فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:15 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 23
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  • Rahmah NOORDIN*, Sam KHANBABAIE, Muhammad HAFIZNUR YUNUS, Hanspeter MARTI, Beatrice NICKEL, Majid FASIHI HARANDI, Saeid NASIBI Pages 290-298
    Background

    Human echinococcosis is a neglected zoonotic disease distributed worldwide. It comprises cystic and alveolar forms, the former being the more prevalent disease. Imaging techniques are the first choice for diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis and serology is used as an additional diagnostic technique in doubtful cases or as the sole test in low-resource settings. Rapid diagnostic tests are useful and convenient for immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in endemic areas, where medical facilities often struggle with limited resources.

    Methods

    Recently, we have developed Hyd Rapid™, an IgG4 lateral flow dipstick test using recombinant antigen B1 for detection of cystic echinococcosis. This study was performed between 2016 until 2018 at the Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The diagnostic performance of Hyd Rapid™ was tested in-house and at two international laboratories in Switzerland and Iran.

    Results

    The overall diagnostic sensitivity for detection of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis was 95% (56/59). Meanwhile, the diagnostic specificity, with and without exclusion of cysticercosis and fascioliasis, was 100% (n=48) and 88% (63/72), respectively.

    Conclusion

    Hyd Rapid™ detected cystic echinococcosis as well as probable cases of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, Hyd Rapid™ showed good potential as a serological tool for echinococcosis, and merits further evaluation.

    Keywords: Rapid test, Lateral flow, Cystic, alveolar echinococcosis, Evaluation, Immunoglobulin G
  • Hadi MIRAHMADI, Raheleh HASANZADEH, Hamid MALEK RAEESI, Shirzad FALLAHI, Mahdi KHOSHSIMA SHAHRAKI, Alireza BADIRZADEh* Pages 299-306
    Background

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) causes an important parasitic infection known as toxoplasmosis, which is a globally distributed important zoonosis. One of the major serious characteristics of T. gondii is its ability to manipulate the behavior of intermediate hosts. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine toxoplasmosis in schizophrenic patients, as one of the major neuropsychiatric disorders, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technic by targeting parasite B1 gene.

    Methods

    Blood samples were taken from 118 schizophrenic patients hospitalized in tow hospitals including Baharan, Clinic of Psychiatric Ali-ibn-Abi-Talib Hospital (in Zahedan City), and Amir-al Momenin Psychiatric Hospital (in Zabol City), Sistan and Baluchestan Province, southeast Iran in 2016. They were analyzed using LAMP, and compared with the previous data of nested-PCR and serology.

    Results

    Out of the 118 schizophrenic individuals, 56 patients (47.4%) were found to be infected with T. gondii. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 41 patients (34.7%) via the nested-PCR. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in schizophrenic patients was 55.9% (66/118).

    Conclusion

    We found a high efficiency of LAMP method in identifying toxoplasmosis and its high prevalence among schizophrenic patients. Our findings could provide viable offer implications for the prevention of schizophrenia.

    Keywords: Loop-mediated isother-mal amplification (LAMP), Toxoplasma gondii, Toxoplasmosis, Schizophrenia
  • Gülnaz ÇULHA, Asena Çiğdem DOĞRAMACI, Sibel HAKVERDİ, İlke Evrim SEÇİNTİ, Özkan ASLANTAŞ, Ebru ÇELİK, Tuğba KAYa* Pages 307-314
    Background

    Clinically, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) can be confused with granulomatous diseases and skin cancers, and it may lead to erroneous diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis based and histopathology can have some difficulties due to low number of parasites, especially in chronic CL cases. We aimed to emphasize the necessity of considering CL in the differential diagnosis for cases of granulomatous diseases and basal cell carcinoma, particularly in areas where CL is endemic.

