فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:10 Issue: 5, 2020
  • Volume:10 Issue: 5, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Rajesh Nivesh Krishna, Anitha Roy *, Devaraj Ezhilarasan Pages 440-447
    Objective
    Tamarindus indica Linn.(T.indica) is a well-known plant used in traditional medicine. The plant is popular for its antidiabetic activity. However, effect so f its aqueous fruit pulp extract on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes and its glucose uptake potential were not explored.
    Materials and Methods
    The antidiabetic activity was assessed by in-vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory assays after preliminary phytochemical analysis. MTT assay was carried out to find cytotoxicity. Glucose uptake activity of the extract was carried out using L6 myotubes.
    Results
    The results showed a strong α-amylase inhibitory activity for the fruit pulp extract of T.indica compared to standard acarbose; the IC50 of the fruit pulp extract of T.indica and acarbose was 34.19 µg/ml 34.83µM. The extract also showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. IC50 of the fruit pulp extract of T.indica and acarbose were 56.91µg/ml and 45.69µM respectively. The cytotoxicity assay showed IC50 of >300µg/ml and ≥1000µM for the fruit pulp extract of T.indica     and metformin. The extract showed 63.99±0.08% glucose uptake in L6 myotubes whereas metformin and insulin at  10µg/ml and 10µM exhibited an uptake of 76.99±0.3% and 84.48±0.45% glucose, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The study revealed that the fruit pulp extract of T.indica Linn does not show any cytotoxic effect and has very good α-amylase and good α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The glucose uptake potential proves its postprandial hypoglycemic effect. Hence, it may be considered an antidiabetic agent for control of postprandial hyperglycemia.
    Keywords: Tamarindus indica, Anti-diabetic, Cytotoxicity, glucose uptake
  • Sumyya Zahan, Tajbiha-E- Mowla, S.M. Naim Uddin, Mohammed Kamrul Hossain, Afifa Binthe Mannan, Minhajur Rahman, Umay Chen, Tanoy Mazumder, A.H.M. Mazbah Uddin, Sayema Arefin, Md. Saddam Hussain * Pages 448-459
    Objective
    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the in vivo (analgesic, antidiarrheal, neurological, and cytotoxic) and in vitro (antioxidant, antimicrobial, thrombolytic and anthelmintic) activity of different fractions of methanolic extract of Momordica charantia.
    Materials and Methods
    The antioxidant property was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay, while antimicrobial activity was examined against three Gram (+) and one Gram (-) bacteria. Thrombolytic and anthelmintic activities were evaluated by using human blood serum and by recording paralysis and death time in earthworm, respectively. Cytotoxic activity was investigated in brine shrimp nauplii. Analgesic and antidiarrheal activities were evaluated in Swiss albino mice and neurological effect was evaluated by open field and Elevated plus-maze test (EPM).
    Results
    All fractions (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) possess significant (p<0.05) cytotoxic activity. In case of thrombolytic activity, the highest concentration of methanolic extract produced a remarkable percentage of clot lysis (46.12%). The concentration of 1000 μg/ml produced a significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative E. coli. Aqueous fraction at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, was found to show promising analgesic activity. In case of antidiarrheal and anthelmintic activity, plant extract showed dose-dependent activity. Methanolic extract and its fractions failed to produce any neurological effect in both methods.
    Conclusion
    The overall results of the study tend to suggest that the methanolic extract and its fractions have promising pharmacological activities.
    Keywords: Momordica charantia, Seeds, In-vitro, In-vivo
  • Elham Amirfakhryan, Nowruz Najafzadeh *, Behzad Davarnia, Farhad Jeddi Pages 460-471
    Objective
    Although azelaic acid is effective for treatment of acne and rosacea, the biological activity of azelaic acid and the effect of its combination therapy with minoxidil were not elucidated with regard to hair growth.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, mouse vibrissae follicles were dissected on day 10 after depilation. Then, the bulb and bulge cells of the hair follicle were treated with minoxidil and azelaic acid for 10 days to evaluate Sonic hedgehog (Shh) protein expression. Moreover, bulge and bulb cells of the hair follicles were cultivated and the expression of Gli1, Gli2, and Axin2 mRNA levels was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. We further investigated the protective effects of azelaic acid against ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation in cultured bulb and bulge cells by determining catalase activity. An irradiation dose of 20 mJ/cm2 UVB for 4 sec was chosen.
    Results
    The results showed that catalase activity significantly (p<0.05) increased in the bulge cells after exposureto 2.5 mM and 25 mM azelaic acid. Meanwhile, treatment of the bulb cells with azelaic acid (2.5 and 25 mM) did not cause significant changes in catalase activity. We also found that azelaic acid (25 mM) alone upregulated Gli1 and Gli2 expression in the bulge cells and 100 µ minoxidil caused Gli1 and Axin2 overexpression in the bulb region of the hair follicle. Moreover, minoxidil (100 µM) alone and in combination with azelaic acid (25 mM) led to Shh protein overexpression in the hair follicles in vitro and in organ culture.
    Conclusion
    Our results indicated a potential role for azelaic acid in the protection of bulge cells from UVB damage and its combination with minoxidil may activate hair growth through overexpression of Shh protein.
    Keywords: Hair follicle, Minoxidil, Azelaic acid, Anagen, PCR, Immunocytochemistry
  • Majid Jafari Nejad Bajestani, Mahdi Yousefi, Mousa-Al-Reza Hajzadeh *, Seyed Mahmoud Hosseini, Ali Taghipour, Shiba Yousefvand, HamidReza Ghorbanzadeh Pages 472-480
    Objective

