فهرست مطالب

جلوه هنر - سال دوازدهم شماره 2 (تابستان 1399)
  • سال دوازدهم شماره 2 (تابستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • سید وحید ابراهیم زاده*، جمال الدین سهیلی صفحات 7-18

    منابع غنی ادبیات ایران در بر دارنده زیباترین تعابیر و توصیفات درباره «عشق» بوده است و ادبیات منظوم غنایی-عاشقانه سهم بسیاری در رشد دیگر هنرها ازجمله نگارگری داشته است. در دوره قاجار با رواج هنر کاشی کاری هفت رنگ و کاشی نگاری، بسیاری از کاخ ها و خانه های با شکوه بستر نمایش این هنر شد. این آثار در شکل جدید خود به تصویرسازی از چهره شاهان و درباریان قاجاری پرداخت ولی همچنان به ادبیات منظوم غنایی-عاشقانه وفادار ماند و به تصویرگری صحنه های برجسته ادبیات ایران ادامه داد. یکی از خانه هایی که این آثار را در خود دارد، خانه دکتر محسن مقدم است که کمتر به آن پرداخته شده است. در کاشی نگاره هایی با این مضمون 7 اثر یافت شده است که پنج داستان را روایت می کند. پژوهش حاضر به مولفه های ساختاری و مضامین ادبیات غنایی-عاشقانه پرداخته و این مولفه ها را در مطابقت با صحنه های تصویر شده در کاشی نگاره ها بررسی کرده است. دست یابی به یک الگو برای کشف روابط ساختاری در متون ادبیات منظوم غنایی-عاشقانه و کاشی نگاره هایی که با این مضمون تصویر شده اند، دیگر هدفی بود که به آن پرداخته شد. در این بررسی نتیجه گرفته ایم که مولفه های ساختاری منظومه ها تاحد زیادی قابل تعمیم به روایت های کاشی نگاره هاست. چه اینکه هنر کلامی و هنر تصویر در تاریخ ایران پیوندهای بسیار نزدیکی از دیدگاه های ساختاری و مضمونی با یکدیگر داشته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: کاشی نگاره، منظومه غنایی-عاشقانه، خانه های قاجاری، خانه مقدم
  • امیررضا استخریان حقیقی، ستاره احسنت* صفحات 19-32

     نشانه ها تنها ابزار ارتباطی واجد معنا می باشند که ویژگی منحصر به فرد آن ها در وابستگی به بسترهای فرهنگی و تاریخی، نحوه رشد معرفت بشری را آشکار نموده و می توان این امر را با تاکید بر روابط میان نشانه ها و معنای آن ها با عالم خارج بررسی نمود. پژوهش حاضر در تلاش است، تا با تکیه بر دو ساحت نظام نشانه ای و فرآیند نشانگی، به تحلیل نشانه شناختی سیر تحول خط تا خوش نویسی فارسی بپردازد. پرسش این است که، چگونه می توان در رسالت رسانه ای خط و خوش نویسی، نسبتی با نظام نشانه ای و فرآیند نشانگی مبتنی بر نقاط اشتراک آن ها یافت؟ هدف پژوهش، بر تبیین زمینه های وابستگی ریشه های مشترک، میان خط و نوشتار با نظام نشانه شناختی استوار است که به شیوه تطبیقی- تحلیلی و در راستای مطالعه منابع معتبر مکتوب و اسناد تصویری به روش کیفی توصیف می گردد. بدین منظور با توجه به سیر تحول نشانه شناختی خط تا خوش نویسی، ابتدا، نقش نظام نشانه ای، در این میان احراز شده و سپس، لایه های اشتراک میان آن ها در برخورد با مولفه های فرآیند نشانگی تبیین می گردد. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که، خط و خوش نویسی در سیر تحولات خویش، همواره، زبان بصری بدیعی خلق نموده که می توان دگرگونی آن ها را در انواع نظام نشانه ای شمایلی، نمایه ای، نمادین و انتزاعی جستجو نمود. این در حالی است که، نسبت میان آن با فرآیند نشانگی و در قالب دریافت متعلق نشانه شناختی، نمود و تفسیر نیز آشکار می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: خط و خوش نویسی، رسالت رسانه ای، نظام نشانه ای، فرآیند نشانگی، پیرس
  • حامد اکرمی* صفحات 33-46

