فهرست مطالب

تنشهای محیطی در علوم زراعی - سال سیزدهم شماره 3 (پاییز 1399)
  • سال سیزدهم شماره 3 (پاییز 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 25
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  • سمیه میری، حسین صبوری*، علی اکبر عبادی، جواد سجادی صفحات 667-682

    برنج منبع غذایی اصلی بیش از نیمی از جمعیت جهان بوده و نقش مهمی در تغذیه این جمعیت دارد. از آنجایی که برنج به صورت دانه کامل مصرف می شود کیفیت آن اهمیت ویژه ای دارد. در راستای بررسی کیفیت فیزیکی و شیمیایی دانه برنج، در سال زراعی 95-1394، 90 ژنوتیپ برنج در قالب طرح لاتیس در شرایط نرمال و تنش خشکی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه گنبدکاووس کاشته شدند. دراین تحقیق صفات طول دانه، عرض دانه، محیط دانه، مساحت دانه، قطر معادل، خروج از مرکز، میزان آمیلوز، درصد پروتیین و درجه حرارت ژلاتینه شدن اندازه گیری شدند. نتایج سودمندی نشانگر-های ریز ماهواره بیانگر وجود 54 آلل چند شکل و همچنین به طور میانگین 4.9 آلل برای هر نشانگر بود که بیشترین تعداد آنها مربوط به نشانگرهای RM333 وRM589 با 7 آلل بود. تجزیه به مختصات اصلی نشانگر های SSR نشان داد که 10 مولفه اول توانستند 55.58 درصد از تغییرات را توجیه نمایند. تعیین الگو ی باندی ژنوتیپ های مورد مطالعه نشان داد که در شرایط نرمال برای صفات کیفی، ژنوتیپ های 216L،IR59673-93-2-3 و AZUCENA.BALA.225 دارای بیشترین میزان آمیلوز (به ترتیب با 25.8، 25.2 و 24.5) درصد بودند. نتایج حاصل از بررسی تجزیه ارتباط بین صفات اندازه-گیری شده با نشانگر های به کار رفته در این آزمایش نشان داد از میان 104 آلل موثر بر صفات مورد ارزیابی، درجه حرارت ژلاتینه شدن در شرایط نرمال تحت تاثیر سه آلل می باشد و صفات مقدار آمیلوز و میزان پروتیین هر دو تحت تاثیر دو آلل می باشد. آلل RM587-B کنترل کننده دو صفت درجه حرارت ژلاتینه شدن و میزان پروتیین در شرایط نرمال می باشد و معنی دار میباشد. در میان صفت های مرتبط با کیفیت دانه برنج در شرایط نرمال آلل RM587-B در کنترل صفات درجه حرارت ژلاتینه شدن و میزان پروتیین موثر بود. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده از این ارزیابی می-توان از این صفات در برنامه های به نژادی استفاده کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: برنج، تجزیه ارتباطی، تنوع آللی، کیفیت، نشانگرهای SSR
  • سجاد نصیری خلیل الهی، شهریار ساسانی*، غلامحسین احمدی، ماشاءالله دانشور صفحات 683-699

    در این آزمایش، اثر تنش خشکی پایان فصل بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد 20 ژنوتیپ گندم نان شامل ارقام و لاین های پیشرفته در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اسلام آباد غرب (مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه) در قالب طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی، در سه تکرار و دو محیط (بدون تنش و تنش خشکی آخر فصل) طی سال زراعی 91-1390 بررسی شد. تجزیه واریانس ساده نشان داد که بین ژنوتیپ‎ها از لحاظ هیچ‎یک از صفات مورد بررسی در هر دو شرایط بدون تنش و تنش خشکی آخر فصل اختلاف معنی‎داری وجود نداشت. بر اساس تجزیه واریانس مرکب، تفاوت ژنوتیپ‎ها به استثنای تعداد دانه در سنبله، طول پدانکل، طول پنالتی‎میت (دومین میانگره از بالای ساقه) و روز تا رسیدن فیزیولوژیک، از لحاظ سایر صفات معنی‏دار نبود. اثر تنش خشکی آخر فصل بر تمام صفات مورد مطالعه بجز عملکرد بیولوژیک، تعداد دانه در سنبله و طول پدانکل بسیار معنی‎دار بود. تنش خشکی میانگین تمام صفات مطالعه شده بجز طول پدانکل را کاهش داد. بیشترین اثر تنش خشکی، بر میزان عملکرد دانه بود که موجب کاهش 36/55 درصدی آن نسبت به شرایط بدون تنش شد. میانگین عملکرد دانه ژنوتیپ‏ها در شرایط بدون تنش 8955 کیلوگرم و در شرایط تنش 3997 کیلوگرم در هکتار بدست آمد. با استفاده از روش رتبه‎بندی، ژنوتیپ‎های 13، 20، 8، 9، 5 و 6 به‎عنوان متحمل‎ترین ژنوتیپ‎ها شناخته شدند. این ژنوتیپ‎ها بر اساس دیاگرام بای‎پلات نیز به‏ عنوان برترین ژنوتیپ‎ها تحت هر دو شرایط بدون تنش و تنش خشکی آخر فصل شناسایی شدند. می‎توان از این ژنوتیپ‎ها در برنامه‎های به‎نژادی جهت ایجاد ارقام متحمل به خشکی گندم نان استفاده کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: بای‎پلات، تجزیه به مولفه‎های اصلی، روش رتبه‎بندی، شاخص‎های تحمل تنش
  • عباس سلیمانی فرد*، رحیم ناصری صفحات 701-714

    به منظور بررسی روابط موجود بین صفات آگروفیزیولوژیک با عملکرد دانه در گندم نان، تعداد 14 ژنوتیپ تحت شرایط دیم در مزرعه دانشگاه پیام نور مرکز ایلام در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 96-1395 مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که ژنوتیپ های مورد مطالعه به غیر از طول پدانکل و شاخص برداشت، از نظر سایر صفات مورد بررسی، اختلاف معنی داری با یکدیگر داشتند. ژنوتیپ های مورد بررسی برای اکثر صفات تنوع مطلوبی نشان دادند. نتایج آمار توصیفی نشان داد که بیشترین میزان ضریب تغییرات فنوتیپی و ژنوتیپی مربوط به عملکرد دانه بود. بررسی ضرایب همبستگی صفات نشان داد که بالاترین ضریب همبستگی مثبت و معنی دار بین عملکرد دانه با بیوماس بود (**0.85 =r). نتایج تجزیه رگرسیون گام به گام که در آن عملکرد دانه به عنوان متغیر وابسته در برابر صفات مورد بررسی دیگر به عنوان متغیرهای مستقل در نظر گرفته شد، نشان داد که سه صفت بیوماس، شاخص برداشت و وزن هزار دانه به میزان 98 درصد از تغییرات مدل رگرسیونی مربوطه را توجیه کردند. با حذف صفات بیوماس و شاخص برداشت از متغیرهای مستقل، تجزیه رگرسیونی گام به گام برای عملکرد دانه در شرایط دیم انجام شد. سه صفت میزان پرولین، تعداد سنبله در متر مربع و تعداد روز تا رسیدگی وارد شده در مدل، 62 درصد از تغییرات عملکرد دانه در شرایط دیم را توجیه کردند. نتایج تجزیه علیت نشان دادند که بیشترین اثرات مستقیم مثبت مربوط به عملکرد بیوماس، تعداد سنبله در متر مربع و شاخص برداشت بود. نتایج حاکی از آن است که تنوع ژنتیکی بالایی در بین ژنوتیپ های گندم نان مورد بررسی در شرایط دیم وجود دارد. بیوماس، شاخص برداشت، میزان پرولین، تعداد سنبله در مترمربع و زودرسی را می توان به عنوان معیارهای گزینش برای بهبود عملکرد دانه در شرایط دیم معرفی نمود.

    کلیدواژگان: تجزیه علیت، تنش خشکی، شاخص برداشت، رگرسیون گام به گام، عملکرد بیوماس
  • حسن حمیدی، سیده ساناز رمضانپور*، مسعود احمدی، حسن سلطانلو صفحات 715-734

    این آزمایش به منظور ارزیابی تحمل به خشکی هیبرید های تست کراس چغندرقند (57 هیبرید) به همراه هفت شاهد (ارقام IR7، ماندارین، جلگه، پایا، فتورا، SC (7112*SB36) و جمعیت اصلاحی اولیه) در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی در دو آزمایش جداگانه در قالب طرح لاتیس نامتعادل (8×8) با چهار تکرار در سال زراعی 1395 انجام شد. آبیاری ها تا مرحله تنک و وجین (استقرار بوته ها) به طورمعمول انجام شد. آبیاری های بعدی در شرایط بدون تنش پس از 90 میلی متر و در شرایط تنش کم آبیاری پس از 200 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A صورت گرفت. صفات موردمطالعه شامل عملکرد ریشه، درصدقند،عملکردشکر، میزان سدیم، میزان پتاسیم، میزان نیتروژن مضره، ضریب قلیاییت، درصد قندملاس، شکر قابل استحصال، عملکردشکرسفید و ضریب استحصال شکر بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب نشان داد که ازنظر کلیه صفات بین ژنوتیپ های موردبررسی و رژیم های مختلف آبیاری تفاوت معنی داری در سطح یک درصد وجود دارد. بیشترین عملکرد شکر سفید در شرایط بدون تنش و تنش کم آبیاری به ترتیب در هیبرید (7112*SB36)*S1-73 به میزان 13.34 تن در هکتار و رقم شاهد ماندارین به میزان 9.37 تن در هکتار، مشاهده گردید. تجزیه همبستگی بیانگر رابطه مثبت و معنی دار بین عملکرد شکر سفید با عملکرد ریشه، درصد قند، عملکرد شکر، شکر قابل استحصال و ضریب استحصال شکر و همچنین همبستگی منفی و معنی دار با میزان سدیم، پتاسیم، ضریب قلیاییت و درصد قند ملاس تحت هردوشرایط بود. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه رگرسیون گام به گام صفات عملکرد شکر، ضریب استحصال شکر، عملکرد ریشه و درصد قند بیش از99 درصد تغییرات عملکرد شکرسفید را در هر دو شرایط (بدون تنش و تنش کم آبیاری) توجیه کردند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که در شرایط عدم تنش عملکرد ریشه (1.17) و در شرایط تنش نیز عملکرد شکر (0.98) بیشترین اثر مستقیم را بر عملکرد شکر سفید داشته اند. درنهایت، در بین هیبریدهای موردمطالعه، هیبریدهای (7112*SB36)*S1-73، (7112*SB36)*S1-66 و (7112*SB36)*S1-72 که هم ازلحاظ شاخص تحمل به تنش (STI) و هم ازلحاظ صفات عملکردی در شرایط تنش برتر بودند به عنوان متحمل ترین هیبریدها به تنش خشکی معرفی شدند.

    کلیدواژگان: تنش خشکی، شاخص تحمل به تنش، عملکرد شکر سفید، هیبرید
  • حسن زالی*، طاهره حسنلو، امید سفالیان، علی اصغری صفحات 735-747

    این تحقیق به منظور بررسی تاثیر تنش خشکی بر عملکرد روغن و ترکیب اسیدهای چرب کلزا انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار انجام شد. در این طرح، تیمار آبیاری در کرت اصلی در سه سطح شامل تیمار شاهد (آبیاری بعد از 80 میلی متر تبخیر از سطح تشتک تبخیر)، قطع آبیاری از مرحله گل دهی و قطع آبیاری از مرحله خورجین دهی و 6 رقم کلزا که در کرت فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تنش خشکی بر محتوای اسید پالمیتیک، اسید استیاریک، اسید لینولییک و اسید مریستیک معنی دار است و برای سایر اسیدهای چرب و درصد روغن اثر تنش خشکی معنی دار نبود. بین ارقام مورد بررسی، از نظر درصد روغن دانه، درصد اسید استیاریک، اسید اولییک و اسید لینولییک تفاوت معنی داری وجود داشت که این موضوع نشان داد در بین ارقام کلزا از نظر درصد روغن دانه و درصد اسیدهای چرب تنوع وجود دارد. فراوان ترین ترکیب اسیدهای چرب در این تحقیق مربوط به اسید چرب تک غیر اشباع اسید اولییک (67.96 درصد) و اسیدهای چرب چند غیر-اشباع، شامل اسید لینولییک (7.21 درصد) و اسید لینولنیک (8.75 درصد) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی باعث کاهش معنی دار عملکرد شده ولی تاثیر چندانی بر درصد روغن دانه نداشته است. براساس نتایج درصد کل اسیدهای چرب اشباع در هر دو شرایط قطع آبیاری (مرحله گل دهی و خورجین دهی) کاهش معنی داری را نشان داده است. اما تغییرات درصد کل اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع در هر دو شرایط تنش معنی دار نبود. ولی در مجموع نسبت درصد کل اسیدهای چرب غیر اشباع به درصد کل اسیدهای چرب اشباع (TU/TS) افزایش معنی داری را نشان داد. بیش ترین مقدار اسید اولییک، درصد روغن دانه و عملکرد روغن دانه در شرایط بدون تنش و تنش خشکی مربوط به رقم Lilian بود. بنابراین Lilian با عملکردی بیشتر از متوسط کل، رقمی مناسب در برنامه اصلاحی می تواند باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: اسید اولئیک، اسید لینولئیک، پروفیل اسیدهای چرب، تنش خشکی
  • علی کریمی، محمداقبال قبادی*، مختار قبادی، ایرج نصرتی صفحات 749-762

    به منظور بررسی اثر قطع آبیاری در زمان های مختلف رشدی بر مقدار عناصر موجود در دانه ذرت دانه ای (هیبرید سینگل کراس 704)، آزمایشی در تابستان سال 1394 در روستای سیاهگل واقع در شهرستان گیلانغرب (استان کرمانشاه)، در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل شاهد (هر هفته آبیاری) و یک مرتبه قطع آبیاری بمدت دو هفته از 7، 21، 35، 49، 63، 77 و 91 روز پس از کاشت و یک مرتبه قطع آبیاری بمدت سه هفته از 7، 28، 49، 70 و 91 روز پس از کاشت بودند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس صفات نشان داد که قطع آبیاری اثرات معنی داری بر عملکرد دانه، غلظت و عملکرد عناصر مورد بررسی موجود در دانه داشت. بیش ترین عملکرد دانه (13600کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار شاهد به دست آمد. در تیمارهای دو هفته و سه هفته قطع آبیاری در 49 روز بعد از کاشت (ظهور گل آذین نر) نسبت به شاهد تا 97 درصد کاهش داشتند. غلظت عناصر مورد بررسی در تیمارهای دو و سه هفته قطع آبیاری نسبت به شاهد بترتیب به میزان 45-12 و 58-10 درصد افزایش نشان داد. بیشترین غلظت در تیمارهای دو هفته قطع آبیاری در 77 روز پس از کاشت و سه هفته قطع آبیاری در تیمار 49 روز پس از کاشت بدست آمد. در تیمار قطع آبیاری بمدت سه هفته در روز 49 پس از کاشت غلظت عناصر آهن، روی، مس، نیتروژن، پتاسیم، فسفر و سدیم نسبت به شاهد 10.9، 20.7، 46.1، 25.1، 26.8، 48.2 و 58.3 درصد افزایش داشت. بطور کلی نتایج نشان داد که در هر مرحله از رشد و نمو گیاه ذرت که با تنش خشکی مواجه گردد هم بر کاهش عملکرد دانه و هم بر جذب کل عناصر دانه نیز تاثیر دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: آهن، پتاسیم، روی، فسفر، کم آبیاری، نیتروژن
  • هادی سالک معراجی، افشین توکلی* صفحات 763-775

    تنش خشکی مهمترین تنش بوده و عملکرد گیاهان را کاهش می دهد. گلرنگ گیاهی مقاوم به تنش و یکی از مهمترین گیاهان دانه روغنی می باشد. به منظور بررسی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گلرنگ تحت شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تنش خشکی آزمایشی در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان طی دو سال زراعی 1389 و1390 به صورت کرت های یک بار خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل آبیاری مطلوب (0.5- مگاپاسکال) و تنش خشکی (2- مگاپاسکال) و دو رقم گلرنگ (گلدشت و زنده رود) بود. اثر تیمار آبیاری، رقم و سال بر قطر طبق، تعداد طبق اصلی و فرعی معنی دار نشد. بالاترین وزن هزار دانه (35.5 گرم)، عملکرد دانه (2172.4 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، عملکرد زیستی (9006.1 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، شاخص برداشت (25.6 درصد) و عملکرد روغن (634.6 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در آبیاری مطلوب حاصل شد و در سایر صفات تفاوتی بین آبیاری مطلوب و تنش خشکی مشاهده نگردید. بالاترین تعداد دانه در طبق، عملکرد زیستی، درصد روغن و عملکرد روغن در رقم زنده رود بدست آمد و در سایر صفات بین رقم زنده رود و گلدشت تفاوتی وجود نداشت. تنش خشکی عملکرد دانه و عملکرد روغن را به ترتیب به میزان 51 و 65 درصد کاهش داد. درصد روغن تحت شرایط مطلوب آبیاری 8 درصد بالاتر از شرایط تنش خشکی بود. عملکرد دانه، درصد روغن و عملکرد روغن رقم گلدشت به ترتیب 7، 8 و 26 درصد بیشتر از رقم زنده رود بود. نتایج نشان داد که رقم گلدشت نسبت به رقم زنده رود برتری داشته و در شرایط تنش از تحمل بالاتری برخوردار است، بنابراین پیشنهاد می شود در شرایط محدودیت آبیاری، کشت این رقم مد نظر قرار گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: دانه های روغنی، درصد روغن، عملکرد زیستی، کم آبی
  • حمدالله اسکندری*، کامیار کاظمی صفحات 777-792

