فهرست مطالب

  • سال یازدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 58، مهر و آبان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • فائزه ادیب نیا*، صغری اکبری چرمهینی صفحات 1-23

    در زبان شناسی شناختی، زبان بخشی از توانمندی های شناختی انسان تلقی می شود و هرگونه تحلیل زبانی با تحلیلی از توانایی های شناختی انسان همراه است. یکی از توانایی های شناختی انسان بازداری شناختی است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف مقایسه بازداری شناختی در دانش آموزان دو زبانه و دانش آموزان یک زبانه انجام شد. روش این پژوهش علی مقایسه ای بود. جامعه مورد مطالعه، دانش آموزان دوره دوم متوسطه شهر قزوین بودند که تعداد 82 دانش آموز (43 دانش آموز دو زبانه و 39 دانش آموز یک زبانه) با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند. ابزار های پژوهش پرسش نامه دموگرافیک و آزمون رایانه ای استروپ عددی بود. دانش آموزان پس از پر کردن پرسش نامه دموگرافیک، به آزمون استروپ عددی پاسخ دادند. داده های حاصل از پژوهش با استفاده از روش تحلیل واریانس چند متغیره (مانوا) تجزیه و تحلیل شد. یافته های آزمون تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیره نشان داد که بین عملکرد دانش آموزان دو زبانه و یک زبانه در آزمون استروپ عددی تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد. بدین صورت که اثر استروپ عددی و اثر استروپ فیزیکی در دانش آموزان یک زبانه بیشتر از دانش آموزان دو زبانه است. با توجه به یافته های پژوهش می توان چنین نتیجه گرفت که دانش آموزان دو زبانه نسبت به دانش آموزان یک زبانه، عملکرد بهتری در بازداری شناختی دارند که سبب می شود در برخورد با مسایل شناختی، خطای کم تری داشته باشند و سریع تر پاسخ دهند.

    کلیدواژگان: بازداری شناختی، دانش آموزان، دو زبانه، یک زبانه، آزمون استروپ
  • علی آقایی، رجبعلی عسکرزاده طرقبه*، محمودرضا قربان صباغ صفحات 25-48

    این مقاله به بررسی زبان و سبک گفتار شخصیت «می» (May) در نمایشنامه مجنون محبت، نوشته سام شپرد می پردازد. برای بررسی زبان و مطالعه سبک گفتار این شخصیت، از نظریه های سبک شناسی سارا میلز استفاده شده است که متون را در سه سطح کلمه ای، جمله ای و گفتمان بررسی می کند. مسیله ای که نویسندگان در این مقاله مطرح کرده اند این است که با استفاده از ایده های سارا میلز، مشخص کنند که آیا شخصیت  «می» فعال و قدرتمند است یا خیر. همچنین، هدف این مقاله آن است که شخصیت  می را نسبت به شخصیت های مرد در این نمایشنامه بسنجد و مشخص کند که آیا این شخصیت زن مطیع شخصیت های مرد است و آن چنان که برخی منتقدان ادعا می کنند، تصویری ضد زن از او ارایه شده است یا خیر. یافته های این بررسی نشان می دهد که می شخصیتی مطیع دارد که توانایی اثر گذاری بر محیط و اطرافیانش را ندارد و نسبت به شخصیت های مرد نمایشنامه دارای ضعف های بیشتری است.

    کلیدواژگان: مجنون محبت، سبک شناسی، سطح کلمه، سطح جمله، سطح گفتمان
  • امیرحسین زنجانبر*، علی عباسی صفحات 49-74

    «دگردیسی جسمانه» تغییر هویت عنصر کنش پذیر یا کنشگر داستان است از یک نمود جسمانی به نمود جسمانی دیگر. از آنجا که در داستان های کودک «دگردیسی جسمانه» یا به مثابه شگرد گره افکنی، خالق فضای تنشی است یا به مثابه شگرد گره گشایی، حاصل فضای تنشی؛ از همین رو رویکرد «گفتمان تنشی» برای بررسی این شگرد روایی اختیار شده است. هدف پژوهش حاضر، دسته بندی داستان هایی در گستره کودک است که گرد شگرد «دگردیسی جسمانه» بسط یافته اند. در این راستا، با توجه به اینکه فرایند معنا بر سه عنصر تنش، حضور و جسم استوار است، پژوهش پیش رو با روش تحلیلی توصیفی درصدد پاسخ به سه پرسش است: در داستان های کودک، بر اساس سبک شناسی تنشی زیلبربرگ، سبک های حضور عناصر دخیل در دگردیسی جسمانه کدام اند؟ سبک شناسی تنشی دومولفه ای چگونه سبک شناسی تک مولفه ای زیلبربرگ را بسط می دهد ؟ وفق الگوی تنشی دومولفه ای، دگردیسی جسمانه در داستان های کودک به چه طبقاتی قابل رده بندی است؟ با توجه به بسامد کاربرد شگرد «دگردیسی جسمانه» در داستان های کودک و فقدان پژوهش نظری درخصوص آن، ضرورت رفع این خلا انکارناپذیر است و از سوی دیگر، غنی سازی نظریه های ادبی بدون نگاه های بین رشته ای، امکان ناپذیر.

    کلیدواژگان: دگردیسی، نشانه معناشناسی، گفتمان تنشی، داستان کودک، زیلبربرگ
  • علی عربانی دانا، عادل رفیعی* صفحات 75-104

    ساخت های دواسمی به توالی دو کلمه که دارای طبقه دستوری یکسان هستند و عموما با یک رابط واژگانی به هم مرتبط می شوند گفته می شود. ساخت های دواسمی می توانند برگشت پذیر یا برگشت ناپذیر باشند. این مقاله در نظر دارد تا ساخت های دواسمی در زبان فارسی را بر اساس مدل محدودیت ها بررسی کند تا مشخص شود که این مدل تا چه میزان می تواند داده های زبان فارسی را توجیه کند. در مورد آن دسته از ساخت های دواسمی که مدل مولین قادر به تبیین آن ها نیست پژوهش حاضر در نظر دارد تا محدودیت هایی را متناسب با ساختار زبان فارسی معرفی کند. مدل محدودیت ها را مولین (2014) معرفی کرده است. این مدل شامل محدودیت های معنایی/ کاربردشناختی، واجی غیروزنی، واجی وزنی و بسامد و ترتیب الفبایی است. داده های این پژوهش از کتاب ها، روزنامه ها، فرهنگ لغت زبان فارسی و نیز پیکره تحت وب به دست آمد. برای انجام این پژوهش، داده های تحقیق که مشتمل بر 593 ساخت دواسمی است از نظر برگشت پذیری یا برگشت ناپذیری گروه بندی شد. برای تعیین برگشت پذیری یا برگشت ناپذیری ساخت های دواسمی، از مرجع دادگان زبان فارسی (پیکره بی جن خان) و اینترنت استفاده شده است. بدین صورت ساخت هایی که در پیکره مورد استفاده فقط در یک ترتیب ظاهر شده اند، برگشت ناپذیر و ساخت هایی که در هر دو ترتیب ظاهر شده اند، برگشت پذیر در نظر گرفته شده اند.  سپس داده های استخراج شده بر اساس مدل محدودیت ها تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد که مدل محدودیت های مولین می تواند ترتیب اکثر ساخت های دواسمی در زبان فارسی را توجیه کند. همچنین در مورد داده هایی که مدل مولین قادر به تبیین آن ها نیست، یک سری محدودیت هایی تعریف شد، ازجمله: اصل «غلبه»، اصل «رسایی اول هجای دوم»، اصل «قیاس»، اصل «اهمیت»، اصل «رسایی جزء اول پایانه»، اصل «روایت»، و اصل «سبب مسبب»،