    در بسیاری از آثار انیمیشن و سینما نماهایی وجود دارد که دست کاراکتر، به تنهایی، یا بخش قابل ملاحظه ای از فضای فیزیکی کادر را به خود اختصاص داده است و یا سهم عمده ای از کنش دراماتیک پلان را در اختیار دارد. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی کارکردهای نشانه شناسی دست در پلان های فیلم های انیمیشن است؛ تا امکاناتی که این کارکردها برای روایت داستان فراهم می کنند، مشخص شود. پرسش اصلی این مقاله آن است که: آیا با تکیه بر نظریه های روایت و اصول نشانه شناسی، و در کنار این دو با مشاهده و تحلیل پلان های آثار انیمیشن، می توان به الگوهایی کاربردی دست یافت که در آن ها، استفاده از دست کاراکتر در پلان به پیش برد روایت ماجرا کمک کند؟ پژوهش پیش رو، ابتدا، با استفاده از منابع موجود و روش مطالعه کتاب خانه ای، تعریفی متناسب با موضوع از روایت و نشانه ارایه می دهد و سپس، کارکرد دست را به عنوان یک نشانه در روایت مشخص می کند. بعد از آن، با تکیه بر این تعاریف و با استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی به مطالعه موردی پلان های آثار انیمیشن پرداخته می شود و کارکردهای روایی مختلف دست در این پلان ها استخراج می شود. رویکرد اصلی این پژوهش، نشانه شناسی روایی از منظر بوردول است. نتایج به دست آمده، به عنوان کارکردهای دست، عبارتند از: 1) دست، نشانه قدرت؛ 2) دست، نشانه ضعف؛ 3) دست، نشانه مالکیت؛ 4) دست، ابزار ارتباط، شناخت و صمیمیت؛ 5) دست، ابزار تاکید بر گفتار و حالت چهره؛ 6) دست، نماینده خواسته درون؛ 7) دست، وسیله انتقال پیام.

    کلیدواژگان: دست، نشانه شناسی، روایت، انیمیشن
  • مونا امامی*، بهنام کامرانی، امیر نصری صفحات 47-58

    درک جهان، حاصل درونی شدن نشانه های اجتماعی و سپس، بازخوانی و به کار گرفته شدن آن ها به وسیله کنش گران اجتماعی، از خلال یک بدن انجام می گیرد. بنابر این، بدن را باید محوری دانست که امکان درک نسبت با جهان را به وسیله انسان ممکن می کند. بدن گروتسک، یکی از مفاهیم اصلی میخاییل باختین، ادیب روسی، در حوزه نقد و نظریه ادبی و قابل اطلاق به مباحث دیگر از جمله هنرهای تجسمی است. در این نوشتار، نمود بدن گروتسک در آثار وحید چمانی، نقاش معاصر، از منظر باختین با بهره گیری از منابع کتاب خانه ای و به شیوه توصیفی-تحلیلی، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، بیان قابلیت انطباق نظریات باختین با حیطه هنرهای تجسمی است که به واسطه آن، می توان وضعیت گروتسک را -که متاثر از شرایط پیرامونی است- در حوزه هنر مورد تحلیل قرار داد. باختین با طرح مفهوم کارناوال، نگاه طنزآمیز و وهم آلودی را نسبت به آنچه در جامعه اتفاق می افتد، بیان می کند. در آثار چمانی با تن هایی گروتسک مواجه هستیم؛ که گاه، چشم ندارند؛ گاه، دهان آن ها مانند حفره ای ترسیم شده و یا اندام های آن ها، به طور کامل، شکل نگرفته اند؛ بدن گروتسک، دایما در حال شدن و صیرورت است. هیچ گاه، پایان نمی پذیرد و هرگز، کامل نمی شود. بدن های گروتسک چمانی با داشتن ماسکی بر چهره، حالتی مسخ یافته دارند و وجوهی دوگانه، همراه با ابهامی از مرگ را در فضایی کارناوال گونه، نه به معنای جشن و سرور، بلکه فضایی از جنس وارونگی و تضادهای کارناوالی به نمایش می گذارند. چنین بدنی، شامل قلمروهای ناشناخته جدید است و نگرشی جدید از زندگی اجتماعی به ما ارایه می دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: باختین، بدن گروتسک، وحید چمانی، وارونگی
  • مریم پورذکریا*، سمیرا احمدزاده صفحات 59-68