    به منظور بررسی اثر روش های آبیاری و الگوهای کاشت بر عملکرد دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب گندم و باقلا آزمایشی مزرعه ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال 1396 در شهرستان شادگان اجرا شد. عامل اول شامل روش آبیاری (آبیاری کامل و جزیی سیستم ریشه ای) و عامل دوم شامل الگوهای مختلف کاشت (کشت خالص گندم و باقلا، کشت مخلوط ردیفی یک در میان و کشت مخلوط روی یک ردیف) بود. آبیاری محدود عملکرد دانه گندم را 24.4 درصد کاهش داد. با آبیاری جزیی ریشه، وزن دانه، ارتفاع بوته و عملکرد بیولوژیک گندم در کشت خالص 4، 9 و 9 درصد، در کشت مخلوط روی ردیف های جداگانه 6، 13 و 12 درصد و در کشت مخلوط روی یک ردیف 9، 18 و 18 درصد کاهش پیدا کرد. در آبیاری جزیی ریشه، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد دانه در بوته و عملکرد دانه باقلا به ترتیب 17، 45.8 و 35.9 درصد کاهش یافت. عملکرد باقلا در کشت های مخلوط روی ردیف های جداگانه و روی یک ردیف به ترتیب 88 و 62 درصد کشت خالص بود که نشان می دهد باقلا از کشت مخلوط منتفع شده است. بهره-وری آب با اعمال آبیاری محدود (27 درصد) و کشت مخلوط (59 درصد) بهبود پیدا کرد. نسبت برابری زمین در کشت مخلوط روی یک ردیف و روی ردیف های جداگانه به ترتیب 1.68 و 1.55 بود که به معنی سودمندی کشت مخلوط نسبت به کشت خالص می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری محدود، چند کشتی، مصرف آب، نسبت برابری زمین
  • مختار داشادی*، شهرام گودرزی، عبدالوهاب عبدالهی صفحات 793-803

    با توجه به اهمیت کلزا در تولید روغن بررسی نهاده های مختلف تولید این محصول از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار است. بدین منظور آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار و به مدت دو سال زراعی (82 و 83) در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی بروجرد اجرا گردید. در این طرح سه دور آبیاری شامل 50، 75 و 100 میلی متر تبخیر تجمعی از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A به عنوان کرت اصلی و کود نیتروژن از منبع اوره در سه سطح 112، 160  و 208 کیلوگرم در هکتار به عنوان کرت فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. بذر استفاده شده رقم Regent × Cobra بود. نتایج نشان داد که حداکثر عملکرد دانه مربوط به تیمارهای 50 و 75 میلی متر با میزان عملکرد به ترتیب 3146 و 3165 کیلوگرم بر هکتار بود که با تیمار 100 میلی متر با میزان عملکرد 2684 کیلوگرم بر هکتار اختلاف معنی داری را در سطح 1% نشان دادند همچنین بیشترین تعداد دانه در غلاف و غلاف در بوته از تیمار 50 میلی متر به دست آمد. بیشترین کارایی مصرف آب در تیمار 100 میلی متر با میزان 0.394 کیلوگرم در مترمکعب بود که با سایر تیمارها در سطح 1% اختلاف معنی دار داشت. تاثیر مقادیر مختلف کود نیتروژنه بر صفات اندازه گیری شده از قبیل کارایی مصرف آب، عملکرد دانه، تعداد دانه در غلاف، تعداد غلاف در بوته، ارتفاع بوته و وزن هزار دانه معنی دار شد. اثرات متقابل آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر همه شاخص های اندازه گیری شده معنی دار شد و بیشترین عملکرد از تیمار 75 میلی متر و 112 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره با میزان 3498 کیلوگرم در هکتار و کمترین میزان از تیمار100 میلی متر و 112 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره با میزان 2401 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد؛ بنابراین جهت افزایش عملکرد محصول کلزا تحت شرایط آب و هوایی بروجرد مصرف کود نیتروژنه به میزان 0.7 برابر توصیه موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب و دور آبیاری بر اساس 75 میلی متر تبخیر تجمعی توصیه می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: تنش آبی، درصد روغن، عملکرد دانه، نیتروژن
  • امین فایضی زاده، علیرضا شکوه فر* صفحات 805-814

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر سطوح فیلتر کیک بر صفات مرفولوژیک و عملکرد ذرت تحت سه رژیم مختلف آبیاری، این آزمایش به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح آماری بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه ای واقع در شهرستان حمیدیه در سال 1395 اجراء شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل رژیم های آبیاری در سه سطح آبیاری (60، 90 و 120 میلی متر تبخیر از تشت تبخیر کلاس A) به عنوان عامل اصلی و فیلتر کیک نیشکر در چهار سطح (صفر، 25، 50 و 100 تن در هکتار) به عنوان عامل فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تنش خشکی و کود فیلتر کیک نیشکر بر ارتفاع بوته، طول بلال، عملکرد دانه، تعداد دانه در ردیف و وزن هزار دانه ذرت موثر بوده و این مولفه ها را تحت تاثیر قرار دادند. بیشترین (5590 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کمترین عملکرد دانه (4170 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به ترتیب به تیمار 60 و 120 میلیمتر تبخیر از تشت تعلق گرفت. برهمکنش تیمار 60 میلیتر تبخیر و فیلتر کیک نیشکر تاثیر معنی داری بر ارتفاع بوته و عملکرد دانه داشت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (6170 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار 60 میلیمتر تبخیر و 50 تن در هکتار فیلتر کیک نیشکر بدست آمد. از طرفی کاربرد مقادیر زیاد فیلتر کیک (100 تن در هکتار) به دلیل شوری بالا و تجمع نمک در محیط ریشه باعث ایجاد تنش شوری و در نتیجه کاهش عملکرد اقتصادی گردید. بنابراین، در این تحقیق با کاربرد 50 تن در هکتار فیلترکیک نیشکر و تیمار 60 میلیمتر تبخیر از تشت حداکثر مولفه های تولیدی حاصل شد. که می توان بیان نمود تاثیر مثبت فیلتر کیک بیشتر در شرایط بدون تنش می باشد و در شرایط اعمال تنش خشکی حتی باعث کاهش عملکرد اقتصادی می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: وزن هزار دانه، ارتفاع بوته، عملکرد دانه، شوری
  • الهه عطاردی اصل، ابراهیم خلیل وند بهروزیار* صفحات 815-827

    به منظور بررسی اثر محلول پاشی متانول و اسید سالیسیلیک بر برخی از صفات فیزیولوژیک گندم پاییزه تحت آبیاری محدود، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکدهی کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز در سال زراعی 96-1395 به اجرا در آمد. عامل اصلی دور آبیاری در دو سطح شامل هر هفت روز یک بار (آبیاری کامل) و هر 14 روز یک بار (آبیاری محدود) و ترکیب فاکتوریلی کاربرد متانول (در سه سطح صفر، 10 و 20 درصد) و اسید سالیسیلیک (در دو سطح صفر و نیم درصد) به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. سرعت پر شدن دانه در اثر محلول پاشی 10 درصد متانول و آبیاری کامل، 47 درصد بیشتر از عدم محلول پاشی و آبیاری هر 14 روز یک بار بود. بیشترین دوره موثر پر شدن دانه نیز در اثر محلول پاشی 10 درصد متانول و 0.5 درصد اسید سالیسیلیک و بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار محلول پاشی 0.5 درصد اسید سالیسیلیک و متانول 20 درصد با میانگین 744.7 گرم در مترمربع بود که نسبت به تیمار عدم محلول پاشی افزایش معادل 58 درصد داشت.در شرایط تنش کم آبی، کاربرد اسید سالیسیلیک موجب افزایش معنی دار عملکرد دانه نسبت به تیمار شاهد (بدون کاربرد اسید سالیسیلیک) گردید به طوری که کاربرد تیمار 0.5 درصد اسید سالیسیلیک در شرایط تنش موجب افزایش 65 درصدی عملکرد دانه نسبت به تیمار صفر درصد اسید سالیسیلیک گردید.

    کلیدواژگان: دوره موثر پر شدن دانه، سرعت پر شدن دانه، عملکرد دانه، کلروفیل، محتوای رطوبت نسبی
  • سودابه رضا بیگی، احسان بیژن زاده*، علی بهپوری، وحید براتی صفحات 829-843

    به منظور بررسی اثر سیلیکون بر صفات بیوشیمیایی و عملکرد دو رقم گندم نان و ماکارونی تحت شرایط تنش خشکی پایان فصل، پژوهشی مزرعه ای به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سال زراعی 97-1396 به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تنش خشکی در دو سطح آبیاری مطلوب و قطع آبیاری از اواخر گل دهی، محلول پاشی سیلیکون در سطوح صفر،1، 2 و 3 میلی مولار و دو رقم گندم نان (چمران) و ماکارونی (شبرنگ) بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات اصلی تنش خشکی پایان فصل، ارقام و سیلیکون بر محتوای کلروفیل a و b، آنزیم پراکسیداز و کاتالاز و عملکرد معنی دار بود. محتوای کلروفیل a و b در شرایط تنش خشکی و مصرف 3 میلی مولار سیلیکون به ترتیب 44 و 41 درصد افزایش نسبت به شرایط عدم مصرف سیلیکون داشتند. همچنین فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز و کاتالاز در شرایط تنش خشکی و 3 میلی مولار سیلیکون به ترتیب 35 و 52 درصد افزایش را نشان دادند. در شرایط تنش و عدم مصرف سیلیکون کلروفیل a و b به ترتیب 55 و 58 درصد کاهش داشتند. در رقم چمران کاربرد برگی سیلیکون به میزان 3 میلی مولار محتوای کلروفیل a و b و فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز و کاتالاز را به ترتیب به میزان 54.9، 37.8، 44.8 و 46.7 درصد افزایش داد که درنهایت منجر به افزایش 19.7 درصد عملکرد دانه نسبت به رقم شبرنگ در شرایط تنش خشکی گردید.

    کلیدواژگان: پراکسیداز، رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی، رقم چمران، کاتالاز
  • سیده زینب حسینی، طاهر برزگر*، زهرا قهرمانی، جعفر نیکبخت صفحات 845-855
    به منظور مطالعه تاثیر اسید سالیسیلیک و ماده زیست محرک مگافول بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی گیاه لوبیا سبز تحت رژیم های مختلف آبیاری، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زنجان در سال زراعی 1395-1394 انجام شد. تیمار آبیاری در سه سطح (100، 75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه) و محلول پاشی برگی در هفت سطح شامل سه سطح اسید سالیسیلیک (0.5، 1 و 1.5 میلی مولار)، سه سطح مگافول (0.1، 0.2 و 0.30 درصد) و آب مقطر (شاهد) اعمال شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش کم آبی به طور معنی داری محتوای نسبی آب برگ و شاخص پایداری غشاء را کاهش و نشت یونی، میزان پرولین و فعالیت آنزیم های پراکسیداز و کاتالاز را افزایش داد. کاربرد برگی اسید سالیسیلیک و مگافول به طور معنی داری صفات فیزیولوژیک گیاه را تحت تاثیر قرار داد. بیشترین محتوای نسبی آب برگ در تیمارهای 0.2 و 0.3 درصد مگافول بدست آمد. حداکثر درصد نشت یونی و محتوای پرولین در تیمار 1.5 میلی مولار اسید سالیسیلیک مشاهده شد. بیشترین فعالیت آنزیم پراکسیداز با محلول پاشی مگافول 0.2 درصد با آبیاری 75 درصد نیاز آبی حاصل شد. با توجه به نتایج، تیمار 0.2 مگافول بیشترین تاثیر مثبت را بر صفات فیزیولوژیک گیاه لوبیا سبز داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: پرولین، شاخص پایداری غشاء، کم آبیاری، مگافول، نشت یونی
  • رئوف سیدشریفی*، رضا سید شریفی صفحات 857-869

    به منظور بررسی اثر قطع آبیاری در مراحل زایشی و کاربرد کودهای زیستی و متانول بر عملکرد و برخی صفات بیوشیمیایی نخود، آزمایش فاکتوریلی در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1396 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی کاربرد متانول در سه سطح (عدم مصرف به عنوان شاهد، کاربرد 20 و30 درصد حجمی)، کودهای زیستی در چهار سطح (محلول پاشی با آب به عنوان شاهد، کاربرد ریزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم، کاربرد توام میکوریز و ریزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم، کاربرد ریزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم با سودوموناس و میکوریز) و سه سطح آبیاری (آبیاری کامل به عنوان شاهد، محدودیت شدید آبی یا قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و محدودیت ملایم آبی یا قطع آبیاری در مرحله شروع نیام دهی) را شامل می شدند. نتایج نشان داد که قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی محتوای پرولین و فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانی (همچون کاتالاز، پراکسیداز و پلی فنل اکسیداز) افزایش، ولی محتوای کلروفیل، عملکرد کوانتومی و عملکرد دانه ی نخود را کاهش داد. کاربرد متانول فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدان را کاهش ولی محتوای پرولین، کلروفیل و عملکرد کوانتومی را افزایش داد. همچنین کاربرد کودهای زیستی موجب افزایش محتوای پرولین، فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانی، محتوای کلروفیل، عملکرد کوانتومی و عملکرد دانه شد. آبیاری کامل با مقادیر بالای متانول و کاربرد توام میکوریز با ریزوبیوم و سودوموناس 111 درصد عملکرد دانه را در مقایسه با عدم استفاده از متانول و کودهای زیستی تحت شرایط قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی افزایش داد.

    کلیدواژگان: ریزوبیوم لگومینوزاروم، سودوموناس، عملکرد، میکوریز، محدودیت آبی
  • ابوالقاسم مرادقلی، حمیدرضا مبصر*، حمیدرضا گنجعلی، حمیدرضا فنایی، احمد مهربان صفحات 871-887
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر کودهای زیستی در رژیم های مختلف رطوبتی، بر ویژگی های مورفوفیزیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه گندم رقم ارگ آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار طراحی گردید که در سال زراعی 96-95 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی زهک-زابل اجرا شد. رژیم آبیاری در سه سطح شامل: آبیاری پس از 45% (شاهد)، 65% تخلیه رطوبتی از خاک (تنش متوسط) و 85% تخلیه رطوبتی از خاک (تنش شدید)؛ به عنوان کرت اصلی و منابع کود زیستی به همراه کود شیمیایی در هفت سطح شامل: کاربرد کود شیمیایی عرف منطقه (شاهد) ، کاربرد کود زیستی ازتوباکتر به همراه کود شیمیایی عرف منطقه، کود زیستی ازتوباکتر به همراه 50% کود شیمیایی عرف، کود زیستی فسفا باکتر به همراه کود شیمیایی عرف منطقه، کود زیستی فسفاباکتر به همراه 50% کود شیمیایی مطابق شاهد، کود زیستی ازتوباکتر و فسفا باکتر به همراه کود شیمیایی عرف منطقه، کود زیستی ازتو باکتر و فسفاباکتر به همراه 50% کود شیمیایی عرف منطقه به عنوان کرت فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد، اثر متقابل تنش خشکی و کود زیستی بر عملکرد دانه در سطح احتمال 1% معنی دار بود. به طوری که در تنش شدید رژیم رطوبتی، کودهای زیستی (با میانگین 6237 کیلوگرم در هکتار) نسبت به شاهد 8/38 درصد افزایش داشته است. همچنین این بهبود و افزایش در وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت به ترتیب 27.6 و 17.8 و 29.6 درصد نسبت به شاهد شده است. به طورکلی، نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که آبیاری تحت شرایط کمبود رطوبت در همه مراحل رشد با استفاده از کودهای زیستی ازتوباکتر و فسفاباکتر تاثیر مثبت در بهبود عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت و شاخص کلروفیل برگ داشتند و اثرات منفی رژیم رطوبتی را بهبود بخشیدند.
    کلیدواژگان: ازتوباکتر، تخلیه رطوبتی، فسفاباکتر، گندم ارگ، عملکرد
  • سارا داودی، مانی مجدم*، خوشناز پاینده صفحات 889-901

    به منظور بررسی اثر توام ورمی کمپوست و سوپرجاذب بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی لوبیا چشم بلبلی تحت شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1396 در شهرستان خرمشهر به صورت کرت-های یک بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار اجراء گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تنش خشکی در دو سطح (65 و 130) میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A در کرت های اصلی و اثر توام کود آلی ورمی کمپوست و سوپرجاذب در چهار سطح (عدم کاربرد کود (شاهد)، 5 تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست + 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب، 5 تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست + 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب، 5 تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست) در کرت های فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان که تنش خشکی تاثیر معنی داری بر صفات عملکرد دانه، تعداد نیام در بوته، تعداد دانه در نیام و عملکرد پروتیین داشت. هم چنین اثر توام کود آلی ورمی کمپوست و سوپرجاذب به طور معنی داری عملکرد دانه و عملکرد پروتیین را تحت تاثیر قرار داد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه با میانگین 207.32 گرم در مترمربع از تیمار 5 تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست + 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب (که با تیمار 5 تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست + 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب تفاوت معنی داری نداشت) و کمترین با میانگین 174.26 گرم در مترمربع از تیمار عدم کاربرد کود بدست آمد. برهمکنش تنش خشکی و اثر توام کود بیولوژیکی ورمی کمپوست تاثیر معنی داری بر عملکرد دانه داشت. بیشترین عملکرد دانه با میانگین 225.29 کیلوگرم در هکتار از تیمار آبیاری پس از 65 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک و 5 تن در هکتار ورمی کمپوست + 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب حاصل شد. در نهایت می توان چنین گفت که استفاده از سوپرجاذب و ورمی-کمپوست علاوه بر افزایش در عملکرد کمی و کیفی لوبیا چشم بلبلی، می تواند نقش به سزایی جهت صرفه جویی در آب آبیاری ایفا کند.