    کلیدواژگان: ساخت دواسمی، برگشت پذیری، برگشت ناپذیری، محدودیت ها
  • یاسر خیرخواه نیا، بهزاد قنسولی*، جواد صالحی فدردی صفحات 105-128

    آیا عاملی مانند واژگان در متن، سبب برانگیختن واکنش های احساسی می شود؟ هنگامی که متنی را مطالعه می کنیم، از شناخت خود برای درک واژگان آن بهره می بریم. به علاوه، ممکن است با خواندن واژگان آن متن، احساساتی برانگیخته شوند که عمدا در طول آزمون بررسی نمی شوند. پژوهش حاضر به منظور بررسی این مسیله است که آیا واژگان متون تافل سبب برانگیختن احساسات می شوند یا خیر؟ و در صورت وجود، احتمال دارد این پدیده یکی از عوامل بی ربط به سازه باشد که بر دقت و مشروعیت آزمون تاثیر  می گذارد. فرضیه ما این است که میزان احساسات برانگیخته شده در متون تافل نسبت به یکدیگر، متفاوت بوده است و عوامل دیگری در این مقوله مداخله دارند. در این پژوهش، تعداد شرکت کنندگان 393 نفر بودند که از آن ها خواسته شد سه متن استاندارد تافل را که به طور تصادفی انتخاب شده بود بخوانند. سپس با الگو گرفتن از روش تولید واژه نامه احساسات، میزان برانگیخته شدن احساسات شرکت کنندگان نسبت به واژگان و عبارات آن سه متن سنجیده شد. به منظور ارزیابی متغیر کنترلی از آن ها درخواست شد به پرسش نامه هوش هیجانی نیز پاسخ دهند. یافته ها، درستی فرضیه ها و تحقق اهداف تحقیق را نشان داد. همچنین، نتایج تحقیق، پرسش هایی در زمینه دریافت احساسات و تاثیر آن ها بر آزمون تافل را مطرح کرده است.

    کلیدواژگان: احساسات، بازنگری عادلانه، عامل بی ربط به سازه، هوش هیجانی، خواندن
  • محمد هاتفی* صفحات 129-152

    وقتی سازوکارهای حقوقی از طریق گزاره های زبان بیان می شوند، چینش های بافتی و ساختاری خاصی می طلبند. نظریه نقش گرا این ضرورت ها را در چارچوب فرانقش های اندیشگانی (تجربی منطقی)، بینافردی و متنی تعریف می کند. دشواری زبان حقوقی و به ویژه زبان قانون زبان زد است. پرسش اصلی این است که عامل یا دلیل این دشواری در چیست. فرضیه نقش گرا این است که این دشواری در نحوه ارایه اطلاعات از سوی متن و در شیوه ارتباط متن نهفته است. مقاله حاضر با هدف سنجش این فرضیه، با تمرکز بر مواد 1 تا 7 قانون آیین دادرسی کیفری مصوب 1392، نشان داد در این مواد، مجهول سازی، ارتقای جایگاه کنش پذیر به کنشگر، جایگزینی فاعل جمله با عبارت های مصدری انتزاعی و تبدیل افعال تام به ربطی میزان زیادی تفسیر ضمنی بر دوش خواننده قانون نهاده و نقش بینافردی مراجع قضایی و متهمان را مبهم کرده است. به این صورت که نقش مراجع قضایی را به هنگام اعمال قدرت در قالب ساخت معلوم و با عناصر فرانقشی تجربی و مادی، اما زمانی که باید پاسخ گو باشند به صورت مجهول و با عبارت های مصدری انتزاعی بیان کرده و وظایف آنان را از طریق ارتقای جایگاه متهم از کنش پذیر به کنشگر به دوش متهم انداخته است. این نحوه ساخت اطلاعی، رابطه مراجع قضایی و متهم را به صورت سلطه گر و سلطه پذیر درآورده و با حفظ حقوق شهروندی، که در ماده 7 تاکید شده، ناهم خوان است.

    کلیدواژگان: قانون، آیین دادرسی کیفری، زبان شناسی نقش گرا، تفسیر ضمنی، حقوق شهروندی
  • سعیده دست آموز* صفحات 153-181

    در این پژوهش سعی بر آن است تا با بررسی صفت فعلی در ساختار جملات روسی و ترجمه های موجود، راهکارهایی برای معادل یابی دقیق این مقوله دستوری، به زبان فارسی ارایه شود. در این جستار که با استفاده از شیوه تحقیق مقابله ای و آنالیز مثال ها و ترجمه ها انجام شده است، با هدف آزمودن این فرضیه که نقش نحوی صفت فعلی زبان روسی در معادل یابی درست این مقوله دستوری در زبان فارسی می تواند موثر باشد، 90 جمله دارای صفت فعلی به طور تصادفی از ترجمه های آثاری نظیر آشیانه اشراف ایوان تورگنف، جنگ و صلح لف تولستوی و بازرس نیکولای گوگول انتخاب شده است و معادل هایی که برای صفت فعلی در زبان فارسی در نظر گرفته شده اند، با رویکرد نقش محور بررسی شده اند. پرسش اصلی تحقیق این است: آیا صفات فعلی می توانند یک واحد حداقلی برای ترجمه در متن مبدا باشند و با واحدهای مستقل زبانی در زبان فارسی معادل یابی شوند؟ آیا ترجمه های ارایه شده مفهوم دقیق صفت های فعلی زبان روسی را منعکس می کنند؟ راه حل چیست؟ نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که در ترجمه های موجود رویه یکسانی برای معادل یابی این مقوله دستوری اتخاذ نشده است و معادل ها دارای دقت کافی نیستند. بنابراین، پیشنهاد پژوهش حاضر می تواند برای معادل یابی دقیق صفات فعلی در زبان روسی به منزله یک واحد ترجمه، کار آمد باشد. از دستاوردهای پژوهش حاضر می توان در ترجمه های ماشینی و الکترونیکی استفاده کرد

    کلیدواژگان: صفت فعلی، نقش نحوی، معادل یابی، واحد ترجمه، زبان روسی، زبان فارسی
  • محسن رودمعجنی*، احسان قبول صفحات 183-210