    همیشه سعی شده تا بین هنرهای گوناگون از جمله معماری، موسیقی، مقایسه صورت گیرد؛ ولی تاکنون، رابطه دقیق آن ها در سطح موسیقی یا معماری سنتی یک فرهنگ مورد بررسی قرار نگرفته است. لذا، امروزه، شاهد گسستگی آن ها و افت کیفیت در ساخت و تولیدات هنری می باشیم. این مقاله، سعی در پاسخ گویی به این پرسش را دارد: ترجمان تصویری ملودیک هنر موسیقی به هنر معماری از طریق عناصر نقطه، خط، سطح و وجوه اشتراک آن ها چگونه صورت می پذیرد؟ در نتیجه، با توجه به فاصله هنرها از یک دیگر، این پژوهش، تلاش می کند به بررسی شاخصه های مشترک در دو هنر معماری و موسیقی در ده دسته بندی سلسله مراتب، اصل وحدت، تقارن و انعکاس، ضرب یا ریتم و تکرار، تضاد، افت و خیز، عامل مفروض، رنگ، پرسپکتیو و تناسبات ریاضی بپردازد. هم چنین، هدف از ارایه این پژوهش، با توجه به کاربرد عناصر پایه، مانند نقطه، خط و سطح در هنرها، بازخوانی تعاریف این عناصر بصری، مقایسه تطبیقی و یافتن چگونگی به کارگیری آن ها در دو هنر معماری و موسیقی از طریق ترجمان ملودیک تصویری آن ها می باشد. این پژوهش، به صورت تحلیلی-توصیفی، براساس روش کیفی و استدلال منطقی و با استفاده از معانی و تعاریف موجود در مطالعات اسنادی و کتاب خانه ای، تفسیر و طبقه بندی شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که، با بررسی و ترجمه تصویری قطعات موسیقی ایرانی در سه ساختار مختلف، می توان به نماهای معماری با نظمی خاص و ساختاری مشخص دست یافت؛ که هر ردیف از آن ها، می تواند نشان دهنده چند میزان تعریف شده از یک قطعه موسیقی باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: معماری، موسیقی، ترجمان تصویری ملودیک، عناصر بصری هنر، تناسبات هارمونیک
  • نیلوفر شکرابی*، بهروز محمودی بختیاری صفحات 69-82

    پژوهش پیش رو، که به روش تحلیلی- توصیفی انجام شده است، به زن به مثابه ابژه، موضوع و عنصر مهم درون آثار هنری می پردازد. تمرکز پژوهش حاضر بر چگونگی سیر تحول مفهوم زن در قلمرو هنر عکاسی و به دنبال آن، موج عظیم جنبش پاپ آرت در عصر تولید و مصرف گرایی است؛ و به منظور نشان دادن تغییر معنای هویت زن در این دوره، از نظریه «شکست هاله» والتر بنیامین در بیان مفهوم بازتولیدپذیری در دوران پست مدرن استفاده شده است. با بررسی دیدگاه بازتولید و تبدیل «معنای والا» یا «هاله معنایی آثار هنری»، می توان به محورهای این پژوهش، شامل چگونگی تغییر هویت، اصالت و هاله معنای سنتی زن، و تبدیل آن به کالا و ابژه ای جذاب در تبلیغات مدرن و پست مدرن پاسخ داد. هم چنین، می توان دید که، آیا این موج تحول و تبدیل مبتذل مفهوم زن به کالاگونگی و شکست هاله آن، به رغم محدودیت های نمایش زن در تبلیغات به هدف حفظ شان و هویت والای او، در ایران نیز رسوخ کرده است یا خیر.

    کلیدواژگان: زن، کالاگونگی، تبلیغات، والتر بنیامین، هاله، ایران
  • زینب میرابیان*، ابوالقاسم دادور صفحات 83-93

    آثار هنری زیادی از تمدن بین النهرین به جامانده است که بیانگر فرهنگ حاکم بر جامعه هستند. مضمونی که در پی آن به بررسی آثار هنری بین النهرین پرداختیم، «خشونت» است. ازآن جاکه در بین آثار به جامانده از تمدن بین النهرین، مخصوصا آشور، آثاری از این دست کم نیستند، بررسی و طبقه بندی خشونت موجود در این جامعه، اهمیت ویژه پیدا می کند و می تواند در تحلیل دقیق تر از نقوش به جامانده موثر باشد. همین طور پاسخ به این پرسش که، از میان خشونت های موجود، دلیل بازنمود هنری پیدا کردن تعدادی از آن ها چیست؟ یافته های این پژوهش خشونت در تمدن بین النهرین را به 1) خشونت علیه حیوانات، 2) خشونت های اجتماعی، 3) خشونت های جنگی، 4) خشونت های روانی، طبقه بندی می کند؛ که هرکدام از این طبقه ها خود شامل چندگونه خشونت می شوند؛  و در گام دوم، بیان می کند که کدام یک از این خشونت ها بازنمود هنری بیش تری دارند و دلیل این بازنمود را در کدام بخش از اجتماع می توان یافت. ناگفته نماند که این پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی بر اساس داده های اسنادی شکل گرفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: بازنمود هنری خشونت، هنرهای تجسمی، آثار هنری، بین النهرین
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  • S. Ebrahimzadeh *, J. Soheili Pages 7-18