    کلیدواژگان: سوپرجاذب، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد پروتئین
  • مهدی صفری زارچ*، غلامرضا خواجویی نژاد، علی اکبر مقصودی مود، قاسم محمدی نژاد صفحات 903-914

    اگرچه زعفران یک گیاه کم توقع از نظر نیاز غذایی و آبی محسوب می شود، اما ارزش تجاری آن از یک طرف و محدودیت منابع آب از طرف دیگر سبب شده که بررسی اثرات تنش خشکی بر روی اجزای مختلف این گیاه دارای اهمیت ویژه ای در کشورمان باشد. یک آزمایش مزرعه ای دو ساله در استان یزد به منظور بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف آب مصرفی و پلیمر سوپرجاذب بر شاخص های رشدی و عملکردی زعفران انجام شد. این آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی و بصورت اسپلیت پلات در 3 تکرار اجرا گردید. کرتهای اصلی شامل سه سطح آبیاری (50، 75 و 100 درصد تبخیر و تعرق، ET) و کرت های فرعی شامل سه سطح مختلف پلیمر سوپرجاذب به میزان 10، 30 و 50 گرم بر مترمربع بود که به دو شیوه ردیفی و پخش یکنواخت در کرت های آزمایشی اعمال گردیدند. در نهایت، تاثیر تیمارهای اصلی و فرعی بر شاخص های مورد نظر بررسی و با تیمار شاهد (بدون مصرف سوپرجاذب) مقایسه شد. نتایج حاصله نشان داد که با افزایش حجم آبیاری، تعداد گل، وزن خشک کلاله و وزن کل بنه ها افزایش اما میزان تراوش یونی کاهش یافت. در اغلب موارد مصرف سوپر جاذب به مقدار 30 تا 50 گرم بصورت توزیع یکنواخت روی سطح زمین و یا مصرف 10 گرم سوپر جاذب بصورت ردیفی در زیر ردیف های کاشت نتیجه بهتری را در مقایسه با شاهد و سایر تیمارها داشت.مصرف سوپرجاذب در شرایط تنش خشکی با هدف افزایش محتوای آب برگ زعفران مفید و قابل توصیه بوده ولی در شرایط عدم تنش، غیرقابل توصیه خواهد بود.

    کلیدواژگان: تراوش یونی، تنش خشکی، رشد رویشی، زعفران، نیاز آبی
  • زهرا زینتی، عباس عالم زاده*، علی نیازی، اسماعیل ابراهیمی صفحات 915-924

    تنش شوری یکی از مهمترین عوامل کاهش عملکرد گیاهان زراعی در سراسر جهان می باشد. مرگ سلولی برنامه ریزی شده نقش مهمی در سازگاری به تنش های محیطی ایفا می کند. درک مبانی مولکولی مکانیسم این فرآیند، امکان دستورزی ژنتیکی هدفمند گیاهان در جهت تحمل به تنش های محیطی را فراهم می کند. یک تنظیم کننده کاندید برای چنین مکانیسمی BAX Inhibitor 1 است. در این پژوهش، نقش احتمالی ژن رمز کننده BAX Inhibitor 1-like protein در تحمل به تنش شوری با استفاده از ابزارهای بیوانفورماتیکی از قبیل آنالیز پروموتر و شبکه تنظیمی ژنی و همچنین بررسی بیان نسبی ژن در شاخساره رقم مقاوم ارگ، رقم حساس الموت و خویشاوند وحشی Aegilops crassa با استفاده از Real-time PCR مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. با توجه به آنالیز شبکه تنظیمی، احتمالا این ژن در بالادست مسیر پیام رسانی SOS عمل می کند. بر اساس آنالیز پروموتر وجود موتیف های پاسخ به تنش از جمله موتیف های ABRE (پاسخ دهنده به آبسزیک اسید)، LTR(پاسخ دهنده به دمای پایین)، MBS (پاسخ دهنده به خشکی)، CGTCA-motif (پاسخ دهنده به متیل جاسمونات)، TGACG-motif (پاسخ دهنده به متیل جاسمونات)، ERE (پاسخ دهنده به اتیلن)، و GT-1 motif (عنصر پاسخ به شوری) تاییدی بر نقش این ژن در تنش های مختلف محیطی از جمله شوری می باشد. همچنین الگوی بیان ژن مورد مطالعه تحت تنش شوری بین ژنوتیپ های مقاوم و حساس اختلاف معنی داری داشت. در مجموع چنین نتیجه گیری می شود که ژن رمز کننده این پروتیین می تواند در القای تحمل به شوری در گندم نقش داشته باشد و جهت دستورزی ژنتیکی با هدف بهبود تحمل به تنش مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: پروموتر، تنش شوری، شبکه تنظیمی، گندم، BAX Inhibitor 1-like protein
  • وحید اطلسی پاک*، امید بهمنی، حسین یادگاری صفحات 925-936

    درک مکانیسم های تحمل به شوری در گسترش ارقام متحمل ضروری به نظر می رسد. دو رقم گندم نان (ارگ و تجن) متفاوت از لحاظ تجمع سدیم اندام هوایی و یک رقم گندم دوروم (بهرنگ) از نظر دمای برگ و الگوی تجمع سدیم در آزمایشی گلخانه ای تحت سطوح متفاوت شوری (شاهد: بدون تنش، 100 و 200 میلی مولار کلرید سدیم) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. در واکنش به افزایش شوری غلظت سدیم ریشه و اندام هوایی افزایش پیدا کرد اما این افزایش در ریشه ها بیشتر بود. تنش شوری وزن خشک اندام هوایی را در ارقام گندم نان 32 درصد و در رقم بهرنگ 63 درصد کاهش داد. در شوری 200 میلی مولار، 45 روز پس از اعمال تنش شوری نسبت پتاسیم به سدیم اندام هوایی در همه ارقام حدود 60 درصد کاهش یافت و بالاترین مقدار کاهش کلروفیل در این سطح از شوری مربوط به رقم بهرنگ و به مقدار 75 درصد بود. اختلاف بین غلظت سدیم برگ ها در ارقام گندم نان 45 روز پس از اعمال تنش شوری قابل ملاحظه بود اما در مراحل دیگر رشد تفاوت چندانی مشاهده نشد. رقم ارگ در شوری 200 میلی مولار افزایش ناچیز و غیر معنی داری در دمای برگ (0.87 درجه سانتی گراد) داشت اما در رقم تجن (1.47 درجه سانتی گراد) و در رقم بهرنگ (4.30 درجه سانتی گراد) این افزایش معنی دار بود. در طی زمان ممکن است الگوهای متفاوتی از تجمع سدیم در ارقام گندم وجود داشته باشد، به نظر می رسد در مراحل اولیه رشد گیاه، عوامل روزنه ای فتوسنتز نسبت به میزان کلروفیل از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردار بوده و از آنجا که دمای برگ تابعی از هدایت روزنه ای می باشد احتمالا می توان از آن در ارزیابی تحمل به تنش اسمزی استفاده نمود.

    کلیدواژگان: تحمل به شوری، تنش اسمزی، کلروفیل، هدایت روزنه ای
  • مهدی کریمی* صفحات 937-951

    این پژوهش مزرعه ای با هدف بررسی مقدار کود اوره موردنیاز گندم در سطوح مختلف شوری آب آبیاری طراحی و در ایستگاه تحقیقات شوری صدوق یزد که مجهز به استخرهای ذخیره آب با کیفیت های مختلف است اجرا شد. این تحقیق دارای سه سطح شوری آب آبیاری 1.88، 7.22 و 16.14 دسی زیمنس برمتر و پنج سطح کود اوره شامل 0 (صفر)، 100، 200، 300 و 400 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. آزمایش در قالب طرح آماری بلوک های کامل تصادفی و به صورت اسپلیت پلات با سه تکرار اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که مصرف کود اوره در کلیه سطوح شوری آب آبیاری ضرورت دارد. الگوی پاسخ گندم به کود نیتروژنی در هر سه سطح شوری مشابه بود و از معادله درجه دوم پیروی کرد، لیکن با افزایش شدت تنش شوری، شیب افزایش عملکرد کاهش یافت. هم چنین نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که با افزایش شوری آب آبیاری از 1.88 به 7.22 دسی زیمنس بر متر عملکرد دانه گندم کاهش معنی داری نداشت و نیاز کودی نیز تغییری نکرد. اما با افزایش شوری آب آبیاری به 16.14 دسی زیمنس بر متر میزان عملکرد دانه به میزان یک تن و اوره موردنیاز به میزان 140 کیلوگرم در هکتار کاهش یافت. درمجموع، نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که برای تولید حدود 4.5 تن دانه گندم با استفاده از آب آبیاری با هدایت الکتریکی 1.88 تا 7.22 دسی زیمنس بر متر در شرایط گرم و خشک استان یزد مصرف کود اوره به ترتیب به میزان 400 و 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار و برای تولید 3.6 تن در هکتار عملکرد دانه با استفاده از آب آبیاری با هدایت الکتریکی 16.14 دسی زیمنس بر متر مصرف 260 کیلوگرم در هکتار اوره کفایت می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: تولید گندم، خاک آهکی، شوری آب آبیاری، یزد
  • جهانبخش میرزاوند*، محمود چهره نگار، مهدی زارع صفحات 953-967

    تنش شوری و کمبود عناصر غذایی کم مصرف از مهم ترین عوامل محدود کننده تولید کمی و کیفی ذرت علوفه ای در خاک های آهکی مناطق مرکزی ایران می باشند. از این رو به منظور بررسی اثر روش های کاربرد آهن و روی بر عملکرد و ترکیب شیمیایی ذرت علوفه ای تحت شوری آب آبیاری، پژوهشی مزرعه ای در سال 1394 به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ارسنجان فارس اجرا شد. تیمارها ترکیبی از 3 سطح هدایت الکتریکی آب آبیاری شامل 2، 4 و 6 (dS m-1) و 12 روش کاربرد کودهای سولفات روی، سولفات آهن و کلات آهن بودند. نتایج نشان داد افزایش هدایت الکتریکی آب آبیاری از 2 به 6 (dS m-1) منجر به کاهش 5/12 درصدی عملکرد علوفه تر و کاهش 43 درصدی محتوای عناصر غذایی همانند پتاسیم، فسفر، کلسیم، مس، منگنز، آهن و روی در علوفه ذرت شد. بیشترین عملکرد علوفه تر ذرت (Ton ha-1 77/71) در شرایط آبیاری با هدایت الکتریکی 2 (dS m-1) و مصرف خاکی کلات آهن به علاوه محلول پاشی با سولفات روی حاصل شد. در آبیاری 4 و 6 (dS m-1)، بیشترین عملکرد علوفه تر با کاربرد خاکی و توام سولفات روی و کلات آهن به علاوه بذرمالی بذور با سولفات آهن به دست آمد. با افزایش سطح تنش، کاربرد ترکیبی عناصر غذایی آهن و روی در مقایسه با کاربرد جداگانه موثرتر واقع شد و در این شرایط عملکرد کمی و کیفی محصول ذرت علوفه ای بیش از 13 درصد افزایش یافت. به-طورکلی، در یک خاک آهکی با انتخاب روش مناسب کوددهی در شرایط تنش شوری ضمن حفظ پتانسیل عملکرد محصول ذرت علوفه ای می توان تقاضا برای آب غیر شور را نیز کاهش داد.

    کلیدواژگان: بذرمالی، سولفات روی، کلات آهن، کیفیت علوفه، محلول پاشی
  • مرتضی ایرجی مارشک، محمد مقدم* صفحات 969-982

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر قارچ های مایکوریزا بر خصوصیات رشدی و جذب عناصر جعفری مکزیکی (.Tagetes minuta L) تحت تنش شوری آزمایش گلدانی بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در 3 تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. فاکتور اول کاربرد قارچ میکوریزا در سه سطح (عدم تلقیح، Rhizophagus intradices و Funnetiformis mosseae) و فاکتور دوم شامل 4 سطح شوری آب آبیاری (0، 40، 80 و 120 میلی مولار کلرید سدیم) بود. نتایج نشان داد کلیه صفات رشدی در اثر تنش شوری به شدت کاهش یافتند و کاربرد مایکوریزا باعث تعدیل اثرات مضر شوری و مقاومت گیاه به شوری گردید. بیشترین تعداد گره (12.89)، قطر ساقه (7.49 میلی متر)، ارتفاع بوته (65.75 سانتی متر) و تعداد شاخه جانبی (23.33) در تیمار بدون تنش شوری همراه با کاربرد قارچ مایکوریزا رایزوفاجوس اینترادیکس حاصل شد. با افزایش شوری میزان فسفر، کلسیم، سدیم، کلر و نیتروژن برگ افزایش و در مقابل میزان پتاسیم، منگنز، روی و آهن آن کاهش یافت. بیشترین میزان فسفر برگ (8.5 میلی گرم بر گرم وزن خشک برگ) در بالاترین سطح تنش شوری و کاربرد قارچ فونتی فورمیس موسه آ، بیشترین میزان سدیم (33/123 میلی گرم بر گرم وزن خشک برگ) و کلر برگ (63.09 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم وزن خشک برگ) در تیمار 120 میلی مولار شوری و بدون کاربرد مایکوریزا مشاهده شد. این در حالی است که بیشترین میزان پتاسیم برگ (6.23 میلی گرم بر گرم وزن خشک برگ) در تیمار فاقد شوری و بدون کاربرد قارچ های مایکوریزا، بیشترین میزان منگنز برگ (143.91 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم وزن خشک برگ) در تیمار 40 میلی مولار شوری و کاربرد موسه آ و بیشترین میزان روی برگ (7.12 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم وزن خشک برگ) در تیمار فاقد شوری و کاربرد موسه آ ثبت شد. نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش نشان داد که شوری سبب کاهش میزان رشد و کاربرد مایکوریزا در این شرایط باعث بهبود رشد و جذب عناصرغذایی شد.استفاده از قارچ های مایکوریزا بخصوص فونتی فورمیس موسه آ به عنوان یک راهکار مناسب برای افزایش مقاومت به شوری در گیاه جعفری مکزیکی توصیه می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: شوری، صفات مورفولوژیک، عناصر غذایی، کود زیستی، گیاهان دارویی
  • زهرا حیدری، حسینعلی اسدی قارنه*، جمشید رزمجو صفحات 983-993

    شوری آب آبیاری در بسیاری از نقاط جهان به عنوان عامل محدود کننده رشد و عملکرد گیاهان به شمار می آید. گونه های مختلف مریم گلی دارای خواص متعدد دارویی و درمانی هستند. به منظور ارزیابی اثر تنش شوری بر صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک گیاه مریم گلی مزرعه روی (Salvia nemorosa L.)، آزمایشی به صورت طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با 4 تیمار شوری شامل شاهد (12 میلی مولار)، 50، 75 و 100 میلی مولار محلول کلرید سدیم و در 5 تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات سازمان پارک ها و فضای سبز شهر اصفهان در سال 1397 انجام شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده ها نشان داد شوری تاثیر معنی داری بر ارتفاع گیاه، تعداد برگ، طول و عرض برگ، طول گل آذین، تعداد گل آذین در هر بوته، تعداد گل در هر گل آذین، تعداد بذر در گل آذین، وزن تر و خشک اندام هوایی، وزن تر و خشک ریشه، میزان کلروفیل a، b و کل دارد. صفات مذکور در سطح شوری100 میلی مولار به ترتیب 20.56، 68.95، 54.41، 27.97، 9.19، 82.85، 41.45، 62.31، 60.47، 53.84، 23.13، 34.09، 66.66، 62.5 و 64.7 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش نشان دادند. شوری بر میزان پرولین و فنول کل نیز تاثیر معنی داری داشت و میزان پرولین و فنول کل در تیمار100میلی مولار کلرید سدیم نسبت به تیمار شاهد به ترتیب 62.5 و 96.17 درصد افزایش نشان داد. با توجه به این که اعمال شوری بالاتر از 50 میلی مولار کلرید سدیم منجر به کاهش معنی دار وزن تر و خشک ریشه و وزن خشک اندام هوایی گردید و علایم زردی و سوختگی در نمونه های گیاهی مشاهده شد، می توان نتیجه گرفت که گیاه مریم گلی مزرعه روی سطوح شوری تا 50 میلی مولار کلرید سدیم را می تواند تحمل کند و نسبت به سطوح بالاتر شوری حساسیت نشان می دهد.

    کلیدواژگان: پرولین، تنش غیر زیستی، فنول کل، صفات مورفولوژیک
  • محسن ملک، ساعد حمیدی، فرشید قادری فر*، مرتضی گرزین، محمدهادی پهلوانی، محسن اسماعیل زاده مقدم صفحات 995-1007

    دما یکی از مهم‏ترین عوامل کنترل کننده جوانه ‏زنی بذر در گیاهان مختلف محسوب می‏شود. همچنین، دما نقش مهمی در القا و یا رفع کمون بذرها ایفا می‏کند. این موضوع می‏تواند در مدیریت زراعی نظیر تعیین زمان کاشت، پیش‏تیمار بذرها در زمان کاشت و یا شرایط انبارداری بسیار مهم باشد. ازاین رو، این مطالعه به منظور بررسی اثرات دما بر درصد و سرعت جوانه زنی و همچنین، القای کمون در بذرهای 15 رقم جو صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد بین ارقام ازلحاظ درصد جوانه زنی در دماهای مختلف اختلاف قابل توجهی وجود داشت و بیشترین اختلاف نیز در دماهای بالا (به‏ ویژه در دمای 35 درجه سانتی گراد) مشاهده شد. دماهای کاردینال جوانه ‏زنی نیز در ارقام مختلف جو متمایز از یکدیگر بود. بیشترین اختلاف مربوط به دمای پایه و دمای مطلوب جوانه زنی بود و ازلحاظ دمای سقف اختلاف معنی‏ داری بین ارقام موردبررسی مشاهده نشد. در این مطالعه، علت عدم جوانه زنی بذرهای جو در دمای بالا نیز بررسی شد و نتایج حاکی از این بود که عدم جوانه زنی در دمای بالا بخشی مربوط به القای کمون و بخشی مربوط به مرگ بذرها پس از قرارگیری در دمای بالا می‏باشد. با افزایش مدت زمان قرارگیری بذرها در دمای بالا قابلیت جوانه زنی و مرگ بذرها به ترتیب به صورت نمایی کاهش و افزایش یافت. از طرفی، القای کمون در بذرها از یک توزیع نرمال تبعیت کرد، به طوری که با افزایش زمان قرارگیری بذرها در دمای بالا ظرفیت القای کمون ابتدا افزایش و سپس کاهش یافت. در این مطالعه مشخص شد که دو رقم ارم و ارس در مقایسه با سایر ارقام از ظرفیت القای کمون بالاتر و دو رقم صحرا و جنوب از ظرفیت القای کمون پایین‏تری برخوردار بودند.