    مهارت صحبت کردن بخش بسیار مهمی از توانایی زبانی افراد را دربر می گیرد. بهره مندی از این مهارت در محیط دانشگاه نیز اهمیت بسزایی دارد؛ اما سنجش صحبت کردن کار چندان ساده ای نیست و با مشکلاتی مانند دشواری در نمره دهی روبه رو است. در این پژوهش تلاش شده است تا میزان اعتبار معیار نمره دهی مهارت صحبت کردن در آزمون جامع زبان فارسی مرکز بین المللی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد مطالعه شود. به همین منظور، نتایج به دست آمده از یکی از آزمون های برگزار شده در این مرکز به وسیله مدل های آماری راش و تحلیل عاملی بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که پایایی آزمون گیرنده 97 درصد است. این عدد بیانگر درک نسبتا یکسان آزمون گیرندگان از معیار نمره دهی است. همچنین، در این آزمون، آزمون گیرندگان توانسته اند به شکل مناسبی مقیاس نمره دهی را برای آزمون دهندگان با توانایی های مختلف به کار گیرند؛ زیرا آستانه های به دست آمده بر اساس مدل راش، سیر صعودی منظمی داشته اند. نقشه آزمون دهنده - پرسش نیز نشان می دهد که معیار نمره دهی توانایی تمییز زبان آموزان ضعیف، متوسط و قوی از یکدیگر را داشته است. با این حال، در بالای طیف توانمندی آزمون دهندگان، هشت آزمون دهنده قرار گرفته است که هیچ نمره ای متناسب با سطح توانمندی شان دیده نمی شود؛ یعنی معیار نمره دهی در تمییز آن ها کارآمد نبوده است. از سوی دیگر، بار عاملی به دست آمده برای سه سازه شیوه بیان، کیفیت زبان و بسط موضوع به ترتیب 76، 78 و 74 درصد بوده است. این امر نشان می دهد تقسیم توانایی صحبت کردن به سه عامل یاد شده متناسب و دقیق است و هر کدام از این سازه ها توانمندی متفاوتی را سنجش می کنند. از این میان کیفیت زبان بیشترین و سازه بسط موضوع، کم ترین میزان بار عاملی را داشته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: اعتبارسنجی، مهارت صحبت کردن، معیار نمره دهی، راش، تحلیل عاملی، آزمون جامع زبان فارسی فردوسی
  • مریم سادات فیاضی*، حسین صافی پیرلوجه صفحات 211-240

    کتاب درسی در مقام مهم ترین ابزار آموزشی کشور، بخش مهمی از محتوای برنامه درسی را در خود دارد. از این رو، روزآمد کردن کتاب های درسی، افزودن بر غنای مفهومی و پرهیز از کاستی های موجود در آن ها همواره ضرورت تحلیل محتوای کتاب های درسی را اجنتاب ناپذیر می کند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف مشخص کردن میزان توجه کتاب های فارسی خوانداری و نوشتاری دوره دبستان به انواع معانی موجود در یک قالب معنایی می کوشد به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که «در کتاب فارسی دوره دبستان کدام یک از انواع معانی «دستوری»، «صریح» «سبکی»، «هم آیندی»، «کاربردی»، «تلویحی» و «متداعی» آموزش داده می شود؟» و «هر یک از انواع معانی مورد نظر تا چه سطحی مورد توجه قرار گرفته اند؟». پژوهش در شمار پژوهش های کیفی قرار دارد و جامعه آماری پژوهش تمامی تکالیف مجموعه کتاب فارسی نوشتاری و تمامی متون و تمرین های فارسی خوانداری دوره دبستان را دربردارد. برای ارزیابی محتوای درسی از روش تحلیل محتوا و مشخصا چک لیست استفاده شده و واحد تحلیل، واژه است. معیار تحلیل محتوا برای ارزیابی این کتاب، معنی شناسی قالبی فیلمور (1975) است و محتوای کتاب ها بر اساس میزان کاربست انواع معانی موجود در یک قالب معنایی، تحلیل و توصیف می شوند. یافته های پژوهش ناظر است به آموزش غیرمستقیم معنای صریح، معنای هم آیندی، معنای متداعی و معنای سبکی در قالب تکلیف های نوشتاری و خوانداری مختلف که از این میان معنای صریح بیش از معانی هم آیندی، متداعی و سبکی است. همچنین، تحلیل کتاب های دوره دبستان نشان می دهد که معانی دستوری، کاربردی و تلویحی از نظر دور مانده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: معنی شناسی قالبی، تحلیل محتوا، کتاب فارسی، نوشتاری
  • لیلا سلیمی، عالیه کرد زعفرانلو کامبوزیا* صفحات 241-265

    هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی فرایندهایی است که گویشوران زبان برای رعایت اصل توالی رسایی و قانون مجاورت هجا بر واژه های زبان اعمال می کنند. بدین منظور، داده های زبان فارسی از گونه گفتاری گویشوران جمع آوری و صورت واجی آن ها با فرهنگ لغت مشیری (1388) مقایسه شده است. داده های گویش کردی هورامی از طریق مصاحبه با گویشوران و داده های مربوط به گویش های لفوری، تربت حیدریه و سبزواری از کامبوزیا (1385) استخراج شده است. از بین 1125 واژه بسیط گردآوری شده که اصل رسایی در آن ها رعایت نمی شود، در 357 واژه، شاهد اعمال فرایندهای واجی کشش جبرانی، قلب، درج، حذف و جایگزینی یک واحد واجی با واحد واجی دیگر از سوی گویشوران زبان هستیم که از این میان بسامد فرایندهای کشش جبرانی و قلب بیشتر از دیگر فرایندهای واجی است. به علاوه، این فرایندها بر واژه های یک، دو و سه هجایی اعمال می شوند که از این میان بسامد واژه های دوهجایی بیشتر از واژه های یک هجایی و سه هجایی است. در نهایت، فرایندهای واجی مطرح شده در چارچوب نظریه بهینگی تبیین و رتبه بندی محدودیت ها مشخص می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: اصل توالی رسایی، قانون مجاورت هجا، فرایندهای واجی، محدودیت، نظریه بهینگی
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  • Faezeh Adibnia*, Soghra Akbari Chermahini Pages 1-23