    The rich sources of Iranian literature contain the most beautiful interpretations and descriptions of "love," and the literary poetry of lyrical-romantic has contributed greatly to the growth of other arts, such as miniature. In the Qajar era, with the prevalence of tile art of seven colors and tile paintings, many palaces and houses became the magnificent context of showing this art. In his new form, these works depicted the portrait of the Qajar kings and courtiers, but remained faithful to the literary poetry of lyrical-romantic and continued to illustrate the outstanding scenes of Iranian literature. One of the houses that containing these works is Dr. Mohsen Moghadam's house, which has been dealt with less. In the tile paintings series with this theme, there are 7 works that narrate the five stories. The present research deals with the structural components and themes of lyrical-romantic literature and examines these components in accordance with the scenes depicted in the tile paintings. Achieving a pattern for discovering intertextual relationships in the lyrical-romantic poetic literature and tile paintings describe in this theme was no longer a goal. In this study, we concluded that the structural components of the poems are largely extensible to the narratives of the tilepaintings. How did verbal art and visual art in the history of Iran closely link to each other from the structural and thematic point of view. The interdependence of the arts in Iranian history is evident in the depiction of romantic, lyrical, epic and religious literature. It seems that the research done in the study of the three main axes of painting, fictional literature and tile painting. The present study was carried out by descriptive-analytical research method and gathering information by field studies, observations and presence in Dr. Moghadam's home and library studies in architectural tile painting in Qajar period. According to the approach of this research, first we will discuss the formation of the art of tile painting, and then we will discuss the themes and structures of lyrical-romantic poetic literature and express different principles and perspectives in this subject. Qajar Tile Painting is a continuation of the Safavid and Zandieh tile art. As Europeans entered Iran during the Safavid era and later in the Qajar period, the two-dimensional method of painting progressively shifted to depth representation. But literary themes are still abundantly found in tilepaintings and are one of the main arts related to literature. During this period, the tiling function was not limited to the construction of mosques, tombs and shrines, but also included palaces and mansions and decorative gates of cities and public institutions. One of the most prominent literary genres in Iranian literature is "Ghanaei"(lyrical) poetry, which has been compiled in various formats, especially in Ghazal and Masnavi. Lyric is a poem that expresses the poet's personal emotions and feelings. One of the most common types of lyrics is love poems. These stories are not just about a romantic adventure, rather, they are expressions of human emotions, mental and inner issues, and represent theological arts, and ultimately, literary pleasure. As mentioned before, the tile painting is depicted with a specific scene featuring that include interesting visual and story elements and It deals with a prominent feature of the story. These images capture the mental themes of romantic literature that have influenced people's mental and oral history for many years and therefore, it also has folk values that can be addressed in next researches. The antique museum of the University of Tehran and, in fact, the antique house, including the luxurious houses of the Qajar era, belonged to one of the courtiers of the time, Mohammad Taghi Khan Ehtesab-ol- Molk. There are four main portions of the building tile painting: 1- Lord's tower 2-Qajar porch 3-North porch 4-East wall of the inner courtyard. The present study, with a comparative study approach, has studied the essential components in narrative literature, especially lyric-romance poem with the themes depicted in tile paintings. Painting and subsequent tile painting have given special illustrations of a romantic poem in-depth of the text and where the narrative story has reached its peak. This further illustrates the timeliness of the literature and the location of the tile painting. Tips like "story theme, action and event, characterizations, time and place, subject, text in structure, attitude, representation" are eight templates that can be generalized to fictional poems. We found that the painter was very influenced by literary texts and only acted more freely in presenting forms.

    Keywords: Tile Painting, lyrical-Romantic Poem, Qajar Houses, Moghadam House
  • A. R. Estakhrian Haghighi, S. Ahsant * Pages 19-32