    کلیدواژگان: بازدارندگی دمایی، حساسیت دمایی، دماهای کاردینال جوانه زنی، سرعت جوانه زنی، کمون ناشی از دمای بالا
  • محسن اصغری*، ابوالفضل معصومی زواریان، مجتبی یوسفی راد صفحات 1009-1018

    این تحقیق به منظور بررسی اثر سدیم نیتروپروساید در کاهش سمیت ناشی از کادمیوم در گیاه ریحان به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در سال 97-1396 اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای اعمال شده در این تحقیق شامل کادمیوم در سطوح صفر (شاهد)، 10، 20 و 30 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم خاک و محلول پاشی سدیم نیتروپروساید در سطوح صفر (شاهد)، 50 و 100 میکرومولار بود. صفات اندازه گیری شامل ارتفاع بوته، خشک بوته، تعداد برگ در بوته، درصد اسانس، مالون دی آلدیید، فعالیت آنزیم آنتی اکسیدان سوپراکسید دیسموتاز، پرولین و غلظت کادمیوم بود. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که کادمیوم باعث کاهش ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک بوته، تعداد برگ در بوته، درصد اسانس و فعالیت سوپراکسید دیسموتاز و افزایش پرولین، غلظت کادمیوم و مالون دی آلدیید شد. بیشترین تاثیر کادمیوم در تیمار 30 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم خاک به دست آمد. همچنین مشاهده شد که کاربرد سدیم نیتروپروساید توانست موجب افزایش ارتفاع بوته، وزن خشک بوته، تعداد برگ در بوته، درصد اسانس و فعالیت سوپراکسید دیسموتاز و کاهش پرولین، غلظت کادمیوم و مالون دی آلدیید شود، به طور کلی بیشترین تاثیر مثبت در کاربرد 100 میکرومولار سدیم نیتروپروساید حاصل گردید. بر اساس نتایج، محلول پاشی سدیم نیتروپروساید توانست باعث بهبود خصوصیات رویشی و کاهش مالون دی آلدیید در شرایط تنش فلز سنگین کادمیوم گردد. می توان از نتایج به دست آمده به اثرات مثبت سدیم نیتروپروساید به خصوص در شرایط حضور کادمیوم و کاهش اثرات منفی ناشی از آن تنش در گیاه دارویی ریحان پی برد. بنابراین کاربرد 100 میکرومولار سدیم نیتروپروساید برای تعدیل بخشیدن اثرات منفی ناشی از تنش فلز سنگین کادمیوم پیشنهاد می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: تنش فلز سنگین، ریحان، سدیم نیتروپروساید، کادمیوم، مالون دی آلدئید
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  • Somayeh Miri, Hossein Sabouri *, AliAkbar Ebadi, Sayed Javad Sajadi Pages 667-682
    Introduction

    Rice is a major source of food for more than half of the world's population. Rice is one of the smallest genomes in grain size, and it has been used as an ideal crop for evolutionary research of cereals and important crop species. Rice is a diploid plant and its genome length is short. Rainfed lowland rice is the second most important rice ecosystem, representing about 25% of the total rice production area. Fields do not receive irrigation, relying entirely on rainfall or drainage from higher lands in a watershed. Quality is of paramount importance as rice is consumed in full grain form. In Iran, rice quality is generally more important than yield, and Iranian tastes prefer aromatic rice with long grain length and low grain breadth. The purpose of this study was to identify effective markers on morphological traits, with a total of 20 indicative markers identified in both crop conditions. According to the results obtained from this assessment, they can be used in breeding programs.

    Materials and methods

    This study was carried out in a research field of Gonbad-e-Kavous University in the year 2015-2016, in the form of Latis design in 3 replications, from 90 rice genotypes under normal conditions and drought stress using 11 drought tolerant markers. In this experiment, six physical traits of grain (brown and white rice) and three qualitative traits of rice grain were evaluated. These included: grain length, grain width, grain size, grain circumference, Equilibrium grain balance and Eccentricity of rice grain and percentage of protein, Amylose content and gelatinization temperature. DNA extractions were then extracted according to the CTAB method.

    Results

    The beneficial results of microsatellite markers indicated that there were 54 polymorphic alleles, with the highest number of RM333 and RM589 with 7 alleles. In the analysis of the main components of SSR markers related to drought tolerance, the first 10 components were able to justify 55.58% of the variation. Clustering results divided genotypes into six groups. Investigating the adhesive patterns formed on acrylamide gel from 11 markers on 90 rice genotypes. The genotypes were grouped together in order to match the allelic pattern. Amylose content, protein content, gelatinization temperature for qualitative traits and quantitative traits of grain length and width (brown and white rice) of each group as a measure of groups. A comparison was made for drought tolerance, with a total of 20 groups identified. The results of the analysis of the relationship between the measured traits showed that among the 104 effective alleles on the traits, the effect of the RM6349-D allele with 9.99 had the greatest effect on the traits of the grain environment. Seedlings are affected by 8 alleles, the equivalent diameter of seeds with 7 alleles, length and area characteristics of seedlings with 6 alleles

    Conclusion

    Band pattern showed that genotypes can be grouped into a group in terms of matching the allelic pattern. The analysis of the main components of SSR-related drought tolerance markers with 10 components could justify more than 50% of the variation. Cluster analysis by line grouping identified the value of each group for the traits assessed.

    Keywords: Allele diversity, Association analysis, quality, Rice, SSR markers
  • Sajad Nasiri Khalilelahi, Shahryar Sasani *, GholamHossein Ahmadi, Mashallah Daneshvar Pages 683-699
    Introduction

    Identification and introduction of drought stress tolerant cultivars has always been a high priority in agricultural research. Investigating and comparing genotypes in terms of yield and other important agronomical traits under different environmental conditions is one of the primary and important steps to achieve this goal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the terminal drought stress on some agronomic traits of 20 bread wheat genotypes, studying the agronomical and physiological response of the genotypes and also identifying the suitable genotype to be nominated for planting in areas with terminal drought stress.

    Materials and methods

    At this research, 20 bread-wheat genotypes including cultivars and elite lines were evaluated using Randomized Complete Blocks Design (CRBD) with three replicates under non-stress and terminal drought stress conditions at Islamabad-e-Gharb Agricultural Research Station (Kermanshah Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Centre) during 2011-2012 cropping year. Each plot consisted of six 6 meter rows with 22.5 cm row spacing (plot size 7.2 m2). Plots were machine-drilled by Wintersteiger plot seeder with 400 seeds per square meter density. Irrigation was carried out in non-stress conditions for all genotypes until the physiological maturity stage. But in the stress conditions, irrigation continued until the booting stage and then cut off and non-irrigation continued until the end of the growing season. During the growing season, the traits were evaluated and measured. At full physiological maturity, all the rows of each plot were machine-harvested by small-plot combine (Wintersteiger harvester).

    Results

    Simple ANOVA exhibited non-significant differences among the genotypes for all studied traits under both non-stress and terminal drought stress conditions. The result of the combined analysis of variance indicated there is no significant difference among genotypes for all of the studied traits except grain number per spike, peduncle length, penultimate length and day to physiological maturity. The effect of environment (drought stress) was significant on all studied traits except for biological yield, the number of kernels per spike and peduncle length. The stress intensity in this study was 0.55. Drought stress reduced the average of all studied traits except peduncle length. However, it had the highest effect on kernel yield by 55.36% reduction. The genotype × environment was not significant for any of the traits. The mean kernel yields of the genotypes were 8955 and 3997 kg/ha under non-stress and stress condition, respectively. Correlations of kernel yield with penultimate length and hectolitre weight were positive and significant at 1% and 5% probability levels, respectively. Genotypes 13, 20, 8, 9, 5 and 6 were identified as the most tolerant genotypes based on the ranking method and the principal components analysis.

    Conclusions

    Most of studied traits, especially kernel yield, were significantly affected by drought stress. Drought stress had the highest effect on kernel yield by 55.36% reduction. The results showed that in order to evaluate drought stress tolerance, selection of genotypes should be based on several indices or based on the average of the indices rating. Therefore, genotypes 13, 20, 8, 9, 5 and 6 were identified as the most tolerant genotypes based on the ranking method. These genotypes were also identified as the superior genotypes based on biplot diagrams under both non-stress and terminal drought stress conditions. These genotypes can be used in breeding programs in order to produce new bread wheat tolerant cultivars. Genotypes 14, 18, 15, 10 and 11 can be suggested for irrigated and non-stress conditions. The study of drought tolerance indices showed that MP, GMP, STI, HAM, K1STI and K2STI have better efficiency for selection of high yielding and tolerant genotypes.

    Keywords: Biplot, Drought tolerance indices, Principal component analysis, Ranking method
  • Abbas Soleimani Fard *, Rahim Naseri Pages 701-714
    Introduction

    Drought stress, which is the most severe environmental problem limiting crop production in rainfed farming, can harshly affect plant growth and development, limit plant production and the crop performance. Drought stress is a polygenic stress and is considered as one of the most main factors limiting crop. The capability of a cultivar to produce high and satisfactory yield over a wide range of stress and non-stress environments is very essential. The response of crops to water stress depends on several factors such as developmental stage, severity and duration of drought and genotypes. Morphological characters such as spike.m-2, grain.spike-1, fertile tillers.plant-1, 1000-grain weight, peduncle length, spike weight, stem weight, awn length, grain weight per spike and affect wheat tolerance to the moisture shortage in the soil. The combination of high grain yield stability and high relative grain yield under dryland, has been proposed as it is a valuable selection criterion for characterising genotypic performance under a varying degree of drought. The objectives of this study were to screen wheat genotypes with high yield potential, stability, yield components under dryland conditions and to find out appropriate selection criteria for selecting genotypes tolerant to terminal heat stress.

    Materials and methods

    In order to Study relationship between agro physiologic traits with grain yield under dryland conditions, as experiment was conducted at Payame Noor university of Ilam research station. Trials were designed using a randomized complete block with three replications in cropping season during 2016-2017. Plots were planted in eight rows measuring 4 m × 2 m. There was 25 cm distance between rows and 225 seeds m−2 were planted. Plots were fertilized with 120 kg ha−1 nitrogen and 50 kg ha−1 phosphorus at planting, and 60 kg ha−1 nitrogen (ammonium nitrate) was applied at stem elongation. Weeds were controlled by manual before stem elongation. Plots were harvested using the manual, with a 0.5 m edge left at both ends of the plot. Data were recorded for grain yield, plant height, biomass, harvest index, spikes m−1, grains spike−1, 1000-grain weight, peduncle length, RWC, Proline content and harvest index. Yield components were determined based on data from ten spikes. The data were analyzed statistically by SPSS program. Regression analysis was conducted to determine genetic progress over time, using years as the independent variable and productivity character as dependent variables. Average yield, regression coefficient, and total of squares of deviation from the regression were used to find out the stability for genotypes.

    Results and discussion

    Results of descriptive analysis showed the most genotypic and phenotypic variation coefficient belonged to grain yield. Correlation coefficients showed that the highest correlation coefficient was between grain yield and biomass trait (r = 0.85**). The results of stepwise regression analysis, in which grain yield as dependent variable against the other traits was considered as independent variables, justify the three traits of biomass, HI and 1000- grain weight by 98 percent of the changes of the relevant regression model. Regarding stepwise regression analysis for grain yield in dryland conditions, by removing the biomass and HI from independent variables. three traits proline content, number of spikes per square meter and days of maturity entered the model, account for about 62 percent of grain yield changes in dryland conditions. The results of causal analysis showed that the direct effects of biomass, number of spikes per square meter and HI were positive most. The results indicate that there is a high genetic diversity among bread wheat genotypes under rainfed conditions. Biomass, HI, proline content, number of spikes per square meter and earliness can be identified as selection criteria for improving grain yield in dryland conditions

    Conclusions

    the studied genotypes showed a significant difference for all studied traits, indicating that there was a sufficient diversity among them. Based on the results of stepwise regression analysis, biomass, HI, spikes per square meter, proline content had a high contribution to grain yield and the most direct effects were related to biomass and HI. Therefore, biomass and HI as agronomic indices, proline content as a physiological trait of drought tolerance in dryland conditions can be used by breeders to select tolerant genotypes in bread wheat. It is also suggested that special attention should be paid to the reduction of the number of maturity days in wheat genotypes in order to increase yield in dryland conditions (drought stress).

    Keywords: Step- wise regression, Path analysis, Drought stress, Yield biomass, Harvest index
  • Hassan Hamidi, Seyedeh Sanaz Ramezanpour *, Masoud Ahmadi, Hassan Soltanlo Pages 715-734
    Introduction

    Plants encounter biological and non-biological stress at different stages of their development. In this regard, drought stress is the most important non-seismic factor that, with global warming and the increased likelihood of drought, it is anticipated that by 2050, the performance of agricultural products in 50 percent of the world's agricultural land would be at serious risk. This will lead to a significant reduction in the production of food products. The dry and semi-arid climate of the country has become inevitable the cultivation and production of crops under the conditions of environmental stresses (drought, salinity and heat).Crops are show different reactions against these stresses. The occurrence of any of the stresses, or a combination of them, leads to a reduction in production. Sugar beet is one of the plants that tolerates these stresses. The aim of this research was to evaluate the tolerance of sugar beet test cross hybrids under non-stress and water deficit stress conditions in Khorasan Razavi province in order to select promising and drought tolerant hybrids.

    Materials and methods

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the drought tolerance of sugar beet test cross hybrids (57 hybrids) with seven controls including IR7, Mandarin, Jolgeh, Paya, Fotora, SC (7112*SB36) and origin population) in Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center in two separate experiments under field conditions with unbalanced lattice design (8*8) with four replications in 2016. Irrigation was done routinely up to the thinning. Subsequent irrigations were done after 90 mm and 200 mm evaporation from the class A evaporation pan in non-stress and water deficit stress conditions, respectively. In this research, traits such as root yield, sugar content, sugar yield, Na, K, N, alkalinity, molasses sugar, white sugar content, white sugar yield and extraction coefficient of sugar were measured. Analysis of variance, estimation of correlations and step wise regression were performed with SAS 9.1 software and also path analysis was done using Amos v19 software.

    Results and discussion

    Combined analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference (p≤0.01) among studied genotypes and different irrigation regimes for all traits. The highest white sugar yield in non-stress and water deficit stress conditions were observed in (7112 * SB36) * S1 – 73 (13.34 ton / ha) and Mandarin (9.37 ton / ha), respectively. Correlation analysis revealed that the relationship between white sugar yield with root yield, sugar content, sugar yield, white sugar content and extraction coefficient of sugar was significantly positive in two conditions, while its correlation with Na, K, alkalinity and molasses sugar was significantly negative. According to the results of the stepwise regression analysis, more than 99 percent of white sugar yield variation was explained by sugar yield, extraction coefficient of sugar, root yield and sugar content in non-stress and drought stress conditions.

    Conclusions

    In general, the results showed that the genotypes 61 (Mandarin), 60 (IR7), 63 (Fotora), 51 (7112 * SB36) * S1 – 73), 40 (7112 * SB36) * S1 - 66) and 56 (7112 * SB36) * S1 - 72), which were superior in terms of stress tolerance index (STI) and also in terms of yield traits in stress condition, were introduced as the most drought tolerant genotypes.

    Keywords: Drought stress, Hybrid, Stress tolerance index, White sugar yield
  • Hassan Zali *, Tahereh Hasanloo, Omid Sofalian, Ali Asghari Pages 735-747
    Introduction

    Oilseed crops with a high relative amount of unsaturated fatty acids content are one of great significance for human health. Canola oil is considered one of the most health-promoting vegetable oils in terms of unsaturated fatty acid. Seed fatty acid composition and oil content of canola are also affected by drought stress. Large parts of the world are increasingly affected by drought. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic factors which adversely affect growth, metabolism and yield of crops worldwide. In many parts of the Iran, canola is grown under rainfed conditions. Plant response to moisture stress has a negative effect on grain yield, which decreases significantly as a result of drought stress. Drought stress during flowering and seed-fill stages can alter oil contents and fatty acid compositions of canola seed. The present experiment studied the effect of drought stress on oil contents and fatty acid composition in canola genotypes at water stress under end-of-season drought (flowering and siliquing stages).

    Materials and methods

    The experiment was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation regimes were considered as main plots and cultivars as subplots. Six winter canola cultivars including SLM046, Tassilo, Karun, Adriana, Cooper and Lilian were evaluated under irrigated and no irrigated. The irrigation regimes included: well-watered (irrigation during full season), water deficit at flowering stage and water deficit at siliquing stage.