    According to the traditional medicine,lettuce can affect nerve conduction velocity and memory. So, to investigate the effect of lettuce seeds extract on body activities, lettuce seeds were used.

    Materials and Methods

    In the present study, the effects of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds extract consumption (in drinking water) on T4 level, animals' weight, water and food consumption, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and memory in Wistar rats, were investigated. In this study, 24 Wistar rats were used, and divided into three groups: control, L 200 mg/kg, and L 400 mg/kg.

    Results

    The results showed that, the T4 level, food and water intake, time spent and distance travelled in Q1, delay time to enter and the number of entrance into the dark room in both treated groups were not significantly different from the control group. Animal weight and NCV, in 400 mg/kg group were not significantly different from the control group, but in 200 mg/kg group, they were significantly decreased (p<0.05). The duration spent in  the dark room (48 hr after shock) in L 400 mg/kg increased compared to the control group (p<0.05), but in L 200 mg/kg group at all time points, and in L 400 mg/kg treated group 3 and 24 hr after shock, it was not significantly different from the control group.

    Conclusion

    Based on these findings, the T4 level, memory, food and water intake were not changed by lettuce extract, while NCV and animal weight were decreased following treatment with lettuce extract.

    Keywords: Lettuce, T4 level, Coldness, Nerve conduction velocity, Rats, Memory
  • Zahra Bosak, Mina Iravani *, Eskandar Moghimipour, MohammadHossein Haghighi Zadeh, Parivash Jelodarian, MohammadReza Khazdair Pages 481-491
    Objective

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chamomile vaginal gel on dyspareunia and sexual satisfaction in postmenopausal women. The phytoestrogenic properties of Matricaria chamomilla were the reason for selection of this plant.

    Materials and Methods

    This double-blind clinical trial research was conducted on 96 eligible postmenopausal women referring to Gotvand city Health Center No. 1 in 2018. In this research, 96 postmenopausal women complaining from dyspareunia and sexual dissatisfaction were randomly assigned into three groups (each contained 32 subjects) to receive 5% chamomile vaginal gel, conjugated estrogen vaginal cream and placebo gel, for 12 weeks. All women completed the Larsson and a four-degree pain self-assessment questionnaires. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

    Results

    After the intervention period, a significant difference was seen between the intervention and the placebo group in the mean sexual satisfaction (p<0.001). Also, a significant reduction was seen in painful sexual intercourse between the groups using vaginal gel of chamomile and conjugated estrogen vaginal cream (95% CI: chamomile: 0.68-1.04, estrogen: 0.63-0.98, placebo: 1.8-2.1; p<0.001).  

    Conclusion

    Using chamomile vaginal gel can cause a reduction in painful sexual intercourse and an increase in sexual satisfaction in postmenopausal women.

