فهرست مطالب

Psychology - Volume:14 Issue: 1, 2020
  • Volume:14 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Yousef Mohammadi, MohammadHossein Sorbi, Mina Faregh *, Mehrnoush Giahi Yazdi Pages 9-34

    The present experimental study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on the perfectionism and sense of shame in students of Isfahan University using a pretest-posttest design. A number of 30 male students were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as a clinical interview conducted by a specialist. Those who had no symptoms of severe psychological or personality disorders on DSM-5 were selected and randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received 8 sessions (90 minutes sessions per week, during two months) of the ACT while the control group experienced none. Data were gathered before and after the last session of the therapy by the Ahvaz Perfectionism Questionnaire (Najarian, Attari, & Zargar, 1999) and Test of Self-Conscious Affect (Tangney, 1989). The SPSS software, version 18 was used to analyze the data. Results of MANCOVA indicated that the ACT reduced perfectionism (P < 0.001) and the sense of shame (P < 0.05) in the experimental group. Accordingly, it is inferred that the ACT is generally effective in reducing perfectionism and sense of shame. Therefore, this affordable approach can be used to create the right impression and increase the real self in Iranian students in order to have a better psychological status.

    Keywords: Acceptance, Commitment Therapy, perfectionism, Sense of Shame
  • Reza Shabahang *, MohammadAli Besharat, AbbasAli Hossein Khanzadeh, Sajjad Rezaei Pages 35-58

    Celebrity worship as a multifaceted issue, can affect the body image. In relationship between celebrity worship and body image concern, cognitive flexibility can play a remarkable role. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the mediating role of cognitive flexibility in the relationship between celebrity worship and body image concern. The research design was descriptive and correlational. The statistical population of the study consisted of students of faculty of art and architecture of Guilan University in 2018, among which 300 students (150 females and 150 males) were recruited through convenience sampling method. The research measures consisted of Celebrity Attitude Scale (McCutcheon, Lange, & Houran, 2002), Body Image Concern Inventory (Littleton, Axsom & Pury, 2005) and Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010). Data were analyzed by correlational and structural analyses. The results revealed that there are significant correlations between celebrity worship, body image concern, and cognitive flexibility. In addition, the proposed model had appropriate goodness of fit. According to the results, the indirect effect of celebrity worship through the cognitive flexibility on the body image concern was significant. The findings of this study clarified the prominence of cognitive flexibility in the relationship between celebrity worship and body image concern. Due to the mediating role of cognitive flexibility, it is possible to reduce the body image concerns that account for celebrity worship by implementing interventions based on the improvement of cognitive flexibility.

    Keywords: Celebrity worship, body image concern, cognitive flexibility
  • Fakhrossadat Ghoreyshi Rad *, Ezattollah Ahmadi, Fatemeh Gorbani Pages 59-82
    Bilinguals demonstrate benefits in cognition (involving regulation of mental activity to resolve information) during processing. “Bilingual advance” is attributed to consistent management of two languages. Since bilinguals have a lifelong experience in controlling their two languages, they should have received more practice than monolinguals in processes engaging executive functions. In this study, an investigation was conducted on bilingual and monolingual students in Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, East Azerbaijan province, Iran, in 2018. 100 students were selected using purposive sampling method. It is assumed that balanced bilinguals; those who are equally proficient in two languages experience a host of cognitive advantages rather than monolinguals. In this study, it was attempted to investigate if advantage of bilingualism extends to social cognition and executive function (i.e. motivation, inhibitory control, and empathy). For this purpose, Executive Function Index and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test were used in bilingual and monolingual individuals. Results showed that bilinguals possess better performance than monolinguals merely in social cognition (t (98) =-4.37, p<0.05) and inhibitory control (F (1, 98) = 10.95, p<0.05) but not in motivation and empathy.