    Results and discussions

    The proportions (%) of fats (monounsaturated: polyunsaturated: saturated) in this study were approximately 68.0:26.0:6.0. The most abundant fatty acids in the current research were the oleic monounsaturated fatty acid (C18:1) and the polyunsaturated fatty acids, Linoleic acid (C18:2) and Linolenic acid (C18:3), in the proportions 67.96:17.21:8.75. The most abundant saturated fatty acid was Palmitic acid (C16:0), Stearic acid (18:0) and Myristic (14:0), in the proportions 3.87: 2.11: 0.044 % in samples. Based on analysis of variance, significant differences were observed between genotypes for oil yield (%), seed yield (kg ha-1), Palmitic acid, Palmitolic acid, Stearic acid, Oleic acid, Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, total saturated fatty acid (TSFA) and ratio of total unsaturated to total saturated fatty acid (TU/TS). The results of analysis of variance indicated that drought stress at flowering and siliquing stages significantly affected the amount of Myristic, Palmitic, Palmitolic, Stearic, Linoleic acids. The results showed that the highest and the lowest Oleic acid and seed oil percentage were found in "Lilian" and "Tassilo" genotypes, respectively. Also, the highest and the lowest palmitic and linoleic acids content belong to "Tassilo" and "Lilian" genotypes, respectively. These results suggest significant associations between Oleic acid with Palmitic and Linoleic acids. Oleic acid had significantly and negatively correlated with Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid and Linolenic acid, but it had a significant and positive correlation with oil content. Strong and negative correlation between oleic and Linoleic acid suggest significant connections among these fatty acids, as expected by their close biochemical association. Under well-watered conditions (non-stress), the values of Palmitic, Myristic, Linoleic acids were significantly higher than drought stress at flowering (excepted for linoleic acid) and siliquing stages. At drought stress at flowering and siliquing stages, reduction in Palmitic acid content was 3.78 and 3.58%, in Myristic acid content was 17.06 and 21.67% and in Linoleic acid content was 2.24 and 3.44%, respectively. Under well-watered conditions (non-stress), the value of TSFA was significantly higher than drought stress at flowering and siliquing stages. Whereas, water stress under end-of-season drought increased TU/TS compared to the non-stress condition.

    Conclusion

    In this study, the water stress under end-of-season drought (flowering and siliquing stages) in canola crops considering fatty acid composition and seed oil stability has been studied. The changes in fatty acids composition in the present study were probably due to the combined effect of water deficits and high temperatures during the seed-filling period with the end-of-season drought treatment (flowering and siliquing stages). This study showed that drought decreases slightly seed oil percentage, alters fatty acid composition and affects fatty acid composition stability. In addition, development of drought tolerant canola genotypes with stable high oleic and low Linolenic acid genes is critical to maintain the stability of oil production and desirable fatty acid composition. In conclusion, Further work is needed to determine the cause of alters in oleic and in fatty acids concentration, under drought stress in canola. The highest Oleic acid and seed oil percentage in non-stress and water stress under end-of-season drought were found in "Lilian" genotype. Therefore, this genotype would be good parents in a breeding program to develop cultivars for stressed conditions, because their oil content remains unaffected but Oleic acid is increased by drought, thus improving the oil shelf-life and quality.

    Keywords: Drought stress, Fatty acids profile, Linoleic acid, Oleic acid
  • Ali Karimi, MohammadEghbal Ghobadi *, Mokhtar Ghobadi, Iraj Nosrati Pages 749-762
    Introduction

    The shortage of water during the growth period of the maize plant causes damage to the growth stage that depends on type of hybrid, the geographical location, the weather conditions and the soil. Because at different growth stages, maize is in different condition in terms of development and root growth, electrical conductivity, drought tolerance and shoot growth. Therefore, water shortages at each stage of growth may lead to changes in the absorption of mineral elements, the production of materials or transfer to a reservoir, which ultimately affects the quality of the grain.

    Materials and methods

    In order to evaluate the effect not irrigation at different times of growth on the amount of elements in the grain of corn (SC704) carried out a research in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in the village of Ciahgol, Gilangharb (tropical region), Kermanshah, Iran, in summer 2015. Treatments including control (irrigation each week) and not irrigation (NI) for two weeks (from 7, 21, 35, 49, 63, 77 and 91 days after planting) and not irrigation (NI) for three weeks (from 7 , 28, 49, 70 and 91 days after planting). In all treatments was delayed only once irrigation for two or three weeks and before and after the no irrigation treatments was done each week. Sowing date was 27 June, 2015. Soil text was clay-loam. Each plot including 5 rows × 6 meter length. Plant density was 85000 plants ha-1. In this experiment, the traits of concentration and yield of the elements in the grain were measured including iron, zinc, copper, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and sodium. Finally, data analyzed by SAS software and means compared with LSD test.

    Results and discussion

    The results of analysis of variance showed that not irrigation had a significant effect on grain yield, concentration and yield of studied elements in grain. The highest grain yield (13600 kg ha-1) was obtained in control treatment. In two weeks not irrigation treatment after 49, 63 and 77 days after sowing was decreased by 74.2%, 57.3% and 52.2% to control, respectively. In the three week treatment not irrigation was reduced by 97.4% and 95.2% after 49 and 70 days after sowing. The concentration of the elements in the two and three weeks no irrigation was increased compared to the control. The lowest concentration was observed in the control treatment and the highest in two weeks of irrigation treatment at 77 days after planting (grain filling period) and three weeks no irrigation in 49 days after planting (inflorescence emergence). In not-irrigation treatment for two weeks after 77 days after planting, the concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and sodium were increased to control 15.5, 11.5, 45.2, 18.8, 12.0 , 38.2 and 33.8% respectively. In the 3-week no irrigation treatment, on 49 days after planting was increased the concentration of these elements to control 10.9, 20.7, 46.1, 25.1, 26.8, 48.2 and 58.3%, respectively. However, the yield elements in the control treatment was the highest and in the two and three weeks irrigation treatment was less than the control, and in the treatment 49 days after planting was the lowest, which was affected by the severe decrease in grain yield at this stage of growth.

    Conclusions

    In general, the results showed that in each stage of growth and development of maize that faced with drought stress, although the concentration of the elements studied in the grain increased from 10 to 58 percent compared to the control treatment, but due to a significant decrease in grain yield, yield elements were reduced to 96% to control treatments. The most sensitive stage of plant growth to drought stress in this experiment was 49 days after planting or inflorescence emergence stage.

    Keywords: Iron, nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Water deficit, Zinc
  • Hadi Salek Mearaji, Afshin Tavakoli * Pages 763-775
    Introduction

    Abiotic stresses are most important limiting factors to crop productivity that can reduce the yield of plants up to 70 percent. Drought is the most important stress and decreases the yield of plants in world. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a multipurpose oilseed crop grown mainly for its high quality edible oil, bird seed, coloring and flavoring food, in textile dyes, as livestock forage, as a vegetable, in herbal teas, and for medicinal purposes. It is resistant to cold, drought, and salinity stress. Therefore, it can be grown successfully on dry land and in surrounding regions which have insufficient precipitation. The aim of this experiment, was evaluated of yield and yield components of two safflower under optimal irrigation and drought stress conditions.

    Materials and methods

    The current experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran (36410N, 48290E) in spring 2010 and 2011 years. The experiment was laid out in split factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Experimental treatments included optimal irrigation (-0.5 MPa) and drought stress (-2 MPa) and were two spring safflower cultivars (Goldasht and Zendehrood). Each plot consisted of four rows, each measuring 6 m long, distance of each rows and plants was 50 and 10 cm, respectively. After thorough establishment of plants, at the 3 fold 4 leaves stage, irrigation treatments (-0.5 MPa and -2 MPa) was applied. In order to apply irrigation treatments, irrigation was stopped until the soil water potential reached -0.5 and -2 MPa for optimal and  drought stress respectively, then re-irrigation was performed. At the physiological maturity stage, plants in an area of 1 m2 to measuring of number main capitul, number seed in main capitul and weight of thousand seeds, and area of 2 m2 for biological yield and grain yield were harvested, then all aboveground dry matter were determined. 

    Results and discussion

    The effect of irrigation treatments, cultivar and year not significant on diameter capitul, number of main and lateral capitul in plant. The year has significant effect on all traits such as Capitul diameter.  The irrigation treats has not significant effect on capitul diameter, number main and lateral capitul, number seed in main lateral capitul and oil percent. The highest of thousand weight seed (35.5 g), grain yield (214.42 kg/ha), biological yield (9600.1 kg/ha), harvest index (25.6 %) and oil yield (634.6 kg/ha) obtained in optimal irrigation, and in other traits, was not difference between optimal irrigation and drought stress. The number main and lateral capitul, number seed in main lateral capitul, biological yield, oil percent and oil yield was different between cultivars. The maximum of number of seed in capitul, biological yield, oil percent and oil yield were obtained in zendehrood cultivar, and in other traits there was not difference between Zendehrood and Goldasht. Grain yield and oil yield reduced under drought stress amount 51 and 65 percent, respectively. Oil percentage in optimal irrigation was 8 percent more than drought stress condition. Grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield of Goldasht cultivar 7, 8 and 26 percent were higher than Zendehrood cultivar, respectively.

    Conclusions

    According this result, yield and related traits of yield extremely affected by climate conditions each of year. Thus, success in agriculture under field condition, extreme dependent to feature of climate. The Goldasht cultivar has higher of grain yield (7.5 %), oil percent (20.44 %) and Oil yield (26.19 %) than Zendehrood cultivar. In normal and drought stress conditions, the results of current experiment showed that Goldasht cultivar was superior to Zendehrood cultivar, and is more tolerant to drought stress, therefore suggested that cultivate Goldasht cultivar in deficit conditions.

    Keywords: Biological yield, Deficit water, Oil seeds, Percent oil
  • Hamdollah Eskandari *, Kamyar Kazemi Pages 777-792
    Introduction

    Intercropping of cereal and legumes is the most common system of intercropping in which complementary effects in the consumption of environmental resources leads to increasing in production. Wheat and faba bean intercropping is a cereal-legume intercropping. Available water resources have been reduced in recent years. In this case, so many efforts have been considered to save water resources in agronomical systems. Partial root zone irrigation is a new technique for deficit irrigation which increased water use efficiency in different cropping systems including sole maize and wheat-Persian cloverand maize-mung bean intercropping. In these cropping systems, the reduction of yield was much less than the reduction of water consumption. Since there is not enough information on the effect of water deficit in wheat-faba bean intercropping, this research was aimed to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation induced by partial root zone irrigation on yield and yield components of wheat and faba bean in sole and intercropping patterns.

    Materials and methods

    This experiment was carried out in Shadegan (Khuzestan province) during 2017-18 growing season as two-factor factorial based on RCBD with three replications. The first factor was irrigation (conventional and partial root zone irrigation) and the second was planting pattern (sole wheat, sole faba bean, within row and alternate row intercropping of wheat and faba bean). Irrigation treatments were applied after seedling establishment. In each irrigation, the volume of irrigation was measured. At harvest time, grain yield and yield components of wheat and faba bean were determined. Water use efficiency was also measured. Land equivalent ratio was determined for evaluation the benefit of intercropping.

    Results and discussion

    Deficit irrigation reduced spike length, grain per spike and grain yield of wheat by 9.8%, 11.9% and 24.4%, respectively. The highest spike length, grain per spike and grain yield of wheat achieved in sole cropping which was 13.2%, 16.5% and 21.8% more than that of within-row intercropping. Wheat had the highest height in within-row intercropping under conventional irrigation. The highest 1000-grain weight (40.1g) was achieved in sole cropping under conventional irrigation which was 11.6% more than that of the lowest value (35.4g in within-row intercropping under partial root zone irrigation). Wheat had the highest biological yield in within-row intercropping under conventional irrigation (11170 kg ha-1) which reduced 18% with partial root zone irrigation. With partial root zone irrigation, the reduction of wheat grain weight in intercropping was more than that achieved I sole cropping, indicating that in intercropping and deficit irrigation wheat is a weak competitor compared with faba bean which led to the reduction of growth (plant height and biological yield) and yield component (grain number and weight) of wheat. 1000-grain weight, grain per plant and grain yield of faba bean were reduced by partial root zone irrigation. The highest plant height of faba bean was achieved in within-row intercropping under conventional irrigation. Faba bean had the highest pod per plant in sole cropping under conventional irrigation. The highest biological yield of faba bean was recorded in within-row intercropping. Higher density of faba bean in sole crop stand led to higher yield compared to intercropping patterns. In intercropping, faba bean benefited from the shading of wheat for grai production. Water use efficiency (WUE) was improved by partial root zone irrigation. WUE of intercropping was more than that of sole crop stands. Land equivalent ratio was not affected by irrigation method and planting pattern. However, LER of both intercropping patterns was more than one, indicating the benefit of intercropping compared with sole cropping.

    Conclusion

    Partial root zone irrigation reduced wheat and faba bean grain yield. However, since the reduction of grain yield was much more than the reduction water consumption, partial root zone irrigation led to the improvement of water use efficiency in sole and intercropping. As a final remark, wheat and faba bean intercropping can be cultivated in partial root zone irrigation condition to improve water use efficiency.

    Keywords: Deficit irrigation, Land equivalent ratio, multiple cropping, water use
  • Mokhtar Dashadi *, Shahram Godarzi, Abdulwahab Abdulah Pages 793-803
    Introduction

    In regard to importance of rape seed in production of vegetable oil, it is necessary to pay attention factors of production including water period and N-fertilizer. Rapeseed needs to much N-fertilizer،In the other hands water restriction is preventative factor in rape seed plant. Therefore determination of irrigation period with N-formulation that cause increasing rape seed yield is needed.

    Materials and methods

    The trial was conducted as a split plot factorial experiment in randomized complete blocks design with 4 replications and tow crop years at Broujerd Agricultural Research station. In this design, Irrigation period was I1=50 mm, I2=75mm and I3=100mm collective evaporation from pan A as main plot and three rate of urea via N1=0.7R=112 kg.ha-1, N2=R=160 kg.ha-1 and N3=0.3R= 208 kg.ha-1 (R: Was determined base on recommendation Department of Nutrition, Institute of Soil and Water Research) was subplot. N fertilizers were consumed in three stage Contains planting, Stems and flowering. In this research was used from Regent X Cobra cultivar.

    Results and Discussion

    The results obtained indicated that among irrigation treatments, the most of seed yield Related to I1 (50 mm collective evaporation from pan A) and I2 (75 mm collective evaporation from pan A) treatments with amount of seed yield 3146 and 3164 kg.ha-1 respectively which was significantly different to I3 (100 mm collective evaporation from pan A) with seed yield of 2684 kg.ha-1 Also maximum number of seeds per pod and pod per plant were obtained I1 treatment. There was a positive correlation among seed yield, plant height, number of seeds per pod and pod per plant. Maximum water use efficiency was obtained by I3 treatment(100 mm collective evaporation from pan A) with amount of 0.394 kg.m-3 which was significantly different with other treatments at a probable level of 1%. The effects amount of nitrogen on water use efficincy, seed yield, the number of seed per pod, the number of pod per plant,plant height and 1000 of seed weight was significantly. Among interaction effect of irrigation and N rates, the most of seed yield was obtained by I2N1 treatment with 3498 kg.ha-1 and the lowest seed yield was obtained by I3N1 with 2401 kg.ha-1.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, irrigation from the beginning of April to the maturity, with irrigation interval of 75 mm, collective evaporation from pan A, is suitable and nitrogen fertilizer consumption with 0.7 amount of recommended by the plant nutrition research department of the soil and water research institute by splitting in three stages during planting, stemming and flowering stage in similar region of Borujerd, is recommended. Therefore, in order to increase the yield of rapeseed under Borujerd weather conditions, the use of nitrogen fertilizer is 0.7 times recommended by the Institute for Soil and water research and irrigation with irrigation intervals based on 75 mm cumulative is recommended as a result of that an effective step towards optimal use of agricultural inputs and ultimately achieving sustainable agriculture.

    Keywords: Canola, Grain yield, nitrogen, Oil seed, Water Stress
  • Amin Faezizadeh, Alireza Shokuhfar * Pages 805-814
    Introduction

    Corn (Zea mays. L) is an annual monocot plant from poaceaae family. The corn is C4 and is native to the tropical region. The breadth of its degree of adaptation and adaptation makes it possible to cultivate it in temperate and cold regions. The corn is the third highest cereal after wheat and rice production, but its production is equal to the production volume of each of the world's two grains. The agricultural sector and its systems, with more than 90 percent of the country's water consumption, are the largest water consumer, wasting 80 percent of its traditional irrigation systems. Therefore, by reducing water resources, the reform of consumption patterns is the only way to overcome the depleted crisis. About 70% of the Earth's surface is covered by water, but unfortunately, the water crisis in many countries of the world, including the countries of the dry belt of the earth, such as Iran, is a concern. One of the effective ways to increase organic matter in Khuzestan soils, which are poor in organic matter, as well as increase in production per unit area, is the consumption of organic fertilizers. In Khuzestan Province, with the implementation of the sugar cane cake filter development project and simultaneously with the activities of sugar factories, large quantities of molasses, filter cake and bagasse produced by factories along with leaf and cane can be easily converted into compost as a result of microbial activity and as Organic organic fertilizer with a very favorable efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizer of cane sugar cane filter and drought stress on production factors and morphological traits of maize in Hamidyeh weather conditions.

    Materials and methods

    This research was carried out in 2016 in a farm located in Hamidieh with a longitude of 48 degrees and 10 minutes east and 31 degrees and 33 degrees north latitude and 13 meters above sea level. This study was carried out as split split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of drought stress at three levels: 60, 90 and 120 mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan as the main factor and the sugar cane cake filter was divided into four levels: 0, 25, 50 and 100 t/ha as a sub-factor.