    Signs are the only meaningful tools of communication that their unique properties in affirmation of cultural and historical context reveals how human knowledge grows which can be investigated by emphasizing the relationships between the signs and their meanings with the outside world. Sign system and its relation to the signage process is a subject which discussing about it is possible based on dependency of sign investigation, the process of their emergence as well as the various implications of signs and their application.Charles Sanders Peirce is one of the thinkers who discovered these implications and access to the hidden meanings of signs, by classifying its features in figurative and symbolic forms, in a point of view as a sign system and has addressed the relationship between them in the ratio of the sign with the context of its occurrence and the interpreter as signage process.In this trend, the signs act in the form of visual media which the quality of their mission in transmitting the message depends on the recognition of the signs and their proper classification since each sign is, on the one hand, dependent on other signs and related components and on the other hand, is variable in terms of its application, which is presented in different communication textures corresponding to different cultures, civilizations. This leads to signs always being considered as a language. Also, different forms considered it to have a diverse linguistic structure with distinct functions. In this regard, the present study is trying to analyze the semiotics of the evolution of calligraphy to Persian calligraphy, relying on the two areas of the sign system and the process of signification. The main question is, how can one make the connection between the semiotic developments of calligraphy and calligraphy with the sign system and the process of notation based on their commonalities? Furthermore, what is the difference between the sign system and the evolution of Script into calligraphy? The main purpose of the research is to explain the fields of dependence of common roots between Script and writing with the semiotic system. Also, the sub-objectives of the research are that first, despite receiving structural differences, while there are fundamental components between the two, their unity in explaining a similar theme such as the sign is achieved. Then, in order to analyze the semiotics of the media course of script to calligraphy in relation to the sign system and the process of signification, to study and study the course of these developments. It also seeks to explain its effective capabilities as the inheritor of human deep thoughts and creativity from the earliest times of human culture and civilization to the present day, in explaining similar themes such as visual cues. With these interpretations, in spite of previous research, the necessity of such a study is based on the distinct analysis and reading of script to calligraphy developments, in a scientific framework and with a specific semiotic approach, which gives the opportunity to look at the history of Iranian art differently. Role is a sign that has remained intact, both in terms of theoretical foundations and in terms of aspects discussed. Therefore, the importance of studying and establishing the relationship between the two is an achievement that does not have a significant background. The methodology of this research is analytical and using the study of written library resources and visual documents and according to Peirce's views, it is among the developmental researches. It also qualitatively shows that the semiotic analysis obtained from the study of visual documents of script to calligraphy, makes it possible to understand its commonality with the sign system and the process of signification. To this end, due to the vastness of the historical scope of script and calligraphy developments, it has first tried to study and divide calligraphy developments in the stages of calligraphy, thought writing, transliteration and alphabet. Then the objective instance of the written visual cues and its implicit meanings in each period should be applied separately to the punctuation classification. For this purpose, the images have been selected from the statistical population of the visual documents of calligraphy transformation in such a way as to cover as much as possible the course of visual and symbolic developments of script to calligraphy from the beginning to the present. It also reveals more precise and tangible differences in sign differences and the goals of rising from their meanings. Because only with a proper understanding of the concept of sign and its effect during stylistic differences is the evolution of script to calligraphy, which can be examined to match the role of the sign with the desired practical and artistic process. The research findings show that script and calligraphy in the course of their developments have always created an innovative visual language that can be searched for in various symbolic, index, symbolic and abstract sign systems. However, the relationship between it and the process of signification and in the form of semantic belonging, manifestation and interpretation is also revealed.

    Keywords: Script, Calligraphy, Semiotic, Sign System, Media, Charles Sanders Peirce
  • Hamed Akrami * Pages 33-46

    In many animations and live action movies there are some shots in which either a considerable part of the physical space of the frame is allocated to the hand of the character alone, or hand has a significant role in driving the emotions in the shot. It may seem to the amateur audience that these scenes are included randomly or just to add diversity to the film, but the truth is that almost these shots are intentionally and with a certain purpose placed among others. This means that the director has preferred to tell part of the story of the film, the relationships between the characters, the emotions and feelings between them, or the conditions of the scene simply by showing the hands of the characters to the audience. For example, a close-up of a hand holding a blood-soaked knife and shaking rapidly, or a glass that falls involuntarily to the ground may help convey a sense of the scene far more than showing the character's face or showing what has happened before. The anatomy of the human hand is such that it can take on a variety of different gestures and shapes, and if we add the movements of the hand or the objects to these which can be placed in it, the result would be countless. Each of these states and movements can be a sign that sparks a concept in the mind of the audience. This induction of concepts by decoding hand gestures can have a much more profound effect than directly telling or showing some of the events of the story. The application of such shots adds depth to the narrative and causes the audience to subconsciously visualize and construct some parts of the story in their mind instead of just watching it. This study will address the semiotic functions of hand in animation shots; in order to determine the possibilities provided by these functions for storytelling. In the other words, what signs do hand postures and movements create? And then how these signs affect the audience to form the story in their mind. The main question of this article is: By relying on narrative theories and principles of semiotics, and along with these two by observing and analyzing specific shots of animation movies, is that possible to achieve practical models in which the use of character’s hand in the shot, help the narration of story? Although taste, talent and innovation are key elements in achieving a pure artwork, but the study and even the proper use of patterns and stereotypes can be very effective in achieving this goal. Moreover, without knowing the patterns and stereotypes, it is not possible to break them and go beyond their boundaries. The present research first, using the available sources and the library study method, provides a suitable definition of the narrative and explains its components and elements. It then briefly introduces the sign and its types and examines the position of the hand as each of the types of signs. Finally, the function of the hand is examined as a sign in the narrative, and based on these definitions and using a descriptive-analytical method, this article studies certain shots of some animations as case studies. By examining these shots, different narrative functions of the hand are extracted from them. Because the reader may not have seen the animations mentioned in this article or may not remember the shots mentioned, by reviewing these shots, images of each are accompanied by text to make it easier to understand the concepts mentioned. The main approach of this research is narrative semiotics from Bordwell's perspective. The results obtained as hand functions are: 1) hand, a sign of power; 2) hand, a sign of weakness; 3) hand, sign of ownership; 4) hands, communication tools, cognition and intimacy; 5) hands, tools for emphasizing speech and facial expressions; 6) hand, representative of the inner desire; 7) hand, as means of transmitting a message.