    Keywords: Bilingual, Empathy, executive function, inhibitory control, Motivation, social cognition
  • Karim Sevari *, Puneh Pilram, Fatemeh Farzadi Pages 83-113
    In this study, the causal relationship between social support and life satisfaction through hope, resilience and optimism was studied. The sample of the study consisted of 200 orphaned women under the care of Bavardelan charity institute, who were voluntarily selected for the study. In this research, the following scales were used, including; Perceived social support of Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley (1988), Life satisfaction scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985), Hope scale of Snyder (1991), Life orientation (Scheier & Carver,1985) and Resilience questionnaire (Conner & Davidson, 2003). The statistical method used was Pearson correlation and path analysis using the Amos statistical software. The results showed that social support was positively associated with life satisfaction, hope, optimism and there was a causal relationship between hope, optimism, resilience and life satisfaction. Also, findings have shown that there was an indirect positive relationship between social support and life satisfaction, in terms of hope, optimism, and resilience. The results of indirect hypotheses showed that social support encouraging hope, optimism, and resilience has a positive relationship with life satisfaction. It can be concluded that positive psychological dimensions including hope, resilience and optimism can play an important role in enhancing the orphaned women’s life satisfaction. Accordingly, there was a need for planning and training to create a supportive atmosphere to reduce the harm inflicted on these women and increase the well-being of their lives more than ever before.
    Keywords: Social Support, life satisfaction, hope, optimism, Resilience
  • Vahab Erfani, Kourosh Goodarzi *, Mohammadreza Ebrahimi, Mehdi Roozbahani Pages 114-134
    Anxiety is a prevalent mental illness worldwide with a considerable burden to health services. We tried to assess the effects of ultrasound, infrasound, and electroconvulsive stimulation on anxiety-like behavior in mice models. In total, 60 male BALB/c mice were included. Our mice were exposed to the urine of cats. Each exposure lasted for 1 hour and was repeated 3 times a day, for 30 days. Then, the mice were allocated to three groups of experimental (ultrasound, infrasound, and electroconvulsive stimulation) and one group of control animals, each including 15 mice. The experimental animals received ultra- or infrasound 0.5 hours or 1 electroconvulsive pulse, daily for 10 days. We used a mouse elevated plus maze (EPM) to compare anxiety responses between the experimental and control groups. The outcome measures, percentage of entries to and percentage of time spent on the open arms, were measured. There was a significant effect of the intervention on the percentage of entries into as well as the time spent on the open arms (MANOVA, p = 0.001). Separate analyses confirmed significant treatment effects on the outcomes (ANOVA, both p = 0.001). Post-hoc tests revealed that ultrasound increased the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms. Infrasound did not affect the outcome compared with the no-treatment control. The mice with electroconvulsive stimulation entered the open arms less than controls.Ultrasound stimulations are capable of decreasing anxiety. We did not find any significant anxiolytic effect for infrasound. Our results were not compatible with the application of electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of anxiety.
    Keywords: anxiety, Ultrasound, Infrasound, Electroconvulsive stimulation, Brain stimulation, Anxiety-like behavior
  • Sana Panahipour, Mehdi Arabzadeh *, Parvin Kadivar Pages 135-162
    The research aimed to investigate the effect of self-construal on mathematical performance, mediated by 3× 2 achievement goals and math self-efficacy. The research sample comprised of 400 students who were selected via multi-stage sampling from a high schools located in Karaj—a city in Iran. The research tools included revised self-construal scale, 3×2 achievement goal questionnaire, and Mathematic self-efficacy scale. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Findings revealed that the proposed model of the research has acceptable goodness of fit. The analyses revealed that the direct effect of independent self-construal on the math self-efficacy and all the six goal-orientations were significant (p<.05). Moreover, the direct effect of interdependent self-construal on all goal orientations was also significant (p<.05) except for the direct effect of interdependent self-construal on the task-approach and self-approach goals.  However, the direct effect of independent and interdependent self-construal on math performance and the direct effect of interdependent self-construal on math self-efficacy were not observed as significant. Bootstrap results show that the indirect effect of independent self-construal on Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Mathematical Performance is significant, and the indirect effect of self-approach on Mathematical Performance is also significant (p<.05).