    Results

    The results showed that the effect of drought stress and fertilizer on sugar cane cake filter on Plant height, ear length, grain yield, seed number per row and 1000 grain weight affected the traits. The highest grain yield was obtained with an average of 5590.75 kg/ha irrigation with 60 mm evaporation and the lowest grain yield with an average 4170.05 kg/ha was obtained from irrigation 120 mm evaporation from the pan. Interaction between drought stress of 60 mm evaporation and sugar cane cake filter had a significant effect on plant height and grain yield. The highest grain yield (6170.55 kg/ha) was obtained from irrigation 60 mm evaporation and 50 t/ha sugar cane cake filter. On the other hand, the use of large amounts of sugar cane cake filter (100 t/ha) due to high salinity and salt accumulation in the root environment caused secondary oxidative stress and thus reduced economic yield.

    Conclusion

    Therefore, in general, the results of this research can be argued that the application of 50 t/ha sugar cane cake filter and drought stress of 60 mm evaporation from the class A pan are recommended in order to achieve maximum Production components. Application of filtering results in homogeneity of germination and accelerates the initial growth of the product, and in conditions without drought stress, increases economic yield. Also, under severe drought stress conditions (120 mm evaporation from the pan), the application of large amounts of sugar cane cake filter due to high salinity and the accumulation of salt in the root environment causes secondary oxidative stress and, consequently, reduced economic yield. Therefore, based on the results of this experiment and considering the abundance of this type of organic fertilizer in Khuzestan province and increasing its use as a soil reformer by farmers, it is suggested that in drought-free fields, after studying the long-term effects of sugar cane cake filter On the soil and nutrient cycle and in case of confirmation of the results, use should be made.

    Keywords: Grain weight, Plant height, salinity, Seed yield
  • Elahe Atarodi Asl, Ebrahim Khalilvand Behrouzyar * Pages 815-827
    Introduction

    Wheat is one of the most important crops in terms of land cultivation and production in the world and plays an important role in supplying human food needs. Among the factors limiting yield, water deficit stress is the most important factor that has reduced crop production in different ways, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and Iran. Methanol is a substance that, by increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide, has a significant effect on the physiology of plants and, by increasing the photosynthetic capacity, has a significant role in increasing the yield of plants, especially in environmental stress conditions. Salicylate is one of the natural growth regulators and is a natural phenolic compound that contributes to the regulation of physiological processes in plants. Considering that a large part of cultivated land in Iran has semi-arid climatic conditions and because of its special geographical position, in most parts of it, important abiotic stress such as drought, salinity and temperature, decrease the yield and, in some cases, also has led to failure in agriculture, therefore, achieving the highest yield with the least possible water consumption in the shortest time with the use of nano-compounds such as TiO2 against breeding methods that are often long-term and cost-intensive, it seems necessary that the present research also aims to achieve goals such as evaluating and identifying important physiological traits of finally winter wheat yield under water deficit stress and application of the above compound.

    Material and Methods

    In order to investigate the effects of methanol and salicylic acid foliar application on some growth and yield traits of winter wheat Mihan cultivar under water deficit stress, an experiment was conducted in split plot factorial based on RCBD in three replications at the Research Station of the Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, during growing seasons of 2016-2017. Treatments were Irrigation Frequency in two levels including: irrigation every 7 days and every 14 days and factorial combination of methanol (in three levels of: 0, 10 and 20% V/V) and salicylic acid foliar application (in two levels of: non application and 0.5%). Irrigation of the farm was carried out to the stage of stem elongation according to the needs of the canopy, but after that, limiting irrigation was applied (code 31 of Zadoks growth scale).To determine the Water requirement of wheat, irrigation depth was calculated based on evaporation coefficients using evaporation pan (class A). Analysis of variance, and mean comparison with MSTAT-C software were used. The means of the treatments were compared using the Duncan’s test at P< 0.05 and Charts are plotted by the EXCEL program.

    Results and discussion

    The analysis of varianceshowed that the water deficit stress and salicylic acid on all of traits except grain filling rate and chl.a was significant. Also, effect of methanol foliar application on on all of traits except grain filling rate and relative water content was significant. Interaction effect of methanol and salicylic acid foliar application on grain filling rate and grain yield, interaction effect between water deficit stress and methanol foliar application on grain filling rate and salicylic acid foliar application under water deficit stress on seed yield were significant. Furthmore, interaction effect between water deficit stress, methanol and salicylic acid foliar application on relative water content was significant. Interaction effects of methanol foliar application in different levels of water deficit stress showed that the maximum grain filling rate under sprayed with methanol 10% and irrigation every 7 days with an average of 1.259 g day-1 and the lowest grain filling rate was also under non foliar application and irrigation treatment every 14 days with an average of 0.8552 g day-1.The interaction of methanol and salicylic acid showed that the shortest grain filling duration was in the control treatment (non-methanol.and salicylic acid application) with an average of 25.55 days and the highest was in 0.5% salicylic acid and 10%  methanol with an average of 45.38 days. The highest amounts of chlorophyll a, b and a + b was in 20% methanol foliar application and lowest was in non-methanol foliar application. Also, 0.5% salicylic acid foliar application compared to non-application increased the amount of chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll a + b. The highest relative water content was observed in 10% methanol foliar application and 0.5% acid salicylic acid and irrigation every 7 days and the lowest was in non-methanol and salicylic acid application under irrigation of 14 days with an average of 63.23%. The highest of grain yield under non-salicylic acid application under irrigation every 7 days with 751.2 g m-2 and the lowest in non-salicylic acid application under irrigation every 14 days with an average 329.4 g m-2. Also, the interaction of methanol and salicylic acid foliar application showed that the highest grain yield was in 0.5% salicylic acid and 20% methanol foliar application with an average of 7.444 g m-2 , and the lowest was in 0.5% salicylic acid and non- methanol application with average of 469.5 g m-2 .

    Keywords: chlorophyll, Grain filling duration, Grain filling rate, Grain yield, Relative Water Content
  • Sodabeh Rezabeigi, Ehsan Bijanzadeh *, Ali Behpouri, Vahid Barati Pages 829-843
    Introduction

    Drought is always recognized as one of the most important limiting factors for wheat productivity particularly in arid and semi-arid regions (Debaeke and Abdellah, 2004). In such areas, the occurrence of water stress in vegetative and reproductive stages of plant development is inevitable, and low rainfall and poor distribution of rainfall are factors limiting the yield of winter cereals (Garcia del moral et al., 2003). Silicon is one of the many elements in the soil. As it is mostly considered as non-essential element for plant growth, much attention has not been paid yet to its biological role in plant. Recent studies have shown that it has beneficial effects on several plant species. Especially in the time of environmental stresses, with increasing activity of oxidative enzymes and increasing the content of osmolite plays an important role in the creation of resistance to live and non-polluting stresses in plants (Amiri et al., 2014). Gang et al. (2005) examined the effects of silicon on wheat under drought stress and found that silicon application increased the activity of peroxidase oxidizing enzymes, catalase and dismutase in comparison to drought treatments. Drought stress increased the amount of H2O2, while the use of silicon decreased the activity of peroxidase. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foliar application of Si on photosynthetic pigments, enzyme activity and grain yield of bread and durum wheat cultivars under late season drought stress conditions.

    Materials and methods

    In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on biochemical traits and grain yield of wheat cultivars under late season drought stress conditions, a field experiment was carried out in the Research Station of College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Darab, Fars Province as split factorial in a completely randomized block design with three replicates during 2017-2018 growing season. Soil sampling was carried out prior to the experiment at a depth of 0-30 cm in order to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the experiment field. Experimental treatments consisted of drought stress in two levels included normal irrigation and drought stress at the end of flowering, silicone (Si) spraying at 0, 1, 2, and 3 mM which used at mid-flowering stage (ZGS code 65) (Zedokes et al., 1974) and two wheat cultivars (Chamran and Shabrang).Two weeks after drought stress, chlorophyll a, b, catalase, and peroxidase contents were measured. Also, at maturity, plants were harvested to determine the grain yield. Finally, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using SAS v 9.4 and the means compared by LSD test at 1 % probability level.

    Results and discussion

    Analysis of variance showed that the main effects including late season drought stress, cultivar and silicon, had significant effects on chlorophyll a and b contents, peroxidase and catalase enzymatic activity, and grain yield. Foliar application of 3 mM Si, increased chlorophyll a and b contents, 44 and 41%, respectively. Peroxidase and catalase enzymes increased by 7 and 8% in drought stress conditions, which increased by the addition of silicon in drought stress conditions at 3 mM level, and the activity of peroxidase and catalase enzymes was 52% and 35% respectively. In general, Chamran bread wheat cultivar with the yield of 7797 kg ha-1 had higher yield than Shabrang durum wheat cultivar (6220 kg ha-1), indicating the superiority and suitability of Chamran when plant exposed to drought stress. Finally, in Chamran cultivar foliar application of Si at 3 mM increased photosynthetic pigments, and peroxidase and catalase activity which caused 19.7% increase in grain yield compared to Shabrang.

    Conclusion

    It was concluded that when wheat cultivars exposed to drought stress, the amount of chlorophyll a and b, and grain yield decreased significantly while Si application at 3mM increased the photosynthetic pigments especially in bread wheat cultivar (Chamran). Overall, under drought stress conditions, foliar application of 3 mM Si at flowering stage of wheat caused a significant increase in catalase and peroxidase activity especially in Chamran which increased grain yield compared to durum wheat CV. Shabrang.

    Keywords: Catalase, Chamran cultivar, Peroxidase, Photosynthetic pigments
  • Zeinab Hoseini, Taher Barzegar *, Zahra Ghahremani, Jaefar Nikbakht Pages 845-855
    IntroductionDeficit irrigation stress as a consequence of the progressive decrease in water availability has been a hot topic regarding food security during the last two decades (UNESCO, 2012).Growth and development of plants is influenced by reduction in turgor that result in decreased nutrient acquisition from dry soil (Luo et al, 2011). Due to the threat of climate change, there is a need to limit the use of water resources in arid and semi-arid climates. It is therefore important to find new approaches to avoid crop productivity losses in ‘limited fresh-water’ areas. Various strategies have been proposed to help crop production under drought conditions. An alternative and quick strategy to reduce negative effects of drought stress is exogenous application of organic osmolytes or plant growth regulators.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is considered one of the most important grains for human alimentation. Common bean is susceptible to drought stress or water deficit, which the production of this crop in many places of the world is carried out under drought stress conditions, due to insufficient water supply by rainfall and/or irrigation. Although several studies have investigated the effects of drought stress on growth and physiological parameters of common bean, no research has been carried out on the relationship between salicylic acid and biostimulants and drought tolerance of common bean. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the physiological response of common bean to foliar application salicylic acid and biostimulants under water deficit condition. Materials and methodsField experiments were carried out from June to September 2015 at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty at the University of Zanjan, Iran. In order to study the effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) and biostimulants on some physiological treats of common bean cv. Sanry under different irrigation regimes, the experiment was conducted in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replicates in research filed of university of Zanjan during 2015. Three different irrigation (I) regimes (100, 75 and 50% ETc) and foliar application of salicylic acid (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM), Megafol (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% MF) and to distilled water as control were conducted. Seeds of ‘Sanry’ cultivar were sown on 3-4 cm depth, with 15 cm spacing within row and 30 cm spacing between rows. At 3th leaf stage, foliar applications of SA and MF were weekly sprayed. All necessary management practices such as pests and weeds control were done according to recommended practices during the crop growth.Irrigation treatments were calculated based on actual evapotranspiration (ETc) rates. Three irrigation levels were (1) control or irrigation at 100% crop water requirement (I100), Deficit irrigation at 75% and at 50% of control. Foliar treatments include salicylic acid (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM), Megafol (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% MF) and distilled water as control were randomly applied on the sub-plots. The experiment design was a split-plot model based on a completely randomized block design (three irrigation levels, seven foliar treatments and three replications).Results and discussionIn the present study, the physiological response of common bean plants was investigated after exposure to different levels of water deficit. Furthermore, evaluation of foliar applications of salicylic acid and magafol on cell membrane stability index, leaf relative water content, proline, and antioxidant enzymes activity under different levels of water deficit conditions were done in the current study.The results showed that water deficit stress reduced leaf relative water content and cell membrane stability index, and increased electrolyte leakage, proline content and catalase and peroxidase enzymes activity. Foliar application of SA and MF had significant effects on physiological traits. The highest relative water content was obtained in MF 0.2 and 0.3% treatments. The maximum electrolyte leakage and proline content was observed in 1.5 mM SA. The highest value of peroxidase enzyme activity was achieved with spray MF 0.2% under irrigation 75 ETc%. ConclusionAccording to the results, MF 0.2% treatment had the highest positive effect on physiological traits of common bean plant.
    Keywords: Cell membrane stability index, Deficit irrigation, Electrolyte leakage, Megafol, Proline
  • Raouf Seyed Sharifi *, Reza Seyed Sharifi Pages 857-869
    Introduction

    Deficit irrigation stress as a consequence of the progressive decrease in water availability has been a hot topic regarding food security during the last two decades (UNESCO, 2012).Growth and development of plants is influenced by reduction in turgor that result in decreased nutrient acquisition from dry soil (Luo et al, 2011). Due to the threat of climate change, there is a need to limit the use of water resources in arid and semi-arid climates. It is therefore important to find new approaches to avoid crop productivity losses in ‘limited fresh-water’ areas. Various strategies have been proposed to help crop production under drought conditions. An alternative and quick strategy to reduce negative effects of drought stress is exogenous application of organic osmolytes or plant growth regulators.
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is considered one of the most important grains for human alimentation. Common bean is susceptible to drought stress or water deficit, which the production of this crop in many places of the world is carried out under drought stress conditions, due to insufficient water supply by rainfall and/or irrigation.Although several studies have investigated the effects of drought stress on growth and physiological parameters of common bean, no research has been carried out on the relationship between salicylic acid and biostimulants and drought tolerance of common bean. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the physiological response of common bean to foliar application salicylic acid and biostimulants under water deficit condition.

    Materials and methods

    Field experiments were carried out from June to September 2015 at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty at the University of Zanjan, Iran. In order to study the effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) and biostimulants on some physiological treats of common bean cv. Sanry under different irrigation regimes, the experiment was conducted in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replicates in research filed of university of Zanjan during 2015. Three different irrigation (I) regimes (100, 75 and 50% ETc) and foliar application of salicylic acid (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM), Megafol (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% MF) and to distilled water as control were conducted. Seeds of ‘Sanry’ cultivar were sown on 3-4 cm depth, with 15 cm spacing within row and 30 cm spacing between rows. At 3th leaf stage, foliar applications of SA and MF were weekly sprayed. All necessary management practices such as pests and weeds control were done according to recommended practices during the crop growth.Irrigation treatments were calculated based on actual evapotranspiration (ETc) rates. Three irrigation levels were (1) control or irrigation at 100% crop water requirement (I100), Deficit irrigation at 75% and at 50% of control. Foliar treatments include salicylic acid (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM), Megafol (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% MF) and distilled water as control were randomly applied on the sub-plots. The experiment design was a split-plot model based on a completely randomized block design (three irrigation levels, seven foliar treatments and three replications).

    Results and discussion

    In the present study, the physiological response of common bean plants was investigated after exposure to different levels of water deficit. Furthermore, evaluation of foliar applications of salicylic acid and magafol on cell membrane stability index, leaf relative water content, proline, and antioxidant enzymes activity under different levels of water deficit conditions were done in the current study.
    The results showed that water deficit stress reduced leaf relative water content and cell membrane stability index, and increased electrolyte leakage, proline content and catalase and peroxidase enzymes activity. Foliar application of SA and MF had significant effects on physiological traits. The highest relative water content was obtained in MF 0.2 and 0.3% treatments. The maximum electrolyte leakage and proline content was observed in 1.5 mM SA. The highest value of peroxidase enzyme activity was achieved with spray MF 0.2% under irrigation 75 ETc%.

    Conclusion

    According to the results, MF 0.2% treatment had the highest positive effect on physiological traits of common bean plant.

    Keywords: Mycorhyza, Psesomonas, Rhizobium legominozarum, Water limitation, Yield
  • Abolghasem Moradgholi, Hamidreza Mobasser *, Hamidreza Ganjali, Hamidreza Fanai, Ahmad Mehraban Pages 871-887
    In order to study the effect of bio fertilizers and moisture regime on different moisture regimes on the morphophysiological and grain yield of Arg wheat cultivar, an experiment in the form of a split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at Zahak-Zabol Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station during 2016-2017 crop year. Irrigation regimes were carried out on three levels as the main plots: irrigation after 45% (control) (S1), 65% (S2) and 85% moisture evacuation from soil (S3); biofertilizer sources were applied in seven levels: control ( F1), application of the locally common fertilizer, application of Azotobacter fertilizer along with the locally common fertilizer (F2), Azotobacter fertilizer with 50% of the locally common fertilizer (F3), Phosphabacter frtilizer with the locally common fertilizer ( F4), phosphabacter fertilizer with 50% of the corresponding chemical control fertilizer (F5), Azotobacter phospha-bacter fertilizer along with the locally common fertilizer (F6), and Azotobacter and phosphabacter along with 50% of the locally common fertilizer (F7), with all these seven serving as the subplots. The results showed the interactive effect of moisture regime and biofertilizer on the grain yield was significant at 1% level. This was such that in severe drought stress, biofertilizers with a mean of (6237 kg.ha-1) led to the grain yield increase of 38.8%, as compared to the control. Also, the improvement and increase in the 1000-seed weight, and biologic yield and harvest index were 27.6, 17.8 and 29.6 percent, respectively. Overall, the results of this study showed that in the irrigation under drought stress conditions at all stages of development, the use of Azotobacter and phosphabacter biofertilizers could have a positive effect on the grain yield, biologic yield, harvest index and leaf chlorophyll index, thereby improving the negative effects of drought stress.
    Keywords: Azotobacter, moisture regime, Phosphabacter, Wheat, Yield
  • Sara Davoodi, Mani Mojaddam *, Payandeh Khoshnaz Pages 889-901
    Introduction

    The cowpea (vigna unguiculata L.) as a grain, grown in tropical and sub-tropical countries, especially in the countries of Asia, Africa and South America, is considered an important source of nutrition. Among beans, in terms of cultivars and economic value, the first place belongs to beans. Good climate (warm to moderate summer) and adequate water in the areas under beans, high quality soils and high depth of clay are the main reasons for increasing its cultivation area. Water is a key factor in the production of crops. The yield of crops in many areas is limited by living or non-living environmental stresses, and therefore, there is a significant difference between actual yield and yield potential of crops. Low moisture content in each of the different stages of growth reduces water absorption, nutrients, decreases the transfer of elements within the plant, and ultimately reduces the yield of the grain or the final product. Optimal use of water is of great importance, especially in areas where dry climatic conditions and Semi-dry is dominant. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of vermicompost and superabsorbent on the quantitative and qualitative yield of bean under drought stress in Khorramshahr area.