    Methods

      One hundred and seven paraffin-embedded tissue biopsy specimens were selected from the archive, as of 2002, of Pathology Department, School of Medicine, University of Hatay Mustafa Kemal in Hatay, Turkey. After DNA isolation, performed with the samples were used for PCR analysis with specific 13A, 13B primers targeting kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) found in all Leishmania species. Another PCR was performed with LITSR and L5.8S primers targeting ITS-1 internal-transcribed-spacer-1 (ITS-1) region to subtype positive samples. Then these samples were further analyzed for subtyping with PCR-RFLP using HaeIII enzyme (BsuRI).

    Results

    Ten out of 107 tissue specimens were positive via kDNA-PCR. Lupus vulgaris, sarcoidosis, skin lymphoma and Leishmania cutis appeared in 9 out of 10 positive specimens. One of the cases presented with a mass on the cheek and was pre-diagnosed with hemangioma, but leishmaniasis did not appear. All of 10 specimens were diagnosed as granulomatous dermatitis. Two out of 10 samples, found positive with kDNA-PCR, were analyzed with ITS-1-PCR and identified as L. infantum/donovani after RFLP.

    Conclusion

    Molecular methods should be utilized in the differential diagnosis of CL to eliminate false diagnoses of granulomatous diseases and skin cancers.

    Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Granulomatous diseases, Skin cancer
  • Camilo ROMERO, Rafael HEREDIA*, Manuel BOLIO, Laura MIRANDA, Laura REYES, Mauricio ARREDONDO, Ariadna FLORES Pages 315-320
    Background

    The environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs increases the risk of dissemination and transmission of the parasite in dogs and paratenic hosts such as humans. We aimed to evaluate different disinfectants to compare their effect on T. canis eggs.

    Methods

    For its realization, 850 embryonated eggs were obtained, which were suspended in a solution of 5% formaldehyde and distilled water in Eppendorf tubes. In the tubes containing the 850 embryonated eggs, researchers was added 0.5 mL of each solution (enzymatic solution, sodium hypochlorite, iodopovidone, quaternary of ammonium, benzalkonium chloride, and super oxidation solution). After mixing, an aliquot was taken, observed under the microscope, and the number of broken eggs counted at different times to find the most effective ovicidal moment.

    Results

    The enzymatic disinfectant present a significant difference (P = 0.05) with 276.06 broken eggs followed by ammonium with 105.20 broken eggs. After 10 min, the ammonium solution was the one that showed a significant difference of 50.50 hatched eggs, followed by the enzymatic 26.80 and hypochlorite 25.00 treatments. After 20 min, the enzymatic solution treatment showed a significant difference with the other solutions showing an increase of 98.80 broken eggs. In the 30 and 40-min times, only the enzymatic treatment showed a significant difference of 334.10 and 381.70 of broken eggs respectively.

    Conclusion

    The enzymatic solution has the greatest ovicidal effect against the eggs of T. canis to present a greater number of broken eggs in a given time between 20 and 40 minutes.

    Keywords: oxocara, Disinfectants effect, Eggs, In vitro
  • Gholamreza HABIBI *, Alireza IMANI, Asghar AFSHARI, Soghra BOZORGI Pages 321-331
    Background

    We aimed to detect and characterize vector-borne parasites of Babesia and Theileria in dog and ticks by PCR assay. Canine babesiosis is a significant tick-borne disease caused by different Babesia species.  As the infection has not been reported in Shahriar region Tehran, Iran, molecular techniques allowed us to identify tick-borne parasites in asymptomatic dogs.

    Methods

    The number of 40 dog peripheral blood samples and 27 skin attached ticks were analyzed by molecular PCR assay. The specific primers were used for detecting Babesia canis, B. gibsoni and T. annulata.

    Results

    B. c. vogeli was detected in 10 dog blood samples (25%). Additionally, T. annulata infection was identified in 13 dog blood samples (32.5%) and 18 isolated tick DNAs (66.7%). The results of PCR were confirmed by 18S rRNA and Tams1 gene sequence analyzing and have been registered in GenBank under following accession numbers for B. c. vogeli (MH793502) and T. annulata (MK105284).

    Conclusion

    The verification of T. annulata infection in free-ranging dogs and ticks shows dogs might be considered as important natural carriers/reservoirs for T. annulata in enzootic region for bovine theileriosis. The obtained data may be useful for veterinary practitioners and dog owners to aware of Babesia and Theileria infection in dog and tick to establish the effective preventive measures.