    Keywords: Self-construal, Achievement goals, Math Self-Efficacy, math performance
  • Reza Shabahang, Farzin Bagheri Sheykhangafshe, Adeleh Yousefi Siahkoucheh, Benyamin Mokhtari Chirani, Seyedeh Maryam Mousavi *, Marzieh Akhavan Pages 163-191
    Given the remarkable expansion of celebrities' culture, celebrities and parasocial interaction with them are among the social factors that can influence the addiction susceptibility of their fans. The present study was conducted to determine the role of parasocial interaction with narcotic-addicted celebrities and worshiping them in the prediction of addiction potential. The research design was descriptive and correlational. The population of the study consisted of male students of Guilan University in 2018. Among them, 120 people (M = 24.16, SD = 7.58) interested in narcotic-addicted celebrities were selected by purposive sampling. The Iranian addiction potential scale (Zargar, 2006), celebrity parasocial interaction scale (Bocarnea and Brown, 2007), and celebrity attitude scale (McCutcheon, Lange, & Houran, 2002) constituted the data collection instruments. Finally, the data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression. The results of this study showed a significant positive correlation between parasocial interaction with narcotic-addicted celebrities and worshiping them with addiction potential (p <0/01). Also, the results indicated the role of parasocial interaction, celebrity worship, and its subscales, including entertainment-social, intense-personal, and borderline-pathological, in the prediction of addiction potential (p <0/01). Considering the role and prominence of parasocial interaction with narcotic-addicted celebrities and worshiping them in addiction potential, it is likely to reduce the addiction potential by designing and providing interventions that reduce parasocial interactions with narcotic-addicted celebrities and fascination with them.
    Keywords: Addiction potential, parasocial interaction, Celebrity worship
  • Amir Qorbanpoor Lafmejani *, Davood Samady Biniaz, Sajjad Rezaei Pages 192-226
    The present study aimed at determining the effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and social adjustment in female students with social phobia. The population of the study consisted of all female students of Mashhad Higher Education Institute of Engineers (Northeastern Iran). Thirty students were selected randomly from among those whose had high scores in the social phobia questionnaire. They responded to the FNE and social adjustment scales. The research was quasi-experimental following a pretest-posttest control group design. The experimental group received an intervention protocol, while the control group received no intervention. The data were analyzed using Univariate/Multivariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA & MANCOVA) through SPSS v.21. The findings indicated that the EMDR leads to reduced FNE (F = 35.20, p < 0.0001, ή = 0.773) and increased social adjustment (F = 41.07, p < 0.0001, ή = 0.699). Having participated in the EMDR therapy, students with social phobia reported reduced symptoms of social phobia, such as FNE and greater social adjustment. The EMDR is an effective therapeutic approach to reducing anxiety disorders, including social phobia and enhancing social adjustment.
    Keywords: Eye Movement Desensitization, Reprocessing, fear of negative evaluation, social adjustment, Social Phobia
  • Hossein Jenaabadi *, Sedigeh Hosseini Pages 227-252
    Chronic pain is a common, multifactorial problem that requires medical and psychological interventions to be managed. On the other hand, Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one of the third-wave cognitive-behavioral therapies, which has recently been used to treat the certain psychiatric disorders and to enhance the patients’ psychological status. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on reducing pain intensity and improving the sense of coherence and psychological well-being among the patients with chronic low back pain. This quasi-experimental study was performed by a pretest-posttest design with two groups. Also, it had a statistical population including all the patients with chronic low back pain and were present at the neuropsychiatry clinic of Ali ibn Abi Talib Hospital, who were referred to Red Crescent Physiotherapy Clinic in Zahedan from March 2016 to May 2017. Moreover, its sample consisted of 30 patients with chronic low back pain who were selected from all the patients referred to Red Crescent Physiotherapy Clinic in Zahedan, using the targeted sampling method in terms of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. These patients were then assigned into two groups as experimental and control, each one included 15 patients. In addition, the McGill Pain Questionnaire (1997), the Ryff Psychological Well-being Scale (1989), and the Sense of Coherence Scale designed by Flensborg-Madson et al. (2006) were used as data collection tools. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and univariate and multivariate covariance analyses were used. The data analysis indicated that, the acceptance and commitment therapy could significantly decrease the pain intensity and its subscales among the patients in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, acceptance and commitment therapy significantly increased the sense of coherence and psychological well-being as well as their subscales in the experimental group's patients compared to the control group (P<0.01). It can be concluded that, acceptance and commitment therapy was effective on reducing the pain intensity and boosting the sense of coherence and psychological well-being among the patients with chronic low back pain. Therefore, the findings represent new horizons in clinical interventions and can be used as an effective intervention method.