    Materials and methods

    This research was carried out in 2017 in a farm located in Khorramshahr with a longitude of 48 degrees and 12 minutes east and 30 degrees and 22 degrees north latitude and 3 meters above sea level. This study was carried out as split split plot in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Experimental treatments consisted of drought stress in two levels (65 and 130) mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan in main plots and the combined effect of biological fertilizer of vermicompost and superabsorbent at four levels (non-application of fertilizer (control), 5 t/ha vermicompost Compost + 75 kg/ha superabsorbent, 5t/ha vermicompost + 100 kg/ha superabsorbent, 5 t/ha vermicompost) in sub plots.

    Results

    The results showed that drought stress had a significant effect on grain yield, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and protein yield. Also, the combined effect of biological fertilizer of vermicompost and superabsorbent had a significant effect on grain yield and protein yield. The highest grain yield (202.22 g/m2) was obtained from treatment with 5 tons per hectare of vermicompost + 100 kg/ha superabsorbent (which did not have a significant difference with 5 tons per hectare of vermicompost + 75 kg/ha superabsorbent) and lowest with mean 174.26 g/m2 was obtained from non-application of fertilizer treatment. The interaction of drought stress and combined effect of biological fertilizer on vermicompost had a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained with an average of 29.225 kg/ha of irrigation after 65 mm evaporation from the pan and 5 tons per hectare of vermicompost + 75 kg/ha superabsorbent.

    Conclusion

    Due to the fact that in the field of crop production, the true value depends on the quality of the crop, in this research it was determined that the use of vermicompost manure plays an important role in the development of the bean plant, Also, considering that the highest amounts of grain and protein yield were obtained as a quantitative and qualitative yield of vermicompost and superabsorbent fertilizer, it can be concluded that using these treatments without the slightest environmental damage and maintaining sustainability and health the agricultural system can meet the nutritional needs of the plant to a large extent. In order to achieve maximum yield and quality, in terms of humidity planting cowpea consumption of 5 tons per hectare and 75 kg ha super vermicompost fertilizer to increase the yield of cowpea is recommended for plants.

    Keywords: Grain yield, Protein yield, superabsorbent
  • Mehdi Safari Zarch *, GholamReza Khajoeinezad, AliAkbar Maghsoudi, Ghasem Mohammadinejad Pages 903-914

    Although saffron is considered as a low water and nutrient required crop, but the existing situation of water resources in arid regions have forced the researchers to investigate the effects of drought stress on different components of this valuable crop. In this regard, a two-year field experiment was conducted in Yazd Province, Central Iran, to investigate the effect of different levels of applied water and superabsorbent polymer (SA) on the Relative Water Content (RWC) of saffron leaves, Leaf Length (LL), Dry Weight of Leaves (DWL) and Corm Weight (CW), as well. This experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design in three replications. The main plots consisted of three levels of applied water (50%ET, 75%ET and 100%ET) while, subplots included three SA levels of 10, 30 and 50 g/m2, which were distributed in the experimental plots by two methods of row and uniform. Finally, the effects of main and subplot treatments on RWC were evaluated and compared with the control treatment (without SA application). The results showed that the highest increase in RWC was in the treatment of 30g/m2 superabsorbent polymer, while for higher or lower rates of SA application; there were insignificant changes in the RWC of saffron leaves, compared to the control treatment. In addition, it was found that for the optimum irrigation treatment (100%ET) and unlike to the 50%ET and 75%ET treatments, the RWC of saffron leaf was decreased even with the increases of SA contents. This decrease, which was observed in both years of the experiment, may be due to the insignificant effect of SA on the RWC under non- stressed conditions. In other words, the use of superabsorbent with the aim of increasing RWC in drought stress conditions is useful and can be recommended. Moreover, LL, DWL and CW parameters increased during two consecutive years with increasing RWC, indicating the importance of RWC index for performance evaluation of the air and ground components of saffron, as well.

    Keywords: Drought stress, Ionic leakage, Saffron, Vegetative growth, Water requirement
  • Zahra Zinati, Abbas Alemzadeh *, Ali Niazi, Esmaeil Ebrahimie Pages 915-924
    Introduction

    Salinity stress is one of the most important factors causing yield loss in crop worldwide. In order to improve salt tolerance in crop, it is important to understand salt-tolerance mechanism. Ongoing researches have been directed toward understanding the effects of salt stress, with the eventual goal of discovering molecular and cellular mechanisms used by stress-tolerant species and the elements that might contribute to enhanced salt tolerance to sensitive plants. An active process of cellular suicide termed programmed cell death (PCD) is crucial for development and immune responses in eukaryotes. In plants, PCD is involved in plant development and survival. Recent studies have revealed that diverse environmental stresses, such as salt stress, nutrient starvation and drought, are able to induce PCD in plant root tips. This findings indicate that this active process is highly conserved and has vital roles in development and response to external stimuli. PCD plays an important role in adapting to environmental stress. Understanding the molecular basis of PCD mechanism makes possible genetically manipulation of plants to improve environmental stress tolerance. BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1) located in the Endoplasmic reticulum(ER) was found to be a key cell death attenuator in eukaryotes.

    Materials and methods

    In this study, the potential role of a gene which encodes BAX Inhibitor 1-like protein (BI_85) in salt tolerance was evaluated using bioinformatics and experimental approaches such as promoter and gene regulatory network analysis, as well as Real-Time PCR. Two salt-tolerant (Arg) and salt-sensitive (Alamut) cultivated wheat genotypes and Aegilops crassa, as a wild wheat relative, were materials used in this experiment. Seeds imbibing in the dark for 24h at 4°c germinated for 3d at 25°C and were grown hydroponically in half-strength Hoagland solution circulated by air pumps in a stabilized greenhouse at 25oC, with a 16h light/8h dark photoperiod. To distinguish salt stress response from developmental changes in gene expression, an experiment was designed to monitor changes in transcripts in the absence of stress. Three-week-old seedlings were treated with a 0 and 150-mM NaCl solutions in combination with Hoagland solution. Sampling was carried out after treatment at 0h, 12h, and 3w. RNA extraction (Denazist, Mashhad, Iran, S-1020-1) and cDNA synthesis (Fermentas, Ontario, Canada, EP0441) were carried out for real-time RT-PCR according to the manufacturer’s instruction. Normalization of the target gene (BI_85) was carried out based on Actin reference gene. The Pfaffl formula (ratio=2-ΔΔCt) was used to calculate relative expression. Building a network using Pathway studio software was carried to discover another components that have relationships with differentially expression gene (BI-1), which probably are involved in stress-related responses.

    Results and discussion

    BAX Inhibitor was shown to be part of an interaction network that included 26 relationships. For example TED4 which has a relationship with BAX Inhibitor like-1 is implicated in salt acclimation signaling. Some evidence has been offered for the hypothesis that BI-1 probably can be used as a pore or ion channel in the endoplasmic reticulum for calcium handling. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) signaling pathway is a well-recognized signaling pathway known to be essential for acquisition of ion homeostasis. In response to salt stress, a calcium signal activates the SOS pathway by binding to the calcium binding proteins, SOS3 and SCaBP8/CBL10, which in turn activate the protein kinase protein kinase SOS2 to regulate the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1. According to the regulatory network, this gene may act upstream of the SOS signaling pathway. Promoter analysis were applied using plantcare database to shed light on underlying regulatory mechanism of the BI_85 expression. According to promoter analysis, the presence of stress-responsive regulatory elements such as ABRE (abscisic acid responsive element), LTR (low-temperature responsive element), MBS (MYB binding site involved in drought-inducibility), CGTCA-motif (MeJA- responsive element), TGACG-motif (MeJA- responsive element), ERE (ethylene-responsive element), and GT-1 motif (salt responsive element) in the promoter confirms the role of this gene in environmental stresses tolerance including salinity. It was also figured out that the expression patterns of BI_85 was significantly different between susceptible and salt resistant cultivars in response to salt stress. In more details, after 12h, salt stress induced BI-1 expression in the shoots of Arg and roots of Ae. crassa and reduced it in shoots of Alamut. After 3 weeks, salt stress induced BI-1 expression in the shoots of Arg and reduced it in shoots of Alamut and Ae. crassa.

    Conclusion

    According to bioinformatics and experimental results, it can be concluded that BI_85 can contribute to salt tolerance in wheat and can be used for genetic manipulation to improve tolerance to stress.

    Keywords: BAX Inhibitor 1, promoter, regulatory network, Salt stress, Wheat
  • Vahid Atlassi Pak *, Omid Bahmani, Husain Yadegari Pages 925-936
    Introduction

    The understanding of salt tolerant mechanisms is crucial for development of varieties with high salinity tolerance. Crop growth is being limited by the osmotic effect of the salt around the root and the toxic effect of the salt within the plant. The osmotic stress has a greater effect on growth rate than the ionic stress. The osmotic stress immediately reduces stomatal conductance with the onset of salinity and is one of the initial causes of a decline in crop growth. As leaf temperature correlate with stomatal conductance, this can be used to asses osmotic stress tolerance in plants. Much of the recent experiment to improve the salt tolerance in wheat has focused on sodium exclusion in plant tissue as a criterion for salinity tolerance but in some work there was no significant relationship between sodium exclusion and salt tolerance. However, pattern of sodium accumulation in shoot is different in wheat cultivar through time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of leaf temperature in screening for salt tolerance and pattern of sodium accumulation through time and its relationship with some physiological characters and salt tolerance.

    Materials and methods

    In this greenhouse experiment, two bread (Arg and Tajan) and a durum (Behrang) wheat cultivars were evaluated in terms of leaf temperature and patterns of Na+ accumulation under three salinity levels (Control, 100 and 200 mM NaCl). Treatments were imposed when the leaf 2 was fully expanded. Leaf temperature of plants were acquired in the greenhouse 6 days after imposing the salt treatments. Plants were harvested after salt treatment every 15 days for 60 days and sodium concentration was measured at each harvest. Chlorophyll content, K+ and Na+ root and shoot and shoot dry weight, 45 days after salt treatment, were measured.

    Results and discussion

    Shoot and root Na+ concentration was increased in response to increasing salinity but in roots this increase was greater than shoots. Salt stress decreased shoot dry weight in bread wheat cultivars (32%) and durum wheat (63%). In the highest salinity level, after 45 days exposure to salt, shoot K+/Na+ ratio was reduced in all genotypes to a similar extent (about 60%) and in this level of salinity higher reduction in chlorophyll content occurred in Behrang (75%) cultivar. Shoot K+/Na+ ratio showed the most reaction to salinity. Differences in leaf Na+ concentration between two bread wheat cultivars was more obvious in 45 days after salt treatments but in other growth stages were less obvious. Results showed that differences between sodium concentrations in two bread wheat cultivar through time, was remarkable 45 days after treatments. At 200 mM NaCl, Arg showed the lowest and non significant increased in leaf temperature (0.87◦ C) but in Tajan (1.74◦ C) and Behrang (4.30◦ C) this increased were significant. Salt concentration of 100 mM NaCl had no effect on leaf temperature in cultivars.

    Conclusions

    Different patterns of Na+ accumulation may be exist in wheat cultivars through time. Differences in sodium transport rates from roots to shoots may cause different patterns of sodium accumulation through time in wheat. This preferential in early growth stages, stomatal factors is more important than chlorophyll content and as leaf temperature is largely a function of stomatal conductance, this can be used to assess osmotic stress tolerance. Thermography could be acquire accurate technique to distinguish differences in salt tolerance in wheat cultivars. The shoot K+/Na+ ratio, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of salt tolerance in wheat. Greater tissue tolerance in wheat cultivars was associated with prolonged retention of chlorophyll in leaves and this resulted in less reduction in shoot growth.

    Keywords: chlorophyll, Osmotic stress, Stomatal Conductance, Salinity Tolerance
  • Mehdi Karimi * Pages 937-951
    Introduction

    Soil salinity adversely affects crop productivity and agricultural sustainability in many areas of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. It is estimated that global lost crop production due to salt induced land degradation equals to US$ 27.3 billion annually (Qadir et al., 2014). Social and economic dimentions of salinity stress include employment losses as well as environmental degradation (Butcher et al., 2016). In addition, it is well documented that application of chemical fertilizers usually improve plant performance under saline conditons but results on plant fertilizer requirement under salt affected soils are contrary. While there is little evidence of yield benefits due to fertilizers addition of salinized fields at rates beyond optimal in non-saline conditions, there is enough evidence indicating that soil salinity does not affect or decrease plant fertilizer needs (Hanson, 2006). It is known that the growth inhibition and the adverse effects induced by salinity can be alleviated by proper use of fertilizer and water management, depending on plant species, salinity level, and environmental conditions. However, over nitrogen fertilization may result in soil salinization and negatively affect plant performance. Moreover, the potential for nitrate leaching may increase where moderate to high amounts of salts are present in the soils because plants under salt stress can not absorb and utilize the applied nitrogen as efficiently as the plants not subjected to salinity stress.  Thus nitrogen fertilizer management may need to be modified under arid and semiarid conditions of Yazd peovince with wide range of irrigation water qualities. Accordingly, the objectives of this field study were to (a) elucidate the interactions between nitrogen nutrition and irrigation water salinity and their effects on wheat growth and (b) test the possibility of wheat improvement at saline conditions by applying higher levels of nitrogen fertilizer.

    Materials and methods

    A field experiment was conducted on wheat at Sadooq Salinity Research Station, Ashkezar, Yazd, Iran. The soil at the experimental site was calcareous with 30.92% total nutrient value, sandy loam texture, pH 8.06 and 0.22 % organic carbon. Mean annual temperatue is 18 °C and precipitation is 70 mm. The treatments, five urea application rates (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha-1) and three irrigation water qualities (2, 7 , 14 ds/m)), arranged in a randomized complete block design in the form of split plot with three repelications. Consisting 12 rows of wheat, each field plot measured 3* 5 m. All plots received common cultural practices including tillage and fertilizer application. Rgarding typical recommendations and guidelines for this region and soil type (Balali et al., 2000: Moshiri et al., 2015), all fertilizers, except urea that applied in 4 splits, were soil-applied before plnating and included 100 kg ha-1 triple superphosphate, 40 kg ha-1 FeSO4, 40 kg ha-1 ZnSO4, 40 kg ha-1 Mn SO4 and 20 kg ha-1 CuSO4. To model the relationship between plant properties and irrigation water salinity, the data were subjected to different regression models at the probability level of 0.01 and 0.05 with the help of the Sigmaplot software. The analysis of variance for different parameters was done following ANOVA technique. When F was significant at p≤0.05 level, treatment means were separated using DMRT.

    Results and discussion

    The results showed that ura application is necessary for improving wheat yield at all irrigation water salinity levels. While wheat response to nitrogen fertilizer was similar at different salinity levels and followed second order equation, with increasing salinity levels the wheat responded weakly. In addition, the results showed 20 percent increase in wheat nitrogen requirement with increasing salinity leves from 1.88 to 7.22 dS/m while no decrease in wheat graine yiled was found. However, with increasing salinity levels to 16.14dS/m, wheat grain yiled and urea requirement decreased by 20 percent

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, application of 300kg ha-1 urea for production of 4.5t ha-1 wheat grain yield using irrigatin waters with electrical conductivities of 1.88 to 7.22 dS/m is needed. However, 240kg ha-1 urea is enough for production of 3.6t ha-1 wheat grain yield using irrigation water salinity of 16.14 dS/m.

    Keywords: Calcareous soil, Fertilizer requirement, Wheat production, Yazd
  • Jahanbakhsh Mirzavand *, Mahmood Chehrengar, Mehdi Zare Pages 953-967
    Introduction

    Salinity stress affects plant growth and productivity, especially in calcareous soils in the central area of Iran. In these areas, increasing soil and water salinity has decreased yield and quality production of corn silage (Zea mays L.) (Dai et al., 2011). Response by corn to salt stress is a complex network affecting almost all processes, including nutrient uptake and metabolism, ion accumulation and photosynthesis. Likewise, corn is known to be very sensitive to micronutrient deficiency such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). This deficiency commonly occurs in calcareous soils. It is believed that applying micronutrient elements such as Fe and Zn which can increase crop production to cope with declining saline condition (Eizadi et al., 2012). In this regard, Taher et al. (2008) found the foliar spray method of Zn and/or Fe increased corn silage compared to soil application method. Therefore, the purpose of the experiments was to evaluate the effect of application methods of Fe and Zn fertilizers on yield and quality of corn silage grown on calcareous soil under saline irrigation water.