    Keywords: Babesia canis vogeli, Theileria annulata, Polymerase chain reac-tion, Dog, Tick
  • Zohreh LASJERDI, Hossein GHANBARIAN, Samira MOHAMMADI YEGANEH, Seyyed Javad SEYYED TABAEI, Mehdi MOHEBALI, Niloofar TAGHIPOUR, Ameneh KOOCHAKI, Faezeh HAMIDI, Mostafa GHOLAMREZAEI, Ali HAGHIGHI* Pages 332-340
    Background

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is an emerging uncontrollable and neglected infectious disease worldwide including Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of apoptosis- related miRNA and its target gene in macrophages.

    Methods

    This study was carried out in the Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from January 2016 to November 2018. Applying literature reviews, bioinformatics software, and microarray expression analysis, we selected miRNA-24-3p interfering in apoptosis pathway. The expression profile of this miRNA and target gene were investigated in Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER)-infected primary and RAW 264.7 macrophages (IBRC-C10072) compared with non-infected macrophages (control group) using quantitative Real-time PCR.

    Results

    Results of bioinformatics analysis showed that miR-24-3p as anti-apoptotic miRNA inhibits pro-apoptotic genes (Caspases 3 and 7). Microarray expression data presented in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) revealed a significant difference in the expression level of selected miRNA and its target gene between two groups. QRT-PCR results showed that the expression of miR-24-3p was upregulated in L. major infectioned macrophages that approved the results of bioinformatics and microarray analysis.

    Conclusion

    Parasite can alter miRNAs expression pattern in the host cells to establish infection and its survival. Alteration in miRNAs levels likely plays an important role in regulating macrophage functions following L. major infection. These results could highlight current understanding and new insights concerning the gene expression in macrophages during leishmaniasis and will help to development of novel strategies for control and treatment of CL.

    Keywords: Apoptosis, In vitro, Leishmania major, Macrophage, MicroRNAs
  • Katayoun DASTAN, Mehdi ASSMAR*, Nour AMIRMOZAFARI, Fariborz Mansour GHANAEI, Mirsasan MIRPOUR Pages 341-348
    Background

    Strongyloidiasis is a public health concern in northern regions of Iran, caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Auto-infection cycle can be resulted in high parasitic load, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Because of low sensitivity of stool culture and stool-based microscopy techniques, detection of antibodies in patient’s sera can be an alternative diagnostic technique for detection of the nematode. In the present study, as the first step of the development of an ELISA kit for the detection of antibodies against the nematode, IgG4 immunoreactive protein (NIE) was expressed in Escherichia coli expression system, purified and verified.

    Methods

    The NIE gene sequence was retrieved from the GenBank. This sequence was codon-optimized for the expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The sequence was inserted into the expression vector pET-30b (+). The recombinant vector was then transferred into competent E. coli BL21 (DE3). Transformed colonies were selected and verified by colony PCR. NIE gene expression was induced with IPTG induction. The protein production was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and verified using Western blotting.

    Results

    The codon-optimized NIE gene had required parameters for expression in E. coli. NIE protein was proved and verified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting.

    Conclusion

    NIE recombinant protein was successfully expressed in E. coli expression system in appropriate amounts. The recombinant protein can be used for developing ELISA kit in diagnosis of S. stercoralis.

    Keywords: Strongyloides stercoralis, Immunodiagnostic, Protein expression
  • Meysam SHOKRI, Khosro HAZRATI TAPPEH, Elyar MESHKINI, Arash AMINPOUR* Pages 349-356
    Background

    In this study, the effect of total lysate antigen (TLA) of Toxoplasma gondii on spleen lymphocyte prolifration, secretion of IL5, INF-γ, and mice survival time was evaluated using agonist of toll-like receptor (TLR) 11, as an adjuvant.