    Keywords: Hand, Semiotics, narration, Animation
  • M. Emami *, B. Kamrani, A. R. Nasri Pages 47-58

    Comprehending the world by internalizing social signs and employing them by social actives are all fulfilled through Body. Therefore, the body must be considered as an axis which makes understanding the relation with the world by human possible. Man’s relation with the outer world becomes reality through the body. First of all, Man’s existence is a bodily existence. Human subjects and their bodies in visual arts have always been Noteworthy for the artists in decades and hence, the man and his body has always been a challengeable subject. Paying attention to body is seen in historical rituals and ceremonies and gradually it was documented in some aspects of art. But in recent years for some reasons like sociological regards or artists individuality and stuff like these that critical approaches have discussed, the body has been the center of attention. So, the body has been mentioned again as an important matter in Iran contemporary art. Mentioning anew the figurative art as a recent tendency in contemporary art, has the attention to the body in itself being accelerated after the Islamic revolution. In recent years the body and corporeality being the center of attention in Iran contemporary art, the artists reveal critical objective aspects in their works by using grotesque moods. So, by considering the sociocultural contexts and observing the contemporary paintings, we find implications leading us to discover social philosophical issues in body and its representation in images. Through this, we can analyze different aspects of these concepts in visual arts and define its general characteristics in the contexts in which the work of art has been created. It must be taken into consideration that since the 70s there are various inventions and new experiences in concepts, techniques and ways of expression in Iran contemporary art. Moreover, Iran effective presence in international exhibitions and biennials reveals the necessity of studying the contemporary artists at the present time. According to Bakhtin’s theory and his approach to grotesque body, the representation of grotesque body in Vahid Chamani’s works of art is discussed here in a descriptive-analytic method by utilizing library documents and references. Explaining Bakhtin’s theory adaptability with visual arts is the goal of this research with which a grotesque situation resulting from the peripheral conditions can be analyzed. Grotesque body is one of Mikhail Bakhtin’s key concepts in literary critique and theory applicable to other majors such as visual arts. By proposing grotesque body and carnival, Bakhtin expresses a satirical and illusive approach toward what happens in society. In analyzing the artist’s works of art, we face three main themes which makes interpreting possible according to Bakhtin grotesque body: Contradiction and Inversion, Mask (Metamorphosis) and Death. There are Grotesque bodies in the artist’s paintings with no eyes, sometime their mouth seems like a hole, or their organs are not fully shaped. The grotesque body challenges our expectations from proportions; it constantly changes. It never ends, nor becomes complete. Grotesque bodies in Chamani’s works of art with masks on their face have a metamorphosed state, showing dual aspects with an ambiguity of death in a carnivalesque space with a taste of inversion and carnival contradictions, not a space of festivity. These contradictions can also be seen in the title of the artist’s collection (Amino Acids), too. This Scientific word have a conflict in concept and appearance. This lexical combination proposes destruction, disintegration and death through part one, and the second part discusses the emergence. Mask is the sign of wasting individuality, accepting anonymity and admitting plurality of identities. Mask is the symbol of motion and change. It never deals with formal culture. Metamorphosis shows how one has become something other than what it was. Various and different images of a specific one are in front of us, images in which one unites as the eras and different levels of existence in his life. There is no real evolution in fact, instead it is another milestone. On the other hand, the double face idea of mask refers to death. It means that mask represents absence, and after death, the presence of one is possible with mask in another way. Death appears here in dark and mysterious places and bodies with damaged unfinished identity seeking to rebuild previously experienced spaces and a new life. In this space, in contrast to classical aesthetics, bodies are exaggerated in a grotesque state, with pores and openings to existence, expressing the purpose of their narrative through a repugnant-shocking picture hard to imagine. Finally, Grotesque is a result of our world, created by that, but is omitted from it. Chamani astonishes us with representing an alien world. This body includes new obscure realms and gives us a new sight of social life.