    In cognitive linguistics, language is considered part of human cognitive abilities, and any linguistic analysis is accompanied by an analysis of human cognitive abilities. One of the human cognitive abilities is cognitive inhibition. The aim of this study was to compare cognitive inhibition in bilingual students and monolingual students. The research question is whether there is a significant difference between cognitive inhibition in bilingual and monolingual students? The present study is a descriptive causal-comparative study. In this study, cognitive inhibition (performance in numerical stroop test) was compared between two groups of bilingual and monolingual students. The statistical population of the present study included all secondary school students in Qazvin. The sample group consisted of 90 students (45 Persian monolingual students and 45 Turkish-Persian and Kurdish-Persian bilingual students) who were selected by purposive sampling method. A demographic questionnaire and numerical stroop test were used to collect information. A demographic questionnaire and numerical stroop test were used to collect information. Due to the lack of complete cooperation of some sample people in answering the numerical strop test, the number of sample people was reduced to 39 monolingual students and 43 bilingual students. Despite the attention of many researchers to cognitive inhibition, understanding and access to the true concept of cognitive inhibition is complex. Two strategies have been used to study cognitive processes: self-report techniques (interview and questionnaire) and the use of empirical-cognitive models. Interviews and questionnaires assess only aspects of cognition that can be verbalized, and such data can only provide relative support for cognitive models of disorders. The existence of such problems in interviews and questionnaires has increased the use of empirical concepts and patterns. The Stroop test is one of the most effective tools that studies cognitive inhibition and selective attention in a practical way and its results are extracted directly from the individualchr('39')s performance. The test was named after John Ridley Stroop (1935), who invented the color version of the test. Since then, various forms of this test such as directional stroop, odor and taste stroop, numerical stroop, shape strokes & etc have been made and used. In the present study, to measure cognitive inhibition used the numerical stroop .The Persian version of this test was made by the researcher (the first author of the present study). The reliability of the test was 86% using the retest method on 100 subjects. The numerical stroop test consists of 96 numeric pairs, of which 48 pairs are used for physical comparison and 48 pairs are used for numerical comparison. In the 48 pairs on which the physical comparison is performed, 16 pairs of inconsistent numbers, 16 pairs of consonants and 16 pairs of numbers are neutral, and in the 48 pairs on which the numerical comparison is performed, the same order of properties is established. The subjectchr('39')s task is to select the number that is larger in terms of physical size in the physical comparison section and the number that is larger in terms of numerical value in the numerical comparison section. The output of the numerical stroop test includes pairs of numbers to be compared, reaction time, subject selection, correct or incorrect answer, and type of comparison (physical comparison and numerical comparison). In order to determine the Stroop effect, the interference score is calculated by calculating the difference between the reaction time to the consonant and inconsistent numbers. Using this test, the effect of numerical stroop and the effect of physical stroop can be calculated. The larger stroop effect indicates greater interference and a lower level of cognitive inhibition. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to measure the difference between the effect of numerical and physical stroop in bilingual and monolingual students. The results showed that there was a significant difference between bilingual and monolingual students in the numerical stroop effect and the physical stroop effect. There is a significant difference in cognitive inhibition performance between the two groups and according to the mean, monolingual students have poorer performance in cognitive inhibition. This result is in line with the findings of Bialystok and et al. (2005), Carlson and Meltzoff (2008), Bialystok and Viswanthan (2009), Prior and Macwhinney (2020), Cushen and Wiley (2011), Poulin-Dubois et al. (2011) and Blumenfeld and Marian (2011) are consistent. In these studies, it has been concluded that the performance of bilinguals in cognitive activities such as cognitive control, flexibility and cognitive inhibition is better than monolinguals. Cognitive inhibition involves the ability to switch between sets of responses. Bilingual students have a stronger central performer. Because more linguistic information in bilinguals is constantly challenged and acted upon, they perform better in suppressing interference with a stimulus that competes with the initial response, and are better at controlling disturbances from different tasks. It can be said that bilinguals use more effective cognitive strategies in dealing with problems because they speak a variety of languages. The interaction of languages ​​can be considered as a factor that confronts the bilingual person with situations that he learns to use more appropriate cognitive strategies, and these strategies improve their cognitive performance. Also, the ability of symbolic substitution in different forms causes the superiority of bilinguals in cognitive function and this effect is due to the interaction and interrelationship of two languages. Thus, because in bilinguals both languages ​​are mutually active and have common representational regions in the brain, bilinguals have a greater ability to inhibit and selectively pay attention to cognitive processes.

    Keywords: Stroop test, Cognitive inhibition, Students, Bilingual, Monolingual
  • Ali Aghaee, Rajabali Askarzadeh Torghabeh*, MahmoudReza Ghorban Sabbagh Pages 25-48

    This article aims to investigate the language of ‘May’ and has presented a stylistic study of Shepard’s Fool for Love (1983). To do the study, the writers of this article have benefited from ‘Level of the Word’, ‘Level of the Phrase/Sentence’ and ‘Level of Discourse’ presented by Sara mills. Using Mills’ ideas, the problem suggested in this article is to show whether ‘May’ is a powerful character or not. The purpose of this article is to compare and contrast the character of ‘May’ with the male characters of the play, and answer the following: Is she always obeying male characters of the play? And according to critics, has Shepard presented a weak female character in the play? The findings of the study show that ‘May’ has a submissive character and cannot affect others around her. She is also weaker than the male characters of the play.

    Methodology

    Mills (1995) identifies three levels of analysis, the first of which is analysis at the level of the word (p. 62); at this level she identifies various methods that sexism is found in language, and they are as follows:Linguistic Determinism Generic Pronouns Generic Nouns  Women as the Marked Form (pp. 62-70) Mills (1995) then goes on to discuss “Sexism and Meaning”, raising questions about the way in which meanings may be sex-specific; she discusses some problematic areas, namely:Naming and Androcentrism The Semantic Derogation of Women Endearments and Diminutives Female Experience: Euphemism and Taboo Lexical Gaps: Male Point of View Dictionaries and Gatekeepers (pp. 77-94) The second level of analysis which Mills (1995) proposes is analysis at the level of the phrase/sentence; she expands by suggesting areas that require particular attention in an analysis, said areas being:Ready-made Phrases Presupposition and Inference Metaphor Jokes and Humour Transitivity Choices (pp. 98-110) Regarding transitivity, Mills (1995) states that it has to do with the “representation of who acts (who is an agent) and who is acted upon (who is affected by the actions of others)”; she goes on to explain that there are three types of choices: “material, mental and relational” (p. 110). Mills (1995) elaborates further:In this system, processes can be categorized into those elements which are actions which can be observed in the real world and which have consequences (material), for example, ‘She swam across the river’; those which take place largely in the mind (mental), for example, ‘She thought about the situation’; and those which simply relate two elements together (relational), for example, ‘It is rather cold’. Within material action processes, there are two further choices, between ‘material action intention’ and ‘material action supervention’: with material action intention, there is a clear will to do something, for example, ‘I broke the window, in order to get into the house’; but with supervention, there is an attempt to capture for analysis those verbal processes where things are not done intentionally, for example, ‘I broke my favourite glasses’. (pp. 110-111) As has become clear, transitivity allows for investigation into whether a character is active or passive, and also whether a character manages to have an effect on her surroundings and other characters.The final level of analysis Mills (1995) observes is the level of discourse; she indicates a few areas for analysis at this level which consist of:Characters/Roles Fragmentation Focalization Schemata (pp. 123-148).

    Conclusion

    From the very beginning of the play, Eddie is shown as the active character while May remains the passive one. Also, inferences were made that May cannot provide for herself, coupled with the fact that May is the goal of Eddie’s material-action-intention act, shows that May is the powerless passive goal whereas Eddie is the powerful active agent. Even when May makes Eddie the goal of her act, Eddie is simultaneously doing the same, and the difference is that May is physically subordinated as well. In excerpt 2, Eddie’s belief that May needs someone to check up on her, suggests that May cannot take care of herself, and as such she is viewed as powerless and inferior. The aforementioned presupposition is indicative of an anti-feminist viewpoint in the play. Eddie proceeds by using a material-action-intention act whereas May uses an internal mental process, and said processes point to Eddie being powerful and active while May is powerless and passive.Excerpt 3 begins with Eddie using a “ready-made phrase” to indicate that because May has aged, she should not be dating, and this is a negative view designed to damage May’s perception of herself to make her believe she is not attractive. Eddie goes on to threaten May with material-action-intention acts, which show May’s subordination and powerlessness. Therefore, the exchanges between Eddie and May are dominated by the former, and this suggests the subordination of femininity. In the fourth excerpt, May uses a relational process which suggests that she is a passive character; the fact that said relational process is used to hide her date from Eddie, further supports her passivity and powerlessness. May’s identity is also brought into question because she does not influence Eddie, and simply reacts to his words and action not being able to instigate anything