    Results

    Mice immunized with TLA + adjuvant showed higher immunization index than the two other groups and combination of TLR11 (as an adjuvant) and TLA significantly elevated the effect of TLA by increasing the production of INF-γ and IL-5 and by the shift of the immune system to Th1. In addition, the combination of TLA and TLR11 adjuvant increased the proliferation of lymphocytes and survival time in mice against T. gondii.

    Conclusion

    Profilin (as an adjuvant) in combination with TLA could be a potent vaccine candidate that evokes a powerful specific immune response and significantly improves the efficacy of TLA vaccine by increasing the induction of INF-γ production and by shifting the immune responses to Th1 profile through increasing the INF-γ/IL-5 ratio. It causes significant protection against T. gondii after i.p. injection.

    Keywords: oxoplasma gondii, Adjuvant, Toll-like receptor 11, Immunization, Toxoplasmalysate antigen
  • Farah BOKHARAEI-SALIM, Abdoulreza ESTEGHAMATI, Khadijeh KHANALIHA*, Maryam ESGHAEI, Tahereh DONYAVI, Borna SALEMI Pages 357-363
    Background

    The Totiviridae family includes a number of double-stranded RNA viruses that can infect Trichomonas vaginalis. Some T. vaginalis isolates are infected with one or more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. In this study, different strains of double-stranded RNA virus in Iranian isolates of T. vaginalis were evaluated for the first time in Iran. 

    Methods

    Vaginal swabs were collected from 1550 participants who were referred to hospitals associated with Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from June to November 2018.    T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in Diamond's modified medium. After the extraction of nucleic acids using a DNA/RNA extraction kit, RT-PCR was performed and PCR products were purified and sequenced.

    Results

    In general 9 (0.6%) isolates were confirmed as T. vaginalis among 1550 collected vaginal samples. Among 9 isolates of T. vaginalis, three of them were infected with TVV1. One isolate has multiple infections with T. vaginalis virus (TVV1, TVV2 and TVV3) as coinfection. The nucleotide BLAST indicated that the T. vaginalis virus 1(TVV1) isolates were most closely related to TVV1-OC5, TVV1-UR1-1.The T. vaginalis virus 2 (TVV2) sequence had also a similarity with TVV2-UR1-1, TVV2-UR1 and TVV2-OC3. The sequence of T. vaginalis virus 3(TVV3) had similarity with TVV3-OC5, TVV3-UR1-1 and TVV3-UR1.

    Conclusion

    Three dsRNA viruses T. vaginalis virus (TVV1, TVV2 and TVV3) were detected using RT-PCR in T. vaginalis Iranian isolates. The coinfection of TVV1, TVV2 and TVV3 in one isolate of T.vaginalis was observed for the first time in Iran.

    Keywords: Virus, Trichomonas vaginalis, Double-stranded RNA virus, Iran
  • Ivan ARKHIPOV, Salavat KHALIKOV, Alexander DUSHKIN, Konstantin SADOV, Elizaveta METELEVA, Michael ARISOV, Anastasiya VARLAMOVA* Pages 364-373
    Background

    A supramolecular complex of praziquantel (PZQ) with disodium salt of glycyrrhizic acid (Na2GA) was obtained by mechanochemical technology to increase solubility, absorption rate and hence bioavailability of the drug and reduction its therapeutic doses. The aim of our study was evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of supramolecular complex of PZQ.

    Methods

    Different samples of PZQ with Na2GA were obtained by mechanochemical processing and examined for some physico-chemical properties. The anthelmintic activity of the most perspective samples was studied on the laboratory model of Hymenolepis nana infection of mice and Moniezia expansa infection of sheep by the results of helminthological necropsy of the small intestines (the controlled test).

    Results

    A high efficacy (> 98%) of supramolecular complex of PZQ with Na2GA (1/10) was shown at doses of 3; 2 and 1 mg/kg of body weight at single oral administration against H. nana in mice and M. expansa in sheep. While the basic PZQ had 27.19% and 36.64% efficacy respectively at the dose of 1 mg/kg. The PZQ:Na2GA 1/10 physical mixture (without mechanochemical processing) revealed no anthelmintic efficacy.