    Materials and methods

    A 1-year field experiment was conducted on an agricultural farm located in Arsanjan, Fars province (53° 15' E, 29° 40' N and 1638 m), Iran in 2014. The region represents semi-arid climatic conditions with relatively warm summers and cold winters. The soil was silty clay loam with a pH of 7.7 and an EC of 0.62 dS m-1. Mean Fe and mean Zn were 4.5 and 0.7 ppm, respectively. The experiment was lay-out as factorial based on randomized complete block design in three replications. The treatments consisted of three levels of saline irrigation water (2, 4, and 6 dS m-1) as the main factor and sub-factor was 12 application methods of Fe (source: Fe-Chelate: Sequestrene 138, and Fe-Sulfate) and Zn (source: Zn-Sulfate) fertilizers: T1: No-fertilizer (Control), T2: soil application of Zn-Sulfate, T3: soil application of Fe-Chelate, T4: soil application of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by Fe-Chelate, T5: soil application of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by Fe-Chelate+foliar spray of Zn-Sulfate, T6: soil application of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by Fe-Chelate+foliar spray of Fe-Sulfate, T7: soil application of Zn-Sulfate+foliar spray of Fe-Sulfate, T8: soil application of Fe-Chelate+foliar spray of Zn-Sulfate, T9: soil application of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by Fe-Chelate+seed treatment with Fe-Sulfate, T10: soil application of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by Fe-Chelate+seed treatment with Zn-Sulfate, T11: soil application of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by Fe-Chelate+seed treatment with Fe-Sulfate+foliar spray of Zn-Sulfate, and T12: soil application of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by Fe-Chelate+seed treatment with Zn-Sulfate+ foliar spray of Fe-Sulfate.

    Results and discussion

    Yield and quality of corn silage were significantly (p≤0.01 and 0.05) influenced by saline irrigation water, application method of Zn and Fe fertilizers, and their interactions. Using saline irrigation water decreased corn height by 40%. The highest corn height (141.35 cm) was recorded by soil application of Fe-Chelate accompanied by foliar spray of Zn-Sulfate treatment at 2 dS m-1 treatment. Under saline irrigation water at 2 dS m-1 treatment, foliar spray of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by soil application of Fe- Chelate maximized corn silage (71.77 ton ha-1) up to 34% compared to no-fertilizers method (Table 3). At 6 dS m-1 treatment, the highest Sodium (Na) concentration (4.22%) was obtained by no-fertilizer method. At 2 dS m-1 treatment, the highest potassium concentration (9.55%) was achieved by soil application of Zn-Sulfate, and increased 25.33% compared to No-fertilizer method (Table 4). Likewise, the highest Fe and Zn concentration were achieved by combined fertilizer application method such as soil application of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by Fe-Chelate+seed treatment with Fe-Sulfate, and soil application of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by Fe-Chelate+seed treatment with Fe-Sulfate+foliar spray of Zn-Sulfate. Meanwhile, a strong relationship was observed between Na and chemical composition of corn silage (phosphorus (r=-0.84**), calcium (r=-0.61**), and potassium (r=-0.58**).
    It has been reported that high concentrations of salinity caused lower shoot fresh and dry weight in corn. Under saline conditions, the reduced growth of crops has been mainly attributed to the toxic effects of excessive ions such as Na, unbalances of the plant ion problems on nutrient uptake and disturbances, damages on photosynthesis, respiration and physiological functions (Yarami and Sepaskhah, 2015). Hence inhibit translocation of produced assimilates to vegetative phase that finally could result into the growth reduction (Karmollachaab and Gharineh, 2013). On the contrary, corn growth parameter was enhanced by Fe and Zn fertilization under saline irrigation water. The same results were reported by Jokar and Ronaghi (2015) on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and Bostani et al. (2015) on corn. Zinc and Fe are essential micronutrients, involved in production of auxin, a natural plant growth hormone, and many other important plant functions. Therefore, application of Zn-Sulfate accompanied by application of Fe- Chelate and Fe-Sulfate fertilization might enhance silage quality through the increase of its content on yield components and decrease stress intensity.

    Conclusions

    Salinity and micro-nutrient deficiency are the most important factors limiting yield and quality production of corn silage in calcareous soils. It is believed that obtaining improvement of silage quality in many experiments was often the result of applied micro-nutrient such as Zn and Fe elements. Results showed that combined application of Fe and Zn elements compared to separate application method efficiently increased quality and quantity of silage corn under saline irrigation water at 6 dS m-1. Overall, selection and use of the correct fertilizer application methods are important for garneting the silage yield and quality of corn under saline condition and to decrease non-saline water use.

    Keywords: foliar spray, Fe-Chelate, Seed treatment, silage quality, Zn-Sulfate
  • Morteza Iraji Mareshk, Mohammad Moghaddam * Pages 969-982
    Introduction

    Salinity stress is one of the factors reducing yield and production in crops, horticulture and medicinal plants in the world. One of the suitable solutions for improving salinity tolerance in horticultural products is the use of arbuscular mycorrhiza. They have the stimulant effect of plant growth. They increase resistance to drought stress, salinity, pathogenic agents, soil contamination and heavy metals by increasing the absorption of nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen and some elements of low consumption, increasing water absorption and production of hormones.

    Materials and methods

    In order to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on morphophysiological and biochemical characteristics of Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta) under salinity stress, a pot factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was performed in the horticulture greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2017. The first factor using mycorrhizal fungi at three levels (without inoculation, Rhizophagus intradices and Funnetiformis mosseae) and the second factor included four levels of irrigation with salinity water (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl. The inoculum of mycorrhiza was mixed before planting the seedlings. Afterwards, the seedlings were transferred to the pot. Saline treatment was started at the four-leaf stage and performed three days a week. Saline treatment was done forty days. Measurement of the traits was performed forty days after beginning stress on the plant. The plant height, number of lateral branches, number of nodes, stem diameter were measured. Also, at the end of the experiment, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, manganese, zinc, calcium and chlorine were measured.

    Result and discussion

    The results showed that all of the growth characteristics significantly decreased under salinity and application of mycorrhiza cause to adjustment harmful effects of salinity and tolerance of plant to salinity. The highest nodule number (12.89), stem diameter (7.49 mm), height (65.75 cm) and lateral branches number (23.33) were obtained at the treatment without salinity with using mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus intradices. Salinity increased the amount of phosphorus, calcium, sodium, chlorine and nitrogen in the leaf and decreased the amount of potassium, manganese, zinc and leaf iron. The highest amount of phosphorus of leaf (8.5 mg / g of leaf dry weight) was observed in the highest salinity stress and application of Funnetiformis mosseae, the highest sodium content (12.33 mg/g leaf dry weight) and chlorine (63.09 mg Kg dry weight of leaves) was observed in 120 mM salinity without mycorrhizal. However, the highest amount of potassium (6.23 mg /g leaf dry weight) was observed in the treatment without salinity and without mycorrhizal application, the highest amount of manganese (143.91 mg/kg dry weight) in 40 mM salinity and application of Funnetiformis mosseae and the highest amount of zinc (7.12 mg/kg dry leaf) were recorded in salt free treatment and application of Funnetiformis mosseae. Salinity stress reduces cell growth through restrictions on the absorption of nutrients, plant nutrient deficiency and toxicity of food elements. In addition, salt stress reduces the production of carbohydrates and thus reduces the growth of various plant components. The higher the salt concentration, the more significant the growth is. Mycorrhizal plants have better growth compared to non-microscopic plants in soil salinity conditions. Mycorrhiza fungus stimulates plant growth by increasing the absorption of nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and some elements of low consumption, increasing water absorption and production of plant hormones and increasing plant resistance under stress conditions.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that all vegetative traits reduced due to salt stress and mycorrhizal application reduce the harmful effects of salinity and increase the resistance of the plant to salinity. Mycorrhizal has an irritating effect on plant growth. Increases plant resistance to salinity by increasing the absorption of nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen and some elements of low consumption, increasing water absorption and production of plant hormones. According to the results of this study, the use of mycorrhizal is an appropriate strategy to increase the resistance to salinity in plants.

    Keywords: Bio-fertilizer, Medicinal plants, Morphological traits, Nutrient elements, salinity
  • Zahra Heiday, HosseinAli Asadi Gharneh *, Jamshid Razmjoo Pages 983-993
    Introduction

    Salinity is one of the abiotic stresses that severely curtails the growth and production of agricultural products. Water scarcity makes the use of salty waters for agricultural products not only inevitable but also economically efficient. Salvia nemorosa is a perennial plant that belongs to Lamiaceae family. Given the medicinal value Salvia of plants, this study was performed to assess the effects of sodium chloride salinity on the physiological and morphological properties of Salvia nemorosa.

    Materials and methods

    The study was a randomized block design and was conducted in 2018 using pots at the greenhouse of the Research Center no.1 of the City of Isfahan’s Parks Department. The randomized block design had 4 levels of salinity: 12(control), 50, 75, and 100 mM of sodium chloride and was repeated 5 times. The morphological properties of the plants such as the length and width of the leaves, the plants’ height and the length of the corymbs were measured by a ruler. The number of leaves and corymbs in each bush and the number of flower and seed in each corymb was measured manually. Aerial parts of the plants, under both wet and dry conditions, were measured by a digital scale. In order to measure chlorophyll the method of Li et al. was used. Measuring Prolin leaf was done by the method of Bates et al. and the total phenol was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu. Statistical analysis was done by SAS and the means were compared using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) with alpha levels of 1% and 5%.

    Results and discussion

    The ANOVA results showed significant effect of salinity on the height, the number and the width and length of leaves, the length of corymbs and their number in each bush, the number of flowers in corymbs, the wet and dry weight of the root, the level of chlorophyll a and b and the total chlorophyll and these properties at the level of salinity of 100mM were respectively: 20.56% , 68.95%, 54.41%, 27.97%, 9.19%, 82.85%, 41.45%, 62.31%, 60.47%, 53.84%, 23.13%, 34.09%, 66.66%, 62.5% and 64.7% reduction in comparison with the control sample. Salinity had also a significant effect on the level of Prolin and total phenol and in the sample of 100mM sodium chloride, it showed an increase of 62.5% and 96.17% respectively in comparison with the control sample.  Since the dry weight is an appropriate measure for photosynthesis and growth in plants, the decreasing of the dry weight of the aerial parts and the root of the plant as salinity stresses increase, shows that the plants photosynthesis and growth have decreased in the plants. Accumulation of harmful ions like sodium chloride leads to a decrease in the wet weights of the aerial parts and causes disorder in the metabolism of nutarians.  Reduction of the leaves chlorophyll in salinity stresses is caused by decomposing enzymes. Decreasing of the leaf area can be considered as a defense mechanism in the plant in order for it to reduce the level of transpiration and avoid salinity. Increasing the level of salinity also increases the rate of falling of leaves and decreases the rate of the production of new leaves. Meanwhile, higher salinity causes a decrease in the level of calcium and potassium in the plant, which in turn, results in a decline in growth.  Salinity stress decreases the number of corymbs through disturbing the photosynthesis process in the plant, which in turn, reduces the production of photosynthetic material that is supposed to feed the growing parts of the plants. This reduction will eventually cause the plant to not to achieve its genetic potentials with respect to the number of corymbs. The reduction in the rate of germination leads to a lower number of flowers. Phenolic combinations are parts of the non-enzymatic and antioxidant defense system which inhibit the free radicals. Soil salinity increases the total phenol in some plants which is an advantage in medicinal plants. These plants use Prolin to keep the osmotic pressure and protect the plant against salinity.

    Conclusion

    Salvia nemorosa combats salinity by osmotic adjustment via increasing of Prolin amino acid and by increasing total phenol and oxidative stress.Therefore it can be concluded that the this plant on salinity levlels up to 50 mM (6.5 ds/m) can tolerate sodium choloride and is sensitive to higher levels of salinity.

    Keywords: abiotic stress, Morphological traits, Proline, Total phenol
  • Mohsen Malek, Saeid Hamidi, Fashid Ghaderi Far *, Morteza Gorzin, MohammadHadi Pahlavani, Mohsen Esmaeilzadeh Moghaddam Pages 995-1007
    Introduction

    Temperature stress during germination and emergence is one of the most important environmental stresses during plant life cycle. All growth stages of a plant, including seed germination and seedlings establishment, are affected by temperature. High temperatures during germination can cause numerous problems for germination or seedling growth. Temperature regulates the germination and seed emergence in the field in three ways: (1) effect on the germination rate and percentage of non-dormant seeds; (2) elimination of the primary and secondary dormancy; and (3) induction secondary dormancy. One of the most important planting problems is thermoinhibition and thermodormancy induction in seeds during warm season. Studies has shown that barley seeds have different levels of primary and secondary dormancy. So paying attention to the reaction of the seeds to the temperature sensitivity during germination is very important. In present study it has been attempted to study the behavior of germination and the induction of secondary dormancy of barley cultivars at various temperatures, especially at high temperatures.

    Materials and methods

    This study was carried out at Seed Research Laboratory of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. The factors included 15 levels of barley cultivars (Aras, Dasht, Eram, Fajr 30, Jonoob, Karoon, Nike, Nimrooz, Nosrat, Zarjoo, Sahra, Sina, Torkaman, Valfajr and Zahak) and eight levels of germination temperature (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ºϹ). Germination percentage by average comparison and germination rate was described by fitted segmented model. Seeds germination, death and dormancy induction behavior at high temperature (40ºϹ) was described by placing seeds in different duration of imbibition at 40ºϹ, then transfer them to optimum temperature (20ºϹ) for one week and finally tetrazolium test.

    Results and discussion

    The results showed that there was a significant difference between the cultivars in terms of germination percentage at different temperatures and the highest differences were observed at high temperatures (especially at 35°C). Also germination cardinal temperatures were different between various cultivars. The highest difference was found in the base temperature and optimum temperature of germination, and there was no significant difference between the cultivars in ceiling temperature. Non-germination at high temperature (40ºϹ) was partly due to the induction of secondary dormancy and at some extent related to the seed death after being exposed to high temperatures. The germinability and seed deaths respectively increased and decreased exponentially as duration of seed imbibition at high temperatures increased. On the other hand, induction of secondary seed dormancy followed a normal distribution, so that as imbibition duration at high temperatures increased, the capacity for dormancy induction first increased and then decreased. Of course, these trends differed depending on the cultivar. According to the recent findings, thermodormancy induction in barley seeds is highly dependent on the sensory pathways and biosynthesis of the hormone regulating dormancy and germination, including gibberellin, ethylene, cytokinin and abscisic acid.

    Conclusions

    In this study, the reaction of germination to temperature in the most important and common cultivars of barley in iran was investigated. There were significant differences between cultivars in terms of reaction to temperature in the germination stage, and each cultivar showed a unique behavior. The temperature sensitivity pattern was different in the cultivars, and the germination reaction of seeds at high temperature had high variance. Present study shows, the cause of non-germination of barley seeds at high temperatures was related to thermoinbition of germination, seed mortality, and dormancy induction. Therefore, in future studies, it is suggestion that particular attention should be paid to the hormonal balance pathways associated with induction of dormancy in the seeds, as well as the gene expression.

    Keywords: Germination cardinal temperature, Germination rate, Temperature sensitivity, Thermo-dormancy, Thermo-inhibition
  • Mohsen Asghari *, Abolfazl Masoumi Zavariyan, Mojtaba Yousefi Rad Pages 1009-1018
    Introduction

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is a plant that is cultivated for the first time due to the aroma, extra taste and healing properties. In the medical industry, it is used to treat nerve headaches, calming nerves, fever, diarrhea, and anti-nausea and vomiting. One of the serious environmental problems is soil contamination with heavy metals and has negative effects on human health and agricultural lands. Soil pollution to heavy metals is the result of many human activities such as mining, extraction and melting of metals and the using of fertilizers, pesticides and agricultural fungicides, etc. which endangers human health and ecosystems. The major problem with heavy metals is that these inorganic pollutants are not decomposable, in contrast to organic pollutants. Among heavy metals, cadmium is of particular importance due to the high mobility and dynamism in the soil and absorption by the plant. Many of the agricultural soils of the world have been contaminated due to the long-term using of phosphate fertilizers, sewage sludge, etc. with low to moderate concentrations of cadmium. Sodium nitroprusside is one of the compounds recently tested to reduce the effects of stress on plants. Sodium nitroprusside is a nitric oxide-releasing compound whose role in plants has been the subject of many research studies. This compound is red powder and is a plant growth regulator. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium nitroprusside foliar application as a reducing agent on heavy metals stress on growth, vegetative, physiological, antioxidant enzymes and essential oil content of basil plant with different amounts of heavy metal cadmium.

    Materials and methods

    This research to investigate the role of sodium nitroprusside in reducing cadmium toxicity in basil plant in a factorial form in a completely randomized design in 2017-2018 was conducted. The applied factors in this study were included cadmium at 0 (control), 10, 20 and 30 mg.kg-1 soil and sodium nitroprusside solution at 0 (control), 50 and 100 μM. The measured traits were included plant height, plant dry weight, number of leaves per plant, essential oil percent, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase antioxidant activity, proline and cadmium concentration.

    Results and discussion

    The obtained results showed that cadmium was decreased plant height, plant dry weight, number of leaves per plant, essential oil percent and superoxide dismutase activity, and was increased Proline cadmium and malondialdehyde concentrates. The most effect of cadmium on 30 mg.kg-1 treatment was obtained. It was also observed that Sodium nitroprusside using was increased plant height, plant dry weight, number of leaves per plant, essential oil percent and superoxide dismutase activity, and was decreased Proline, cadmium and malondialdehyde concentrations, in general, the most positive effect was obtained in 100 μM sodium nitroprusside using. Based on the results, sodium nitroprusside foliar application could improve the vegetative properties and reduce malondialdehyde under heavy metal cadmium stress conditions. According to the the results, it can be founded the positive effects of sodium nitroprusside, especially in the presence of cadmium and reducing the negative effects of stress on the basil drug.

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded that sodium nitroprusside moderates much of the harmful effects of heavy metal cadmium stress in basil plant and improves plant growth under stress conditions. Therefore, in the range of this study results, foliar application of this material on a stressed basal plant can be suggested as a factor for decreasing stress intensity and subsequently increasing yield.

    Keywords: Basil, Cadmium, Heavy metal stress, Sodium Nitroposide, Malondialdehyde