    Keywords: Fool for Love, Level of the Word, ‘Level of the Phrase, Sentence’, ‘Level of Discourse’, Stylistics
  • AmirHossein Zanjanbar*, Ali Abbasi Pages 49-74
    Introduction

    "Physical Metamorphosis" is the change in the identity of the acting element or the actress of the story, from a physical representation to another physical expression. In the present study, the word "physical" in addition to the metamorphosis of the body, as a body, also refers to the metamorphosis of the body as an object. "Physical Metamorphosis" either as a knot method, is the creator of a tensive space, or like a resolver method, derived from a tensive space. To examine the aforementioned method, however the choice of the "tensive regime of discourse, is a proportional choice.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to classify the stories in the range of children that have been developed around the "Physical Metamorphosis". Questions: In this regard, the present study seeks to answer three questions: 1. how the style of the elements involved in metamorphosis take the advantage of tensive regime of discourse to produce meaning in the child story? 2. What is the relationship between the level of consciousness of its transformation element and the amount of its transformation process? 3. Based on the model proposed by Zilberberg, how is it possible to define and illustrate these styles?  

    Methodology

    The two-component stylistics of this study uses two coordinates systems perpendicular to each other: one in terms of time-metamorphosis, which shows the qualitative changes of metamorphic action, in a quantitative period of time, and the other in terms of time-consciousness, which represents the qualitative changes in the consciousness of the actor submissive subject towards his metamorphosis. In this study, "metamorphosis", as well as "the subjectchr('39')s mental awareness of its own metamorphosis", are both considered a qualitative component, alongside linguistic content, and "time" as a quantitative and extrinsic component. The present study uses a descriptive analysis approach.

    Conclusions

    1) Zilberberg believes in five styles or modes of presence: style of modality, style of efficiency, style of existence, inclusive and exclusive style. According to the present study, this stylistics can be divided into two groups. The first group includes style of modality, style of efficiency, and style of existence. These three styles are relative to each other being in complementary distribution; that is, although all three are stressful, and have relatively similar functions; but none of both items come together. The second group includes, inclusive and exclusive style. Both components are in complementary distribution relative to each other; but none of the three styles of the first group, with any of the two styles of the second group, are in complementary distribution; For example, the stress space can be both style of modality (from the first group) and inclusive style (from the second group). 2) The first group, which includes three styles of modality, efficiency and existence, divides both the metamorphic process and the pattern of awareness of the metamorphic element towards its own metamorphosis. Based on these two components, we can identify the cognitive style pattern of physical metamorphosis in childrenchr('39')s stories based on two components: The first is metamorphosis at the biological level, and the other is metamorphosis at the phenomenological level. 3) Childrenchr('39')s stories, which are based on bodily metamorphosis, follow six two-component models: I) The efficiency, with the phenomenon of modality,  II)The double efficiency,  III)The double modality,  IV)The modality with the phenomenon of efficiency,  V)The existence,  VI) Without the phenomenon. This study, for the first time, generalizes Zilberbergchr('39')s one-component stylistic model to two-component stylistic paradigm. In two-component stylistics, the first component represents the objective process of the biological changes of the transformed personality, and the second component represents the phenomenological changes that occur in mind of the transformed personality. That is, the coordinate system based on "time-metamorphosis" corresponds to the first component, and shows how the objective the process of metamorphosis is.  The coordinate system based on "time-awareness" corresponds to the second component, and shows how the personality is aware and mentally informed of its metamorphosis. In this article, the representation of stress axes (extent and intensity axes) are completely consistent with mathematical paradigms.
    Significance of the study: Regarding the frequency of the application of the "Physical Metamorphosis" in children story, and the lack of theoretical research on this field, the necessity of conducting a research in this field sounds beneficial.

    Keywords: Metamorphosis, Child story, Tensive regime of discourse, Semiotics, Zilberberg
  • Ali Arabanidana, Adel Rafiee* Pages 75-104
    Introduction

    In every language, there are some constructions where two constituents are put together to form a lexical item. These constructions are called binomials. In this term, “ nomi” ( which means “name”) can refer to names, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and conjunctions. These constructions can be just the repetition of the same word, like “davan davan”, or can be reduplication, like “ketab metab” which has a phonological motivation. They can be onomatopoeia, like “tick-tack” or can be of a kind where there is a just a semantic motivation, like “jang and solh”. But terminologically, binomials refer to the sequence of two words pertaining to the same form-class, and ordinarily connected by some kind of lexical link. One point in binomials relates to the order of constituents and which factors or constraints determine their order. In this regard, there is a model called Constraints’ Model (2014). The model has some constraints which determines the order of constituents in binomials.

    Purpose

     The paper aims to investigate Persian binomials based on Constraints’ Model. Study questions: In this regard, the study questions are:1-To how extent the order of constituents in Persian binomials can be determined based on semantic-pragmatic constraints, non-metrical-phonological constraints, metrical-phonological constraints, and frequency and alphabetic order constraints which are mentioned in Constraints’ Model? 2- To how extent Constraints’ Model can be a criterion to determine the order of constituents in Persian binomials? 3-For those Persian binomials whose orders can’t be determined using Constraints’ Model, what constraints can be defined?

    Methodology

    The research is done using Constraints’ Model. The data were extracted from twenty Persian novel, the newspapers “Hamshahri” and “Iran” in a one year period, Persian dictionary and web. From the corpus, 1957 binomials were extracted, many of which were ignored because they were in the groups “repetition” and “reduplication”. Finally there were 593 reversible and irreversible binomials. To do the research, all these 593 binomials were divided into two groups “reversible” and “irreversible”. To determine the (ir) -reversibility of Persian binomials, Persian Language Data Base (Bijankhan Corpus) was used, so following Mollin’s method (2013), the binomials appearing just in one order were considered irreversible and the ones appearing in both orders were considered reversible. For reversible binomials, it was attempted to find their preferred order. To find the preferred order of reversible binomials, the researcher referred to the frequency in Persian Language Data Base and web and the frequency number of both order were found. If the frequency occurrence of one order was significantly higher than the other order, that order was considered as the preferred order, but if the frequency occurrence of two different orders in one binomial wasn’t different significantly, that binomial was removed from research, because there wasn’t any preferred order which can be determined by Constraints’ Model. Then the irreversible binomials and reversible binomials with a preferred order were analyzed using Constraints’ Model. Analysis: Analysis of research data, considering the occurrence order of binomials in Persian Language Data Base (Bijankhan Corpus) and web showed that among 593 binomials, 534 ones were irreversible and 59 ones were reversible. The 534 irreversible binomials were analyzed using Constraints’ Model.