    Conclusion

    Joint mechanochemical treatment the PZQ substance and Na2GA led to increased solubility, reduction of particle sizes, amorphization of substance, incorporating it with micelles of glycyrrhizic acid and high anthelmintic efficacy in reduced dose. The supramolecular complex of praziquantel was found to be a perspective anthelminthic with enhanced pharmacological activity that needs further research.

    Keywords: Efficacy, Praziquantel, Supramolecular com-plex, Mechanochemistry, Disodium salt of glycyrrhizic acid
  • Nasir AREFKHAH, Bahador SARKARI*, Qasem ASGARI, Abdolali MOSHFE, MohammadHasan KHALAFI, Iraj MOHAMMADPOUR Pages 374-382
    Background

    We aimed to detect Toxoplasma gondii in ovine aborted fetuses and evaluate its genetic variations in the southwest of Iran.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 aborted ovine fetuses collected from the different region of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran, in lambing season during 2017 and 2018. DNA was extracted from the brain samples of all of the aborted fetuses and PCR amplified, targeting a 529 bp repetitive element gene of T. gondii. Moreover, to find out the heterogeneity of the positive samples, PCR-DNA amplification of the two main genetic markers, B1 and GRA6, of T. gondii were performed. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed, using the BLAST program and MEGA-X software.

    Results

    The 529 bp gene of T. gondii was detected in 2 out of 100 (2%) of the ovine aborted samples. The sequences analysis of GRA6 and B1 genes revealed that both isolates from the aborted fetuses of sheep belonged to type I of T. gondii. Intra-divergence was more seen in GRA6 gene whereas less divergence was observed in B1 gene.

    Conclusion

    Congenital infection with Type I of T. gondii during the neonatal period is associated with abortion in ovine. Evaluation of more aborted samples from broader geographical areas is needed to elucidate the molecular epidemiology and also the genotypes of T. gondii associated with abortion.

    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Ovine aborted fetuses, Sequence analysis, Iran
  • Yasaman TASLIMI, Farnaz ZAHEDIFARD, Tahereh TAHERI, Delaram DOROUD, Sakineh LATIF DIZAJI, Noushin SALJOUGHIAN, Sima RAFATI* Pages 383-392
    Background

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) donovani complex. Drug-resistant strains have been developed as a consequence of the current chemotherapeutic interventions, which has increased the need for advanced preventive and therapeutic strategies. A2-CPA-CPB-CTE-recombinant strain of L. tarentolae, which is non-pathogenic to humans, was shown protective in live vaccine as well as its DNA vaccine counterpart in both murine and canine models.

    Methods

    We evaluated the effectiveness of these DNA and live vaccination harboring A2-CPA-CPB-CTE in protecting hamsters against L. infantum infection using prime-boost regimens, namely DNA/DNA and Live/Live (n=9 hamsters per group). Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN) were utilized as an adjuvant for DNA priming and electroporation for boosting DNA. At different time points post-challenge, parasite burden and body weight as well as humoral immune responses were measured.

    Results

    Both immunization strategies partially protect hamsters against L. infantum challenge. This protective immunity is associated with remarkable decrease in parasite load in liver and spleen of vaccinated hamsters eight weeks after challenge compared to control group.

    Conclusion

    Both test groups (DNA/DNA and Live/Live) elicited high levels of IgG2 and total IgG as humoral immune responses and lower level of parasite propagation in both liver and spleen.

    Keywords: Visceral leishmaniasis, DNA vaccination, Live vaccination, Hamster immunization
  • Mandana KHORSANDI RAFSANJANI, Elham HAJIALILO*, Mehrzad SARAEI, Safar Ali ALIZADEH, Amir JAVADI Pages 393-402
    Background

    Free-living amoeba (FLA) are widely distributed in different environmental sources. The most genera of the amoeba are Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba. The most common consequences of the infections in immune-deficient and immunocompetent persons are amoebic encephalitis and keratitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria spp., isolated from the main agricultural water canal in Qazvin.

    Methods

    Totally, 120 water specimens were collected and later the specimens were cultured and cloned to identify positive samples. PCR amplification and sequencing were carried out to identify the isolated species as well as the genotypes of amoeba.