    Keywords: Bakhtin, Grotesque Body, Vahid Chamani, Inversion
  • Maryam Pourzakarya *, Samira Ahmadzadeh Pages 59-68

    It has always been tried to make a comparison between various arts, including architecture, music, poetry, or painting and theatre. The arts are composed of various harmonic components, which have common characteristics. However, so far, their exact relationship at the level of traditional music or architecture of culture has not been examined. So today we are witnessing their disruption and the decline in quality of artistic production and building. This article attempts to answer the question as "How does the melodic projective interpretation of the art of music to the art of architecture come about through the elements of point, line, and surface and their mutual forms?". Thus, given the distance between the arts, this research tries to explore these common features in the two arts of architecture and music in ten categories of hierarchy, the principle of unity, symmetry and reflection, beat or rhythm and repetition, contradiction, rise and fall, presumptive factor, color, perspective, and mathematical proportions. Furthermore, the purpose of this research is to investigate the definitions of the visual elements of point, line and surface, and to comparatively examine the means of applying them in the two arts of architecture and music and to investigate the relation between these two arts through the melodic projective interpretation of the elements. This analytical-descriptive study has been interpreted and classified based on qualitative and logical argumentation methods by the application of the meanings and definitions contained in the documentary and library studies, and the application of common features of the two arts has been analyzed. Also, both of these arts can be expressed and displayed with the elements of the point, line, and surface. Visual elements including point, line, surface, volume and texture related to "shape and form" are also measurable and computable. The emergence of all visual forms starts with the movement of a point. The point in architecture is identifiable in pillar shapes in the plan, the element in the center of a historical square, or the culmination of a dome in religious buildings, and is characterized in music as single-stroke in various sizes with varying degrees of intensity. The line in architecture is drawn in an element stretched towards the sky, the lines used in sketches, Gereh and Arabesque designs in Islamic architecture, and can be seen in music playing a piece of music and the climax of its notes. Architectural surfaces consist of elevations in vertical surfaces or floor and ceiling in horizontal surfaces, and the musical surfaces are determined by how the various musical instruments play and the movement of the hands while stroking. In his book, Kandinsky has translated musical compositions by points. Apart from the drum, a point can be produced by other musical instruments. The piano allows the creation of closed compositions and exclusively made of sequential combinations of audio points. A comparison has been made between the notes of the music and the ups and downs of the mountains in nature. An image of the gradient and elevation of the mountains and peaks, turning them into half-lines and then matching them on the lines of the carrier, can indeed be a reflection of the musical space of those images, and with this basis, a way of creating musical works in this kind of background. Undoubtedly, each of these peaks has distinct ups and downs that their musical lines can vary in different directions. It should be noted that focusing on a type of architecture or music is not enough and the study of these similarities is required at all times in order to obtain a full consensus on the translation of these two arts. In the visual translation, three different pieces of Iranian music from three different structures were selected. First, each note, according to the review, was drawn to the dotted line, and then the final lines were formed by connecting the dots. By connecting the beginning and the end of the lines to the hypothetical axis of the earth, architectural elevations were illustrated. Results indicated that pieces that have a more rhythmic order form regular, repetitive views, and the ones that are played more freely depict more diverse views. In short, by understanding the various characteristics of the elements mentioned in these two arts, this article has tried to draw the melodic and visual translators of the two arts of architecture and music, assuming that it is possible to interpret the two arts. As a result, as in the past, using different arts to create each other can lead to more outstanding works than any other art.

    Keywords: Architecture, Music, Melodic Projective Interpretation, Visual Artistic Elements, Harmonic Proportions
  • Niloofar Shekarabi *, Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiari Pages 69-82

    Women have long been object of attraction for monetary purposes, and history has proven that women and their appearance have always been considered as a major part of ads for several industries. Even in some Islamic countries such as Iran, this use is possible to be traced, and this important issue has not yet received the attention it deserves.  The major concern of the present research is considering  woman as the object and content of the artistic works for financial purposes. Also, the present article aims to study the issue of women as objects within the framework of the ideas proposed by the famous German philosopher of the Frankfurt school, Walter Benjamin. The research starts its discussion with the evolution of the concept of women in the realm of conceptual arts, and more precisely in pictures, photography and the huge wave of pop art movement in the consumerist era in which we are living. The study makes use of Benjamin’s idea named “Breaking of the Aura of an Artistic Work”, and the mechanical reproduction which follows it. By breaking the Aura of an artistic work, we mainly mean the decrease of the value level of the artistic works from a sublime level to a very popular one, and changing the artistic productions in terms of the value they always enjoyed and were respected for. The current research tries to answer the question that why women are the undetectable and undeniable parts of the consuming goods in the advertisements, and how this tight relation can be explained in terms of Walter Benjamin’s ideas. Has really the value of arts, and the value of the women used as the object of these advertisements been decreased? Why is it so, and what has paved the way for the current situation? To what extent is the industry responsible for this, and to what extent the capitalist approach to life style may be blamed? How is it that even the Islamic countries and the countries who claim to be opposing the capitalist life style have also been affected by this wave? The present article tries to touch these issues, although it puts Iran in the priority of its research. Therefore, the article also deals with this issue in the modern Iran, before and after the Islamic revolution of 1978, and considers the emergence of breaking of women’s Aura in the Iranian ads and slogans, considering the limitations that the Iranian culture considers and sometimes imposes for this work. As we know, women should be covered in social media, no nudity is permitted, and women should not wear revealing dresses. Also, heavy makeups and close up camera shots were not allowed for a long time from women, and all these seem to be some major obstacles in showing women and making them the objects of the ads. However, It seems that among the several arts that we may consider to be attacked by this idea, photography and cinema are more vulnerable. But how can this gradual change of women to “goods” can be explained? This question may not be answered easily, and a comprehensive reply is beyond the scope of an article. Also, the present article is not supposed to consider all sorts of advertisements, and limits itself to the painted and printed billboards used for this purpose, but  in order to achieve the important objective of this article, several instances of advertisements have been considered and introduced, and have all been later on analyzed in terms of the ideas put forward by Walter Benjamin, in the hopes to pave the way for further studies. The results are interesting, in that they represent some inevitable and undeniable similarities in different cultures, and no matter if the advertisement has been produced in an Islamic country or a western one, similar approaches to the presence of women are seen in the design of advertisements. No matter to what extent the culture of the question claims to defend the social rights of women, it seems that when it comes to money making for the industry, women are degraded to some simple objects to draw the attention of the customers, many of whom believed to be men.