    Conclusion

    Data analysis showed that among 534 irreversible binomials, Constraints’ Model can determine the order of 520 binomials (97/3), but in research corpus, there were 11 binomials (2/7) whose order can’t be determined using Constraints’ Model. The analysis results for reversible binomials showed that among 45 reversible binomials (with a preferred order), Constraints’ Model can determine the order of 44 binomials (97/7), but there were one reversible binomial (2/3) which couldn’t be explained Constraints’ Model. To answer the first question of the research, we can say that Constraints’ Model has determined the order of 97/4 of binomials (both irreversible binomials and reversible binomials with a preferred order) in Persian. So it is concluded that Constraints’ Model is suitable to determine the order of constituents in Persian binomials. But for those Persian binomials whose order can’t be determined using Constraints’ Model, some constraints were proposed which are: dominance principle, initial sonority of second syllable principle, unstressed vowel length principle, analogy principle, importance principle, coda’s initial sonority principle,

    Keywords: Binomial, Reversiblity, Irreversiblity, Constraints
  • Yaser Kheyrkhahnia, Behzad Ghonsooly*, Javad Salehi Fadardi Pages 105-128

    Understanding the impact of various factors on language testing is important. Therefore, it is necessary to understand how they affect test scores in order to design and standardize language tests (Bachman, 1990). Based on the same logic and considering the need of fair reviewing for any tests claimed by ETS (2010), it is essential to identify, reduce and eliminate factors unrelated to the structure that hinder the optimal performance of test takers (Messick, 1989). According to Vinson (2014), words themselves are a powerful tool for expressing emotions. Does a factor such as vocabularies in a text stimulate emotional reactions? When we read a text, we use our knowledge to understand its vocabularies, but in addition, by reading the vocabularies, emotion may be stimulated, which are deliberately not examined during the test. This research is intended to investigate if the vocabularies of TOEFL passages are likely to stimulate emotion as the construct-irrelevant factor which could affect the accuracy and legitimacy of the TOEFL test. Also, our hypothesis is that the amount of emotion evoked in the words of TOEFL texts is different from each other, and other factors intervene in this category. By using the initial pilot sampling and with the help of PASS Software to determine the size of the final sample, 393 people were randomly selected by Random Number Generator Software. In addition, according to the method of detecting emotions by forming an emotional dictionry proposed by Turney (2002), the present study labled parts of speech of each word and then the words were grouped together as meaningful expressions into a five-page list of phrases like a dictionary. Through this method, the present study could determine the intensity and valenance of the selected particpants’ emotions in relation to the phrases selected from TOEFL iBT reading passages. Also, it was significant to measure if emotional intelligence could be influential on the evoked emotions of the words and phrases; thus, Emotional Intelligence Questionare of Schutte (1998) was selected. The research procedure was that the selected participants read three TOEFL passages without answering their reading questions; instead, they did Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and self-reported their emotions through the five-page list of words and phrases. The results of this study confirmed the validity of the research hypotheses, in the sense that not only the words and phrases of the three TOEFL passages in this research caused emotions but also the three passages were different in terms of emotion, and it can be argued that this can be a construct-irrelevant factor when reading and comprehending TOEFL passages. The results of this study can increase the awareness of TOEFL test designers. In other words, TOEFL test designers must consider the effect of emotional elements in language assessment because these elements may disrupt the mental order of test takers and can affect their performances. This study casts doubt on the validity and reliability of the TOEFL as a standard test. ETS (2010) is interested in a fair review of tests to identify and reduce factors unrelated to the structure so it is useful considering the emotional interactions in the process of assessing the validity and reliability of any tests.

    Keywords: Emotions, Fair review, Construct-irrelevant factor, Emotional intelligence, Reading
  • Mohammad Hatefi* Pages 129-152

    Difficulties of the legal language is something that everyone has heard something about that and may have ideas about the problem. It is being said that the way to solve the problem with the legal language is that we try to write the articles of the codes in an easy language and method and to use editing instruments. From a linguistic point of view it is not just the matter of easy writing but it is a problem which needs some basic theoretical hypothesis to show us a scientific method to deal with the problem. In this study, subject matter analysis is done through the functional approach as proposed and outlined in Halliday’s approach. The author believes that it is not enough to consider the linguistic character of the articles of the legal codes or the texts of law, but we needs to consider instead the communicative aspects and the way the legislator convey the massage. This paper aims to study how the Criminal Procedure Code of Iran to convey meaning and to communicate and transfer message to the audience based on Halliday’s functionalism regarding communicative and functional roles of language. Based on that approach, the Code is expected to communicate with the audience and convey meaning and message through a variety of linguistic functions. Each article in the code contains a variety of actions and topics which the legislator tries to convey to the audience using linguistic and metalinguistic factors. In this paper an attempt is made to represent the three experimental, interpersonal and textual metafunctions in the articles of the Code. Legal mechanisms, expressed through language propositions, are subordinate to the contextual and structural requirements of language for meaning. Functional theory defines three metafunctions as contextual and structural requirements for expressing any linguistic contents. To consider the empirical-logical, interpersonal, and textual metafunctions is necessary to analyze the difficulties of the legal language in general and the language of the law in special. The key question is: what is this difficulty? The functional hypothesis is that this difficulty lies in the way information is presented by the text and in the way the text to communicate. By focusing on Articles 1 to 7 of the Criminal Procedure Code of 2013, The present paper showed that in these articles, passive structure of the verb, substitution of the subject with the abstract expressions and conversion of concrete verbs to ideational create a huge amount of interpretation imposed on the reader. It has implicated the role of judicial authorities in the exercise of power in the form of constructive and empirical and material constituent elements in cases where they must be held accountable. This form of information gives a dominant position to the judicial authorities against the accused in contrast with the protection of civil rights enshrined in Article 7. Findings confirmed the desirable performance of the functional theory in the field of the articles of the Code. Halliday’s Functionalism shows that the main problem in respect with the articles of the Criminal Procedure Code is not just restricted to the linguistic features but the main problem arises from the communicative strategies which the legislator uses to convey meaning to the audience. In this way the interpretive implications have the most parasitic role which do not let the audience easily communicate and direct with the message being conveyed. The results of this study showed that a proper packaging of Information, regarding the functional aspects, is a useful way to achieve the goals of an easy writing movements too. Proper packaging of information, will help us resolve the difficulties in both sides of writing and communicating.

    Keywords: Law, Criminal Procedure Code, Functional linguistics, Implicated interpretation, Civil rights
  • Saeedeh Dastamooz* Pages 153-181