    Keywords: Sexual satisfaction, chamomile vaginal gel, painful intercourse, Menopause
  • Mohsen Minaiyan *, Ladan Khoramian, Ebrahim Sajjadi Pages 492-503
    Objective
    Colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology where many factors might play a role.  Adiantum capillus-veneris mayhave beneficial effects in colitis because of its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, wound healing and antimicrobial effects. The aim of this study was to explore the anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative effects of A. capillus-veneris on acetic acid-induced colitis in a rat model.
    Materials and Methods
    A. capillus-veneris aqueous (ACAE; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) and hydroalcoholic extract (ACHE; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) were given orally (p.o.) to male Wistar rats 2 hr before induction of colitis by intra-rectal administration of acetic acid 3%, and continued for 4 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and mesalazine (100 mg/kg) were applied p.o., as reference drugs for comparison. On day five, colitis indices of tissue specimens were evaluated and levels of biochemical markers including myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined.
    Results
    In all groups treated with ACAE and ACHE with the exception of ACAE (150 mg/kg), ulcer index and wet weight of colon as parameters of macroscopic injuries, total colitis index as marker of microscopic features and MPO activity were significantly reduced in comparison to the control group; however, MDA value was only diminished in ACAE (300 and 600 mg/kg) and ACHE (300 mg/kg) groups significantly.
    Conclusion
    This research showed that ACAE and ACHE had dose-related beneficial effects on acetic acid-induced colitis and these effects could be attributed to anti-inflammatory, ulcer healing and antioxidant activities of these extracts.
    Keywords: Adiantum capillus-veneris, Colitis, Inflammation, Plant extract, Animal model
  • Hassan Bagheri Yazdi, Mousa Al Reza Hajzadeh, Vida Hojati, Abdolhossein Shiravi, Sara Hosseinian *, Gholamhassan Vaezi Pages 504-512
    Objective

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of Artemisia turanica (AT) against diabetes- induced renal oxidative stress in rats.

    Materials and Methods

    Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, STZ-induced diabetic rats, diabetic rats+ metformin, diabetic rats + AT extract, diabetic rats+ metformin+ AT extract. In the present study, diabetes was induced by a single-dose (55 mg/kg, ip) injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were daily treated with metformin (300 mg/kg), AT extract (70 mg/kg) and metformin+ AT extract for 4 consecutive weeks. Tissue activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol content were measured in kidney tissue. Serum concentrations of glucose, creatinine, and urea, as well as, lipid profile were also measured.

    Results

    STZ significantly increased the levels of glucose, triglyceride, urea and MDA compared to the control group. Total thiol content, as well as, catalase and SOD activities showed significant decreases in diabetic group when compared with the control animals. Serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and renal MDA showed a significant decrease and renal total thiol and the activities of antioxidant enzymes showed significant increases in AT+STZ group compared with the diabetic group. In diabetic rats received AT+ metformin, serum LDL and HDL, renal MDA and SOD and catalase activities significantly improved compared with the diabetic rats.

    Conclusion

    These findings suggested that AT extract has therapeutic effects on renal oxidative damage and lipid profile in diabetes, that possibly may be due to its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects.

    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Artemisia turanica, Metformin, Oxidative stress
  • Fatemeh Amin, Ali Roohbakhsh, Arghavan Memarzia, Hamid Kazerani, MohammadHossein Boskabady * Pages 513-522
    Objective

    Paraquat (PQ) is a herbicide which induces oxidative stress and inflammation. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects were shown for Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) and carvacrol previously. The effects of Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract and carvacrol on systemic inflammation and oxidative stressinduced by inhaled PQ were examined in this study.

    Materials and Methods

    Six groups of male rats used in this study were as follows: control group exposed to normal saline aerosol, one group exposed to PQ 54 mg/m3 aerosol, animals exposed to PQ 54 mg/m3 and treated with Z. multiflora (200 and 800 mg/kg/day) or carvacrol (20 and 80 mg/kg/day) for 16 days after the end of exposure to PQ. Exposure to PQ was performed 8 times, every other day, each time for 30 min. After the end of the treatment period, different variables were measured.