    Results

    According to morphological surveys, 41.7% (50/120) of water specimens were positive for FLA. Molecular analysis revealed that 68.6% and 31.4% of Acanthamoeba specimens were identified as T3 and T4 genotypes, respectively. Also, two species of Naegleria named as N. lovaniensis (57.1%) and Naegleria spp. (42.8%) were identified. The results of pathogenicity assays demonstrated that 38.5% of T3 and 61.5% of T4 genotypes of Acanthamoeba were highly pathogenic parasites.

    Conclusion

    The water flowing in the agricultural canal of the area is contaminated with potential pathogenic FLA, therefore, it is recommended that more attention to be paid towards proper treatment of water sources to prevent possible risk of the disease.

    Keywords: Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Genotype, Agricultural water, Iran
  • Mahya ALLAHMORADI, Afsaneh MOTEVALLI HAGHI*, Mehdi NATEGHPOUR, Mehdi MOHEBALI, Ahmad RAEISI, Ahmad HOSSEINI SAFA, Sina MOHTASEBI, MohammadJavad ABBASZADEH AFSHAR Pages 403-410
    Background

    Among the human parasitic diseases, malaria is the main cause of morbidity and mortality. To prevent the high mortality and tracking malaria elimination efforts, a prompt and sensitive diagnosis is essential.  This study aimed to compare High-Resolution Melting (HRM) and microscopic methods to diagnose Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax.

    Methods

    Eighty-one blood samples were collected from patients with clinical symptoms who were suspect to malaria in Chabahar district, southeastern Iran and also, from those who were referred to Malaria National Laboratory in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Microscopic examination and HRM method were used to the diagnosis of Plasmodium parasites simultaneously.

    Results

    Microscopic results revealed 45 positive cases (12 P. falciparum and 33 P. vivax) out of 81 collected samples while according to HRM analysis results 11 and 33 samples were identified as P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively. HRM analysis also revealed 1 mixed infection of P. falciparum and P. malariae.

    Conclusion

    HRM analysis provides a promising mean for simultaneous detection and discrimination of the Plasmodium spp. especially in mixed infection cases.

    Keywords: Malaria, Diagnosis, Microscopy, Plasmodium
  • Farnaz MALEKIFARD*, Mousa TAVASSOLI, Kiana VAZIRI Pages 411-417
    Background

    Application of chemotherapy to treatment of parasitic disease of man and animals can be problematic due to different adverse effects. As a result, there is an increasing interest in nanoparticles as new therapeutic tools against these diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles on Giardia deudenalis cysts in vitro, as well as comparing it to that of metronidazole.

    Methods

    The cysts were taken from the stools of patients in Urmia, Iran, during 2017-2018. The cysts were taken from stool and were concentrated and isolated on 0.85 M-sucrose. Then, selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles were prepared at concentrations of 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml. The effect of nanoparticle’s various concentrations at 10, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min were evaluated and compared to control groups. Obtained data was recorded and statistically analyzed.

    Results

    Copper oxide nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.6 mg/ml and selenium nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml had the same effect as of metronidazole in killing of Giardia cysts. The cytotoxic effects of selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles, compared with metronidazole, on Giardia cysts, showed an increase of fatality rate due to extend exposure time and nanoparticle’s concentration (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Selenium and copper oxide nanoparticles are as efficient as metronidazole, for killing Giardia cysts in vitro.

    Keywords: Cyst, Giardia deodenalis, In vitro, Selenium nanoparticles, Copper oxide nanopar-ticles
  • Negar BAHRAM, Mitra SHARBATKHORI, Farideh TOHIDI, Reza GHASEMIKHAH* Pages 418-424
    Background

    Fascioliasis is a neglected zoonotic disease, caused by Fasciola species in human and livestock. We aimed to detect the seroprevalence of human fascioliasis Gorgan City, Golestan Province, northern Iran using ELISA method in 2017.