    The present investigation has been tried to study participles in the structure of the Russian sentences, the current translations and although it has been provided approaches for accurate matching this category of the grammatical area in the Persian Language. In this study, the constructive method, analysis of examples and translations have been used. Regarding examining the hypothesis that the syntactic role of participles of the Russian language could be effective for correct interpreting of this case in the Persian language, 90 sentences including participles have randomly selected from novels interpreted from Russian into Persian. For instance; Home of the Gentry by Turgenev, War, and Peace by Leo Tolstoy and The Government Inspector by Nikolai Gogol were picked and the procedure of the translating was assessed, finally, the equivalents considered for the participles were examined. The principal hypothesis for the research is: could the participle, as a unit of translation in the Russian text, find a suitable equivalent among the linguistic units of the Persian language? Whether the provided translations reflect the exact meaning of the adjective verbs in the Russian language? What is the solution? The history of linguistic research in the field of the Russian language proves that the question of the lexical and grammatical characteristics of participles was very controversial. The existence or absence of this grammatical category in Persian also raises many questions, and a lot of research has been done in these areas. Despite the research done, there are still many problems in this area. The novelty of this study lies in the fact that for the first time it considers the Russian participle a translation unit when translated from Russian into Persian. Taking into account the basic rules include translating from Russian into Persian, further we will check the correctness of the hypothesis and proposals of our research. Some scholars believe that each of the morphological and syntactic structures used in the original language is an individual style of the author, and if we intend to make an original and correct translation, we must preserve the morphological and syntactic structure of the original text. In this study, it is assumed that the participle in Russian can be considered a unit of translation into Persian, and the translator can take into account the syntactic role of the participle in the sentence and choose a logical approach for its accurate translation. Based on the basic needs of translation, the following suggestions are provided for translating Russian language participles into Persian: If we have the participial constructions in a Russian sentence, to translate it into Persian we must use an explanatory dependent sentence with the conjunction "که"; If a participle precedes a noun and serves a descriptive role, it must be translated using the adjective or adjectival phrases or the adjectives formed based on verbs; In order to translate the substantive participles of the Russian language into Persian, we must use Persian nouns. In order to translate a participle that has a propositional role, we must use a conjugated Persian verb. Of the 90 examples reviewed, translation of 46 sentences matched the hypothesis of our study; however, in the translation of 44 cases, either the participle was not translated at all, or there was no exact equivalent for it, or words that do not exist in the original text were used to convey the meaning of the participle. Consideration of the research hypothesis showed that in the examples there are cases when their translation corresponded to the research hypothesis, and cases when the proposed rule was not used to translate them. We considered these cases and the possibility of correcting them using the hypothesis of our research. For example this Russian sentence «Это топор, зажаренный вместо говядины» is passive, but for it translation in Persian was used active sentence » «به جای گوشت گاو، تبر پخته اید (بازرس). Because of this, the structure and atmosphere of the Russian and Persian sentences are different. The proposed translation, corresponding to the hypothesis of our research, is as follows: «این تبری است که به جای گوشت گاو، سرخ شده». Obviously, using these two sentences in conversational situations will have different consequences for listeners. Whereas the translation should be provoked a reaction similar to the original text. In this Russian sentence: «Без сомнения, проезжающий чиновник захочет, прежде всего, осмотреть подведомственные вам богоугодные заведения.» equivalent to the composition «проезжающий чиновник» was choose «ماموری که می آید» can be replaced by a descriptive combination according to the research hypothesis «مامور در حال عبور». We will have: «بدون شک، مامور در حال عبور، قبل از هر چیز تمایل به بازدید از موسسات خیریه زیر نظر شما را خواهد داشت». The participle was made of the verb «проезжать», and the concept of passing, which is at the root of the verb, must be reflected in the translation of the participle. An analysis of existing translations and a review of the translatability of examples in accordance with the hypothesis of our study confirms the effectiveness of this hypothesis in choosing equivalents for various types of participles in Russian. The participles of the Russian language can be considered as a unit of translation into Persian. By defining the syntactic role of participles and using the hypothesis presented from this study to translate different types of participles, a step can be taken to standardize the translation of participles. In addition, it is possible to use the achievements of this research in machine and electronic translation.

    Keywords: Participles, Syntactic Role, Equivalence, Translation Unit, Russian Language, Persian Language
  • Mohsen Roudmajani*, Ehsan Ghabol Pages 183-210

    The ability to speak is an important part of every body’s language proficiency. This ability plays an important role in the academic life of students. But scoring and assessing speaking is not easy. In this research, we try to study the validity of Ferdowsi University’s Persian proficiency test. We know that every test has a certain amount of error; but in scoring speaking ability if the scoring rubric is designed in a scientific way, the score attributed to the speakerschr('39') speech ability is likely to be very similar to their actual language ability. In other words, the appropriate scoring rubric can have a significant effect on reducing the error rate of the test. In norm-reference tests, this can be achieved only when test designers can say what scoring constructs they intend to measure and how successful they are in achieving that goal. Also, it should be clear whether the scoring scale can distinguish weak, medium, and strong test takers. On the other hand, in applying the scoring rubric , the level of consensus of the scorers should be clear. In order to see how successful is the scoring rubric in Ferdowsi Persian proficiency test, in measuring the test taker’s speaking ability, the authors analyzed the result of one of the proficiency tests administered at Ferdowsi University with Rasch model and factor analysis. The result showed that scorer reliability is 0.97 which is so high. It showed that scorers have the same understanding of the scoring rubric. This means that the scorers have given the test takers a relatively stable score, which is a strong point for the test. Also, the scores have used the scoring rubric properly because the cut score goes up in an organized way as the ability of test-takers increase. Each of the four thresholds obtained by the Rash statistical model differs by approximately 5 degrees, respectively. A regular increase in thresholds is commensurate with the ability of the test takers. This indicates a correct understanding of the scorers of the 5 grades specified in the scoring rubric; in other words, scorers have a good understanding of the level of competence of test takers and its relationship with the grades in the scoring rubric. The Wright map shoes that the scoring rubric can differentiate basic, intermediate and advanced test-takers well. Although on the top of the map there are 8 test-takers which there is no score for them that means the needs some higher scores for them. On the other hand, factor load for three constructs, delivery, language use and topic development are 0.74, 0.78 and 0.76. This shows that dividing speaking ability into these three constructs is proper while language use has the highest factor load and topic development has the lowest factor load.

    Keywords: Language assessment, Speaking skill, Scoring rubric, Rasch, Factor analysis, Ferdowsi Persian proficiency test, Validity
  • Maryam Sadat Fayyazi*, Hossein Safi Pirloojeh Pages 211-240
    Aim

    The textbook as the most important educational tool in the country has a significant role in the curriculum content. Therefore, textbook revision, adding to conceptual richness and avoiding their shortcomings are the main necessities of continuous textbook content analysis. The present article aims at determining the degree of attention of elementary Farsi Reading and Farsi Writing textbooks in Iran to different meanings of a semantic frame. Questions The article tries to answer the following questions: ‘in the elementary school Farsi Reading and Farsi Writing textbooks which kind of explicit, collocational, associative, stylistic, grammatical, pragmatic, and implicit meanings are thought?’ And ‘How much each type of meanings is come to notice?’

    Research Method

     Research has carried out by qualitative method. The statistical population of the study includes all the assignments, texts and exercises of the Farsi Reading and Writing textbooks in the primary school curriculum. The assessment has been conducted, through content analysis method particularly Check-list. The Unit of analysis is ‘word’. The evaluation of curriculum has been done on the basis of Fillmore’s Frame Semantics (1975) and the content of the textbooks is analyzed and described based on the amount of usage of various meanings in a semantic frame. Innovation The efficacy of parameters taken from cognitive linguistics especially frame semantics and content analysis interacting as a system in this research is more significant than those elements operating separately. This convergence into an interdisciplinary field would culminate in a fresh and penetrating view of parameters related to language and education which would not be realized by delving into any of these disciplines alone.