    Keywords: Woman, Commodification, Advertising, Walter Benjamin, Aura, Iran
  • Z. Mirabian *, A. Dadvar Pages 83-93

    Art and expression are intertwined. Art has consistently represented the conditions of the society in which it has been formed, and today, what mankind knows about the past societies is largely based on the works of art from each civilization. Exploring works of art is of particular importance, acquainting us with the identity of past societies. It can be said that the remnants of any civilization represent its identity, mood, prevailing social conditions, laws and traditions. Among the variety of themes, the theme this article is looking for is ethics in the works of art in Mesopotamia. As ethics encompasses a wide range of areas, and it is impossible to study this general concept in works of art; so, among the many dimensions of good or bad morals, we have considered violence. First, today's definition of violence is discussed, and then, what was called violence in Mesopotamian civilization is studied. In the present paper, the visual works of Mesopotamian civilization have been studied. Although we take a look at all periods, in fact the emphasis will be on the periods more closely related to the theme of violence which their works represent, although symbolically, violence. What is certain is that it will be impossible to analyze works of art without studying the social, cultural, and religious contexts of society, but since the breadth of Mesopotamian civilization prevents us from discussing the details of kings and the social conditions of society of that timeless civilization, we have just concentrated on the evidence directly related to the theme of this article. The main concern of the present article is the current definition of violence, the definition of what had been called violence in Mesopotamian society, and the study of the works remained from this ancient civilization with the theme of violence. It is noteworthy that all the themes of violence have been examined, including violence against animals. Examining the instances of violence in Mesopotamian society and their representation in their works of art leads to the logical classification of violence in Mesopotamian society and how it is represented in that society. In the present article, which is based on descriptive-analytical method and documentary data, questions have been answered such as: Can the existing violence in Mesopotamian civilization be classified? And which of the violence types existing in Mesopotamian society has an artistic representation, and why? By examining the works of art studied in this article, as a small representative of the remaining works of Mesopotamian civilization, it can be concluded that one of the most colorful themes in the works of art in this civilization is violence, and this theme can be seen in different forms in works of art. What is certain is that the representation of violence in the works of art reflects the violence in Mesopotamian society, which stems directly from the context of society. Based on the results from the study of these works, the violence in Mesopotamian civilization can be classified into the following types: - Violence against animals (hunting scenes in works of art) - Social violence (including: violent laws, violence against slaves and residents of enemy cities) - War violence - Psychological violence (confession to the arrogant killings by kings, psychological stimulation of the inhabitants of the besieged cities, etc.) The point about psychological violence is that it refers to violence that is insanely described by kings in inscriptions, and that kings have proudly immortalized their killings, assassinations, and bloodshed through the inscriptions and perpetuated them for future generations. Now we come to the answer of the question: which of the existing violence has had an artistic representation and why? By studying the works, it became clear that violence against animals and war violence had a more prominent artistic representation than any other types of violence. However, social violence had almost no artistic representation, except for a small number of slaves, and had only been palpable in society at the time. It can be inferred that although social violence existed in their laws, it had not been severely realized and had occasionally been modified by other conditions, such as fines. Religious beliefs in Mesopotamia are the main reason for the colorful representation of war violence. The kings considered war a kind of jihad against evil forces and did not hesitate to do anything to achieve victory. No surprise that they recorded their victories in the works of art with full authority. According to the World Health Organization on group violence, group violence can have social, economic, and political factors, and we have seen the same effect in the study of the works of Mesopotamian civilization. War violence is considered a form of group violence which was applied under religious and doctrinal pretexts and with real political motivations.

    Keywords: Violence, Representation of Violence, Mesopotamian Art, Artistic Representation of Violence