    Results

    Significant increases in nitrite (NO2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and interleukin (IL)-6 serum levels but significant reduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) serum levels as well as IFN-γ/IL-6 ratio were observed in PQ-exposed compared to control group (p2, and IL-6 but increased IFN-γ and IFN-γ/IL-6 ratio compared to un-treated PQ exposed group (p

    Conclusion

    Treatment with Z. multiflora and carvacrol improved systemic inflammation oxidative biomarkers induced by inhaled PQ which may indicate therapeutic potential of the plant and its constituent, carvacrol in systemic inflammation and oxidative biomarkers induced by inhaled PQ.

    Keywords: Paraquat, Zataria multiflora, carvacrol, oxidative biomarkers, inflammation
  • Fataneh Hashem Dabaghian *, Fatemeh Yousefi, Maryam Kashanian, Ismail Nazem, Sodabeh Bioos, Omod Sadeghpour, Jaleh Aliasl Pages 523-532
    Objective

    Golnar product is a poly herbal formulation advised by Persian medicine to control heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of this product with placebo in patients with HMB.

    Materials and Methods

    In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 100 women with HMB were randomly assigned into two groups. The patients in the Golnar group (n=50) took Golnar capsules 500 mg three times a day for the first 7 days of menstrual cycle for three cycles. The placebo group (n=50), took placebo capsules in the same manner. The duration and volume of bleeding (using Pictorial Blood Loss Assessment Chart: PBAC), quality of life (using Menorrhagia Questionnaire: MQ), and hemoglobin level (Hb) were measured 3 months after initiation of the intervention.

    Results

    Eighty-two patients (43 in the Golnar and 39 in the placebo groups) completed the 3-month intervention period. In the Golnar group, PBAC score decreased from 201.62 (144.11) to 109.44 (69.57) (p<0.001) and MQ score improved significantly from 0.58 (0.27) to 0.39 (0.31) (p<0.001), while changes in placebo group were not significant. Hb increased in the Golnar group from 12.78±0.98 to 12.97±0.95 mg/dl (p=0.048) and decreased in the placebo group from 12.94±1.08 to 12.44±1.01mg/dl (p<0.001). No significant adverse effects were found in the Golnar group.

    Conclusion

    The Golnar product can be considered an effective intervention for patients with HMB. Assessment of side-effects is suggested to be performed in a larger sample. In addition, a comparison between the Golnar product and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could be valuable.

    Keywords: Persian Medicine, Herbal Medicine, uterine hemorrhage, Menorrhagia, Clinical trial
  • Fouad Mehraban, Mostafa Mostafazadeh, Hossein Sadeghi, Arsalan Azizi, Mehdi Akbartabar Touri, Bita Gramizadeh, Vahid Barati, Heibatollah Sadeghi * Pages 533-545
    Objective
    Some species of Astragalus are used for the treatment of various types of cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate the anticancer potential of Astragalus ovinus extract (AOE) against DMBA-induced breast carcinoma in rats.
    Materials and Methods
    The anti-tumor and antioxidant effects of AOE were evaluated against DMBA-induced breast carcinoma in rats using DPPH, FRAP and ABTS technique, respectively. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups including the control group received a single dose of DMBA solvent orally, and groups II, III and IV received a single dose of DMBA (40 mg/kg) dissolved in olive oil. Groups I and II received normal saline and groups III and IV were treated with AOE orally (120 and 240 mg/kg respectively) for 60 consecutive days. Chemopreventive effects were assessed in terms of diameter and volume of tumors, expression levels of PCNA, and serum levels of CA15.3, p53, MDA, CAT, and calcium, and histopathological features
    Results
    AOE contained a noticeable amount of phenolic and flavonoids compounds. This extract showed a potent antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo. AOE significantly decreased the diameter and volume of tumors (p<0.01) and reduced the serum levels of CA15.3 (p<0.001), p53 (p<0.01), MDA (p<0.001), and calcium (p<0.01). AOE also decreased the expression of PCNA in cancerous tissues and reduced the histopathological deformity.
    Conclusion
    According to the data, AOE produced a significant chemopreventive activity in DMBA-induced breast tumors in rats, probably due to its antioxidant and its inhibitory effect on some tumorigenicity markers such as CA15.3, p53 and PCNA activity.
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Astragalus, Breast Cancer, Dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA), Rat