    Conclusion

    The findings of the research reveal that in the first-grade Farsi Reading Textbook, 38.7% of meanings are designated to explicit, 51.6% to collocational and 9.7% to associative meanings. In terms of grammatical categories, all the meanings belong to the category of noun. In addition, ten semantic frames are instructed. Regarding the literacy level of students, most of the presented drills to teach explicit meanings are pictorial. Since the unit of study in this research is word, such cases are ignored. No glossary is appended to this textbook. The first-grade Farsi writing Textbook emphasizes the writing exercises.The semantic frames of the second-grade Farsi Reading Textbook include 70.2% explicit, 10.6% collocational, 14.9% associative and 4.3% stylistic meanings. Among all the Elementary Farsi Reading and Writing Textbook, the second-grade book is the only one which contains four exercises relating to stylistic meaning. The distribution of noun category is 60.6% in comparison with adjective 30.9%, pronoun 4.25% and onomatopoeia 4.25% respectively. No glossary is appended to the second-grade Farsi Reading Textbook. Considering various types of meanings in the Writing Textbook, 70.2% are designated to explicit, 9.6% to collocational and 20.2% to associative meanings. In terms of grammatical category, 66.7% are dedicated to nouns, 26.3% to adjectives, 5.3% to onomatopoeia and1.7% to verbs. The third-grade Farsi Reading Textbook contains 60.8% explicit, 33.3% collocational and 5.9% associative meaning of which 56.9% are nouns and 43.1% are adjectives. There is no direct indication to any semantic frames, but students have access to a glossary at the appendix. In the third-grade Farsi Writing Textbook, Percentage of distribution of meanings are 78.3% for explicit and 21.7% for associative ones of which 91/3% are dedicated to nouns and 8.7% to adjectives. In the fourth-grade Farsi Reading Textbook, there is a glossary which gives the explicit meaning of each term. 82.7% exercises are designated to the indirect instruction of explicit and 17.3% to the collocational meanings. In terms of grammatical category, 75.9% are nouns and 24.1% are adjectives. In the fourth-grade Farsi Writing Textbook, the distribution of categories of noun and adjective are equal and each of them has 50% portion. There are no signs of any other meanings like collocational or associative ones. The fifth-grade Farsi Reading Textbook includes the indirect construction of explicit (88.2%) and collocational (11.8%) meanings. There is a glossary containing 292 terms which introduces explicit meaning. Percentage of distribution of grammatical categories are 41.2% nouns, 44.1% adjectives, 5.9% infinitives, 5.9% prepositions and 2.9% verbs. In the fifth-grade Farsi Writing Textbook, the explicit meaning rate is 67.6%, being higher than collocational and associative by 20.6% and 11.8% respectively. The distribution of nouns and adjectives take up the same portion of total grammatical categories, 50% for each. In the sixth-grade Farsi Reading Textbook, instruction is at the service of explicit meaning and 100% of which is dedicated to adjectives. The glossary of this book in comparison with other grade textbooks contains more terms, 312 ones. The sixth-grade Farsi Writing Textbook includes 59.2% explicit, 11.1% collocational and 29.7% associative meanings. The ratio of noun to adjective distributions are 51.8% to 48.2%. There is no direct instruction of semantic frame in this textbook.The content analysis of elementary Farsi Reading and Writing Textbooks from cognitive semantic point of view indicates that the books give the pupils the instruction both directly and indirectly. The students are provided with training of explicit, collocational and associative meanings through reading and writing exercises, the majority of which is dedicated to explicit (67.4%) and the minority to stylistic (0.8%) meanings. Collocational (18.6%) and associative (3.2%) meanings are in between. there is no teaching either directly or indirectly of grammatical, pragmatic, and implicit meanings.

    Keywords: Content analysis, Farsi Textbook, Semantic frame, Cognitive linguistics
  • Leila Salimi, Aliye Kord Zaʹferanlu Kambuzia* Pages 241-265

    The purpose of this study is to investigate those phonological processes, speakers of Persian language and some of Iranian dialects use in order to observe the sonority sequencing principle (SSP) and the syllable contact law (SCL). Among the questions we would like answer the following questions: 1. what phonological processes are used by the speakers of Persian language and some types of Iranian languages in order to observe the sonority sequencing principle and the syllable contact law and 2. What effect does the syllable number of the word have on the application of phonological processes?. Based on the mentioned questions, these hypotheses can be made: 1. the speakers of language use the phonological processes of compensatory lengthening, metathesis, insertion, deletion and substitution in order to observe the sonority sequencing principle and the syllable contact law 2. The syllable number of the simple words does not have any effect on the application of phonological processes. However, in order to do this research, data of Persian language are collected from the spoken language of the speakers. Then, their phonological forms are compared with Moshiri’s dictionary (2008). Data of Kordi Hurami dialect are gathered through interview with the speakers and data of Lafuri, Torbat Heidariye and Sabzevari dialects are extracted from Kambuziya (2006). Out of 1125 gathered simple words that do not conform to the SSP and the SCL, the phonological processes of chr('39')compensatory lengtheningchr('39'), chr('39')metathesischr('39'), chr('39')insertionchr('39'), chr('39')deletionchr('39') and chr('39')substitution of a phonological unit with another phonological unitchr('39') are applied to 357 words by language speakers. In sum, the frequency analysis of data shows that:The deletion of the glottal consonants / ʔ / and / h / is more frequent in the two syllable words. In other words, this process occurs in 66/19 percent of disyllabic words, 23/94 percent of tri syllabic words and 9/85 percent of one syllable words. Furthermore, the constraint hierarchy for the phonological process of deletion of the glottal consonants and the compensatory lengthening of a vowel can be illustrated as: SON-SEQ>> No cluster-glottal, MAX-μ >> MAX-IO. The phonological process of metathesis is more frequent in the disyllabic words. This process occurs in 65/74 percent of two syllable words, 25 percent of monosyllabic words and 9/25 percent of three syllable words. In addition, the constraint hierarchy for the application of metathesis can be shown as: SON-SEQ>> LINEARITY and SCL>> LINEARITY. The process of insertion is more frequent in the disyllabicwords. This process occurs in 96/87 percent of disyllabic words and in 3/12 percent of monosyllabic words. The constraint hierarchy of this process can be indicated as: SON-SEQ>> DEP-IO. An investigation of the extracted Persian simple words shows that the sonority sequencing principle is not observed in 24 words with the structure of /CVC1C2 / . In these cases, the process of deletion is not applied. When the speakers use these monosyllabic simple words in combination with other linguistic elements, the deletion of the final consonant occurs. However, the constraint hierarchy of this process can be illustrated as: SON-SEQ>> MAX-IO. The process of substitution occurs in some words of kordi Hurami dialect. In other words, when the sonority sequencing principle is not observed in the initial consonant cluster, the second member of the cluster which is less sonorant than the first member is substituted with another consonant which is more sonorant than the first member. The constraint hierarchy of this phonological process can be shown as: SON-SEQ>> *STOP/#C >> IDENT (manner). Thus, it can be argued that these processes are applied to mono, di and tri syllabic words among which the frequency of disyllabic words is more than that of one and tri syllabic words.

    Keywords: Sonority Sequencing Principle, Syllable Contact Law, Phonological Processes, Constraints, Optimality Theory