    Keywords: Acceptance, Commitment Therapy (ACT), Pain intensity, sense of coherence, Psychological Well-Being, Low back pain
  • Seyed Esmail Hashemi, Saraali Qanavati, Abdolzahra Naami * Pages 253-278
    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of organizational trust and workplace spirituality on organizational citizenship behaviour and psychological well-being with mediating role of organization based self-esteem. Participants were 300 employees of an industrial company that randomly selected. The questionnaires of organizational trust (Yang), workplace spirituality (Milimen, Zaploski, and Fergousen), organizational citizenship behaviour (Padsakef, MacKenzie, Moorman and Fetter) psychological well-being (Rif), and organization-based self-esteem (Pierce, Gardner, Cummins, and Dunham) were used to collect data. The Structural Equation Modelling with AMOS 18 and SPSS 18 and bootstrap method were used to test the proposed model of the study. The results showed that organization-based self-esteem completely mediated the effect of organizational trust and workplace spirituality on the organizational citizenship behaviour and the psychological well-being.
    Keywords: organizational trust, Workplace Spirituality, Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, Psychological Well-Being, organization based self-esteem
  • Noori Kaabomeir, Nasrin Arshadi *, Kiumars Beshlideh, Abdolzahra Naami, Morteza Karami Pages 279-309
    The purpose of this study was to test a model of some outcomes of perceived supervisor need support based on Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The participants of this study consisted of 193 employees of Marun Oil and Gas Producing Company in Khuzestan, who were selected by stratified random sampling method. The instruments used in the study were Need Support at Work Scale (Tafvelin & Stenling, 2018), Need Satisfaction at Work Scale (Tafvelin & Stenling, 2018), Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale (Gagné et al., 2015), Employee Well-being Scale (Zheng et al., 2015), and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale–9 (Schaufeli et al., 2006). Structural equation modeling (SEM) through AMOS-24 was used for data analysis. The bootstrap procedure also used for testing the significance of the indirect effects. Results indicated that the proposed model fit the data properly. Better fit and more meaningful results obtained by omitting 1 non-significant path (controlled motivation to job engagement) and correlating the errors of 2 paths. Findings showed that all direct paths except controlled motivation to job engagement were significant. Results also supported the mediating role of need satisfaction and autonomous motivation in these relationships. Based on findings, SDT is a useful framework for predicting employee well-being and job engagement through need support, need satisfaction and motivation.
    Keywords: need support, need satisfaction, Motivation, Well-Being, Job Engagement
  • Najmeh Hamid * Pages 310-339
    The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between hardiness, hope and life satisfaction in organizational managers worked in Education Ministry of Ahvaz, Iran. The research method of this study was multiple correlatives in nature which hardiness and hope are considered as predictor variables and the life satisfaction is as a predictable variable. A sum of 164 organizational managers in Ahvaz Education Ministry was selected through random cluster sampling. Participants completed the personal view survey (PVS), Diner’s life satisfaction scale (SWLS) and trait hope scale(THS). The data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression. The results of this research showed that there was a significant positive relationship between hardiness personality traits, including its subscales commitment, control and challenge with hopefulness (including its subscales agency and pathway p
    Keywords: hardiness, Psychological hardiness, life satisfaction, hope