, sildenafil citrate
Coronaviruses (CoV) are RNA viruses that cause endemic infections in various species of mammals and avian birds. There are seven known human CoVs, each of which causes respiratory diseases: together account for about one third of common colds. Some CoVs have recently entered humans from infected animals and lastly we have SARS COVID‑19, (CoV), which causes severe acute, often fatal respiratory syndromes. The prevalence of CoV, the easy zoonotic transmission and the potentialto cause serious respiratory diseases, lead to urgent research to discover the mechanisms of CoV infection. Our study has identified a possible way to eliminate the danger of this virus by analyzing the structures by which it enters the host cell. This study indicates that the neuroaminidase interrupts the infection.Keywords: Neuroaminidase, SARS COVID‑19, sialic acid
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of home‑based education intervention on the exclusivity and promoting the rates of self‑efficacy of breastfeeding.Materials and Methods
A randomized controlled trial was conducted Arak University of Medical Sciences in Takeghani Hospital in Iran between June 2015 and October 2015. A total of 130 eligible and voluntary women hospitalized in Arak University of Medical Sciences Hospital postpartum wards were randomized to receive usual care (n = 65) or education with CD and pamphlets (n = 65). Data regarding exclusive breastfeeding were collected using Denis and Fox’s breastfeeding self‑efficacy questionnaire. The primary outcome was collected by one assistant researcher during first postpartum visit. The secondary outcome was collected 4 weeks after birth of babies by telephone interviews. Data analysis was performed using descriptive (frequency, mean), independent samples t‑test, Student’s t‑test, t 2 ‑test, and Chi‑square test. All values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results
There was no significant differences between the intervention and control groups with regard to age (P = 0.086) and gestational age (P = 0.741). The breastfeeding self‑efficacy scores were higher in the intervention group (63.66 ± 6.11) than in the control group (57.04 ± 6.18) after 1 month of childbirth (P = 0.001). The exclusive breastfeeding rate in intervention group was 89.2 (n = 58) at 1st month after education compared with 55.4% (n = 36) in control group (P = 0.001).Conclusions
In a setting, a high breastfeeding rate and self‑efficacy scores were found in education group. Therefore, nurses and midwives are thus required to adopt various health education strategies, such as home education, encourage breastfeeding.Keywords: Breastfeeding, education, postpartum, reproductive health, self‑efficacy
Dear Editor,Properly reporting of systematic reviews can improve evidence‑based medicine, evidence‑based management, and evidence‑informed policymaking in the health caresystem.Various checklists have been developed to improve the reporting of these studies.
Exposure to major public health events such as covid‑19 infectious epidemic in any country can be followed by challenges such as epidemiological features, rapidtransmission patterns, and insufficient readiness of health authorities to cope with the outbreak among community.
Dear Editor,COVID‑19 has become an important public health problem internationally in 2020. The disease caused problems in several countries around the world. The infection can result in febrile illness with a respiratory problem.
Precautions List of Risk Countries with COVID‑19 for Primary Prevention: Experience on Case Traveling from the Country Out of the ListPage 15
Dear Editor,The new emerging SARSCoV2 infection‑causing pandemic COVID‑19 is a global public health problem at present. This disease was first reported in pneumonia patients in China</span>before its occurrence in more than 150 countries worldwide.
Dear Editor,The 2019‑novel coronavirus (2019‑nCoV) outbreak, which initially originated in Wuhan, has rapidly spread to all the provinces of China and has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) based on the recommendations of the emergency committee on 30 January 2020.