فهرست مطالب

  • سال نوزدهم شماره 1 (پاییز و زمستان 1399)
  • ویژه نامه شبه قاره (10)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • MohammadTaqi Jahani*, Ali Guzelyuz, Nihat Degirmenci Pages 19-43

    The widespread immigration of Iranian poets to India in the Safavid era took place for a variety of reasons, including the lack of attention of the kings, the loss of supporters and enthusiasts of poetry, the welcoming of Indian kings, and the hope to get position. These immigrants developed a new style of poetry that became popular in Indian style. Mulla Mohammad Hossein Ashub Mazandarani was one of the poets who went to India, where he met Zafar Khan Hassan Torbati and his comrade, Ibrahim Khan. His Divan include odes and verses, sonnets and quatrains. The only copy of this work is kept in the library of Nuruosmaniyeh of Turkey. With study and research into his poems, it is determined that he is one of the first group of Indian style poets (poets who continued the tradition of earlier poets) and has been very influential in the writing of his poems of Khorasani and Iraqi style poets. In this paper, we have investigated and analyzed his Divan and extraction of his linguistic, intellectual, and literary attributes in addition to introducing Ashub Mazandarani in order to identify this poet’s position among the poets of this style.

    Keywords: Eleventh century poetry, Indian style, Ashub Mazandarani, manuscript correction
  • Javad Neyestani *, Farshad rahimian Pages 45-69

    The architecture under Mui’zzi and Khilji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate was heavily influenced by the architecture of greater Khorasan. After investigating the appearance of arch and dome in the architecture of Mui'zzids and Khiljis and its possible connection with the political and social developments in the region, authors aim to find out what relation the Turkish sultans considered between Islam and their monumental architecture and why did they prefer Khorasani styles of building to native ones. The Muslim rulers’ behavior depended on two factors. The Persian cultural background and the mental confrontation with subaltern Indians. The first sultans of Delhi, despite nomadic Central Asian origin, had an opportunity to grow up among upper class members of Khorasani society. Collaborating of Persian-born statesmen also influenced their worldview. Therefore, popularity of Khorasani style in the Islamic architecture of India is just part of a bigger picture, which is the Persian culture determined in the Muslim society. On the other hand, avoidance and distrust of ancient religious Indian culture among Muslim ruling elite, was serious obstacle for any constructive cultural dialogue between two sides and making native Indians participated in high level decision-makings. As a result, the Sultanate was always looked for skilled people outside its borders, especially Persian and of the consequences were weak influence of rich native styles in the Islamic architecture in this period. In the present study, the cultural-historical approach is applied by collecting data through library researches and descriptive-analytical methods.

    Keywords: Delhi, Islamic architecture of India, Mui’zzids, Khiljis, Ghurids
  • Abbas Beigjani *, Omid Sarvari Pages 71-90

    ‘Ala ud-Din Awadhi is one of the Iranian poets of the tenth century AH in the subcontinent. His most famous work is a refrain composed in imitation of Fakhr alDin Iraqi. This refrain is known in the subcontinent and become so popular that it has found its way into the home school and is in the category of educational texts. Therefore, several manuscripts of it are available and have been published lithographically in recent centuries. A texts of this significance in the studies of the subcontinent has not yet been scientifically and methodically corrected, and no explicit text is available. In the present article, the authors have tried to take a step in this direction.

    Keywords: ‘Ala ud-Din Awadhi, refrain, educational text on the subcontinent, manuscript correction
  • Maryam Estaji, Fariba Pat * Pages 91-103

    The reign of Gurkani kings, from Babur to Aurangzeb is architecturally one of India’s most flourishing cultural and artistic periods. During this period, not only men were involved in architecture and construction activities, but Mongol women and princesses also took an active part in architecture. The women of the royal and non-royal families, despite the limitations they faced, succeeded in making a major contribution to the construction of religious and non-religious buildings, relying on their talent, ingenuity, and perseverance. This article will address the role and contribution of these women to Indo-Islamic architecture.

    Keywords: Women of royal families, architecture, Indian Gurkhanids, mosque, school, garden, caravansary
  • Hamid Karamipour *, Mohammad Kazemipour Pages 105-122

    It seems defective and even impossible to perceive development of Islamic world without conception and recognition of gnostic and Sufi teachings during premodernist era. This claim has been particularly valid, especially among Muslims in Indian subcontinent because Sufis and leading characters (Qutbs) were assumed as the major factors in the fields of intellectual and sometimes political developments at this part of Islamic territory. Punjab land, which was considered as one of the energetic cultural and political bases for Muslims and as one of the important resistant centers against British colonialism before formation of Islamic State of Pakistan (1947), currently witnessed their intellectual and political effort at the end of the 19th century and early years of 20th century. Qadianiyeh denomination was one of the streams emerged at this point in Islamic world during discussed period and it was established by Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani. Primarily and in the process of clerical effort taken in Punjab, Ghulam Ahmad introduced oneself as a non-divinely prophet (i.e. prophet without divine revelation) ad after achieving some followers he called his mission as an independent prophet who possessed characteristics of a divine prophet. Due to the paradigms and doctrines that were called as unconventional and atheist by Muslim leaders in Punjab, he was excommunicated from Muslim community, but his claim could attract some followers among some of Muslim in this region. Reviews on his doctrines may indicate that regardless of expediencies of that time and political interests, the gnostic teaching of ‘Perfect Human’, which was proposed by great mystics in Islamic world and evolved by Ibn Arabi (1165-1240AD), has essentially affected formation of his paradigms. The present paper explains the quality and reason for this effect using descriptiveanalytical method and by means of librarian sources. Historical data have been derived from several references and studies in Urdu, Persian, Arabic and English in this paper.