    Methods

    Overall, 612 serum samples were analyzed. A relevant questionnaire for demographic data was obtained for all cases. An indirect ELISA test was used to detect IgG antibodies against Fasciola in the sera. The data analysis was performed employing SPSS program version 21.

    Results

    Eleven cases (1.79%) were seropositive for fascioliasis. The seroprevalence of fascioliasis was 1.9% and 1.1% among males and females, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between the fascioliasis and analyzed variables such as sex, age, residence, job, education, etc.

    Conclusion

    This study was conducted only on the people referring to the Reference Laboratory of Gorgan. It cannot be distributed to the whole city. Thus, due to importance of the disease, finding the seroprevalence of fascioliasis in a comprehensive survey in Golestan Province should be accounted in further studies.

    Keywords: Seroprevalence, Human fascioliasis, Serodiagnosis, Iran
  • Hossein SOBATI* Pages 425-434
    Background

    This epidemiological study aimed to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in BuMusa Island, Iran, in one year from 2015 to 2016.

    Methods

    The current cross-sectional study was conducted in coordination with the health authorities of BuMusa on 732 intestinal samples and 1207 blood samples randomly collected from the island residents. Cutaneous lesions of 1207 people were clinically examined and those suspected of parasitic infections were enrolled. Also, 165 intestinal samples from domestic animals, 35 samples from water tanks, and 330 soil samples were taken to the laboratory to be investigated in terms of parasitic infections.

    Results

    The obtained results showed 26.4% and 45.5% intestinal parasitic infections in humans and animals, respectively. The most prevalent infections in humans were Blastocystis hominis (8.6%), followed by Giardia lamblia (8.2%), and Entamoeba coli (6.8%); and the least prevalent infection was Enterobius vermicularis (<0.2%). Malaria agents and Leishmania were not observed in blood samples. Investigation of animal feces showed that the highest parasitic infection was Eimeria arloingi (16.4%), while the lowest prevalence belonged to Monizia expansa (0.6%). Hymenolepis nana eggs and Cyclops were detected in one sub-source of water tanks. Rhabditis larva, a free-living nematode, was observed in a soil sample.

    Conclusion

    The prevalence of parasitic infections in BuMusa Island was relatively low probably due to its hot and dry climate.

    Keywords: Parasitic Infection, Human, Water, Animals, Iran
  • Yahya MAROUFI, Ashkan FARIDI, Mohammadbagher KHADEMERFAN, Fares BAHRAMI, Ghasem ZAMINI* Pages 435-439
    Background

    Toxocariasis is a disease caused by Toxocara nematodes and occurs from consuming their eggs. The main hosts of these worms are dogs and cats. The disease in humans becomes a visceral larva migrans (VLM). This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of toxocariasis in children aged 6–14 years.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from Jun 1 2016 to Dec 1 2017 in Sanandaj, west of Iran. A total of 182 serum samples were collected from children age 6 to14 yr referred to medical diagnostic laboratories. Demographic data (age, sex, and parents' literacy status), clinical signs (cough, headache, fever, abdominal pain), and the history of contact with dogs and cats was collected by a questionnaire. The presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibody was detected by T. canis IgG ELISA (IBL, Germany) kit.

    Results

    Of 182 subjects, 97 (53.3%) were male and 85 (46.7%) female. The average age was 9.2 years. Antibodies against T. canis were positive in three cases (1.65%) of all the studied subjects.

    Conclusions

    The results showed a low prevalence of toxocariasis in children studied.

    Keywords: Children, Toxocara, Toxocariasis, Iran
  • Pokkamol LAORAKSAWONG, Aubonrat SUNTARALUK, Watcharapong KONGNIL, Pongphan PONGPANITANONT, Penchom JANWAN* Pages 440-445
    Background

    Soil–transmitted helminth infections constitute a public health problem in the rural areas of tropical and subtropical regions, including Thailand. We aimed to determine the prevalence of soil–transmitted helminth infections and underlying risk factors among the schoolchildren living in the rural areas of southern Thailand.

    Methods

    A cross–sectional survey was conducted between Sep and Nov 2018 in the district of Thasala, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. A total of 192 children, aged 6–12 yr were enrolled. Each child provided a single stool sample that was subjected to a suite of microscopic diagnoses for soil–transmitted helminth. A questionnaire was administered to determine risk factors of the infections. Logistic regression models were applied to investigate associations.

    Results

    The overall prevalence of soil–transmitted helminth infections was 3.13%; Strongyloides stercoralis 2.08%; hookworm 1.04% and Trichuris trichiura 0.52%. Children who cutting fingernails short can prevent soil–transmitted helminth infections highly up to 90% (crude OR = 0.1; 95% confidence interval = 0 – 0.8; P = 0.020).

    Conclusion

    The finding of the study shows a sharp decrease in the prevalence of soil–transmitted helminth among schoolchildren in the southern Thailand in the past two decades with prevalence dropping below 5% for soil–transmitted helminth. However, the prevalence of S. stercoralis remained stable over time. These results suggest that the culture method should be used to access strongyloidiasis situation in the older age group who greater contact with soil for agriculturists.

    Keywords: Soil–transmitted hel-minth infections, Strongyloides stercoralis, Hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Schoolchildren
  • Zhijin SHENG, Yu JIN, Yong YAO, Saeed El-ASHRAM, Jijia SHEN, Xuelong WANG, Yongsheng JI* Pages 446-451
    Background

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, which can infect all nucleated cells in a variety of vertebrate animals, including human, causing toxoplasmosis. Although a number of studies have reported on the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in China, however, information about T. gondii infection in pet dogs in Anhui, China is not available.

    Methods

    The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used to detect antibodies in sera samples from 468 pet dogs at Anhui Province in China from November 2013 to April 2017.

    Results

    18.6% animals were T. gondii seropositive, indicating a slightly higher prevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs in Anhui, China in comparison with other provinces in China.

    Conclusion

    Our present study provided epidemiological data on T. gondii seroprevalence in pet dogs in Anhui, China for the effective prevention and control of the parasite prevalence in this area.

    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Dogs, Modified agglutination test, Seroprevalence, China
  • Gohar GRIGORYAN, Sargis A. AGHAYAN, Hasmik GEVORGYAN, Alexander MALKHASYAN, Isabelle VALLEE, Grégory KARADJIAN* Pages 452-456
    Background

    More than a hundred species of mammals, birds, and reptiles are infected by nematodes of the Trichinella genus worldwide. Although, Trichinella spp. are widely distributed in neighboring countries including Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iran, no study was conducted in Armenia since 1980’s.

    Methods

    In 2017-2018, five muscle samples belonging to Armenian lynx, otter, wild boar, fox and wolf were tested for Trichinella spp. and recovered larvae were identified by multiplex PCR technique.

    Results

    Twenty-six larvae/gram and one larva/gram were found in lynx and fox samples respectively. They were identified as T. britovi.

    Conclusion

    So far only two species were identified in Armenia, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis, and this is the first time that T. britovi is reported in Armenia.

    Keywords: Lynx, Fox, Trichinella britovi, Armenia
  • Mahmooud AHMADI HAMEDANI*, Hediyeh HOSSEINPOUR, Hesamodin ESKAFIAN, Shayan DAVARPANAH Pages 457-462

    Cutaneous involvement in canine leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania infantum, is the most frequent clinical manifestation of the zoonotic infectious disease. A 4-month-old female Shih Tzu-terrier dog with significant weight loss and depression and chronic erosive skin lesions around eyes and the area above the nose was presented to the Semnan University Veterinary Hospital teaching, Semnan, Iran. The main clinicopathological findings included marked leukocytosis, neutrophilia, left shift, monocytosis, mild hypoproteinemia, and hypoalbuminemia. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was performed based on the presence of a large number of Leishmania amastigotes in skin Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA). The dog was euthanized and sent to the autopsy department for further investigation.

    Keywords: Canine leishmaniasis, Pathology, Cutaneous, Leishmania
  • Alireza NOURIAN, Seyedhossein HEKMATIMOGHADDAM, Alireza SAZMAND Pages 463-465