    Keywords: Ibn Arabi, Perfect Human, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani
  • MohammadReza Nasiri, Batoul Sepehr * Pages 123-149

    The Iranian elite who immigrated to the court of the Gurkhanids of India gained positions according to their authority and prestige, and played a significant role in the evolution of the administrative system and court of the Delhi. One of the most important roles of these elites is to write valuable historical books in Persian. Ghlam-Hossein khan Tabatabaei was one of the most influential Iranian courtiers in the Indian court who wrote the book Siyar ul-Mutakherin in the history of the late Gurkhanids of India. In this study, the administrative and court terms of the latest developments have been studied by descriptive- analytical method. The terms derived from the Iranian administrative and court organization in Siyar ulMutakherin show that the administrative and judicial structure of the Gurkhanids of India was based on the Iranian administrative and court organizations and Iranian views as well.

    Keywords: Tabatabaei, the ultimate leader, administrative, court terms, Iran, India
  • Karim Najafi Barzegar Pages 151-164

    The newly found transcript of Chahar-Bagh by Hakim Abolfath Gilani, is one of the prominent transcripts of Timurid era in India. Hakim Abolfath Gilani is one of the prominent scholars of Safavid dynasty who belonged to a very prestigious family. He immigrated to the court of Jalal al-Din Mohammad Akbar of India due to disturbance in political situation of Safavids. He managed to gain high positions in Akbar’s court. The transcript of Chahar-Bagh is a set of letters, decrees, texts and writings which Hakim Abolfath Gilani has written to different significant court individuals, governors and scholars of that time. These letters are important because of their socio-political, historical- geographical and particularly literary focus. Some of these letters are well descriptive of the turbulent situation of Iran in time of Safavids that paved way for the immigration of different professionals from Iran to India specifically the elites and scholars.

    Keywords: Abolfath Gilani, Chahar-Bagh, compositions, transcript
  • MohammadSalim Mazhar*, Morteza Charmegi Omrani Pages 165-182

    The present article introduces and describes a new version of Hafez Divan. This copy was written in the first half of the 9th century and is kept under No. 4613/1563 in the Central Library of the University of Punjab, and has not been introduced or used in writing other works. This version is among the first hand manuscripts of Khajeh Shiraz Divan in terms of the date of writing (834 AH). However, in terms of the frequency of the various forms of poetry such as Ghazal, Masnai, Ruba’i, and having refrain, Mokhamas (five-line verse) and Mosadas (six -line verse), it is in the first category of the manuscripts that were written before this date. In addition, although it is the second version that has a comprehensive preface of Golandam, but because the name of Mohammad Golandam is explicitly mentioned in this preface and its pages are not removed, it is superior to other versions.

    Keywords: Hafez Poetry Divan, codicology, eighth century poetry, comprehensive preface by Golandam
  • MahmoudReza Esfandiar * Pages 183-218

    One of the mystical treatises of the tenth century AH in the Indian subcontinent was written in Arabic, by Muhammad bin Fazlullah Burhanpouri, one of the Chishti order Shaykh, is al-Tuhfat al-mursalah ila al-Nabi .This treatise, which explains the hierarchy of the universal existence on the basis of lbn ‘Arabi’s school, is also of great importance, and hence has been written many explanations on it in Arabic, Malay, Javi and Turkish. The treatise was translated to Persian by unknown translator, ‘Abd al-Ghafour, a disciple of Burhanpouri, probably around the year of compilation, 999 AH with some commentaries. In this article, after a brief introduction about the author, the importance and the characteristics of the Persian translation, we have edited the treatise based on four manuscripts.

    Keywords: al-Tuhfat al-mursalah ila al-Nabi, Persian translation, edition, manuscript, Hierarchy of the universal existence
  • Zarnoush Moshtaghmehr *, Hamid Taheri, Mohammad Salim Mazhar Pages 219-227

    Shokoufehzar is one of the authoritative explanations of Eskandar-Nameh by Nizami Ganjavi. This description belongs to Serajuddin Ali Khan Arzoo, a prominent writer and critic of the 12th century AH texts of the Subcontinent. Explanation of Eskandar-Nameh in terms of the multiplicity of manuscripts and writing, as well as in terms of content and methods of explanation with a critical look at the text and explanations before it and report and review the literature of Eskandar-Nameh with the approaches of rhetoric, aesthetic and linguistic, especially the semantics and etymology of words is important. And from that perspective, it requires independent research.

    Keywords: Shokoufehzar, explanations of Eskandar-Nameh by Nizami Ganjei, Khan Arzoo, subcontinent
  • MohammadReza Nasiri Pages 229-243

    The Noor Microfilm Center in Delhi, India, headed by Dr. Khajeh Piri, in addition to collecting manuscripts and historical documents, has experience in repairing and reviving rotten copies in the traditional way. Apart from these activities, writing the Holy Quran, Sahifeh Sajjadieh, genealogies and the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi are among the unique works of this institute. In this article, while referring to the history of Shahnamehs such as Baysonghori Shahnameh and Shah Tahmasebi Shahnameh, we will introduce a shahnameh that has been written, illustrated by its artists in the Noor Microfilm Center and reminded us of Khajeh Piri’s Shahnameh.

    Keywords: Khajeh Piri, Baysonghori Shahnameh, Tahmasebi Shahnameh, Khajeh Piri’s Shahnameh