فهرست مطالب

Archives of Iranian Medicine - Volume:23 Issue: 8, 2020
  • Volume:23 Issue: 8, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
  • Seyedmohammad Saadatagah, Saeed Ghodsi, Negar Omidi, Hamidreza Poorhosseini, Mojtaba Salarifar, Saead Sadeghian, Mohammad Alidoosti, Seyed Ebrahim Kassaian, Hassan Aghajani, Seyedeh Hamideh Mortazavi, Kaveh Hosseini, Babak Geraiely* Pages 514-521

    Cardiovascular-related death remains the major cause of mortality in Iran despite significant improvements in its care. In the present study, we report the in-hospital mortality, hospitalization length, and treatment methods for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Tehran Heart Center (THC).


    Records pertaining to patients with STEMI from March 2006 to March 2017 were extracted from the databases of THC. Besides a description of temporal trends, multivariable regression analysis was used to find factors associated with in-hospital mortality.


    During the study period, 8,295 patients were admitted with STEMI with a mean age of 60.4 ± 12.5 years. Men accounted for 77.5% of the study population. Hospitalization length declined from 8.4 to 5.2 days, and in-hospital mortality was reduced from 8.0% to 3.9% (both P values < 0.001). In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, conventional cardiac risk factors, prior cardiac history, and indices of event severity, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (OR: 0.280, 95% CI: 0.186 to 0.512; P<0.001), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (OR: 0.482, 95% CI: 0.220 to 0.903; P=0.025), and rescue or facilitated PCI (OR: 0.420, 95% CI: 0.071 to 0.812; P=0.001) were all associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in comparison with medical treatment. Furthermore, primary PCI was a crucial protective factor against prolonged length of hospital stay (OR: 0.307, 95% CI: 0.266 to 0.594; P<0.001).


    In-hospital mortality and hospitalization length were almost halved during the study period, and primary PCI has now replaced thrombolysis in the management of STEMI.

    Keywords: Coronary artery disease, Fibrinolytic agents, Hospital mortality, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Reperfusion, STelevation myocardial infarction
  • Ramin Shayan-Moghadam, Motahar Heidari-Beni*, Roya Riahi, Mohammad Esmail Motlagh, Shahin Fesharaki, Ramin Heshmat, Seyedeh Shahrebanoo Daniali, Roya Kelishadi* Pages 522-529

    The present study assess lifestyle and eating habits of Iranian adolescent girls.


    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 3207 adolescent girls, aged 12–18 years. Lifestyle and eating habits of adolescents were assessed.


    The prevalence of overweight was 11.3% and that of obesity was 10.2%. The frequencies of daily intake of fruits, dairy products and vegetables were 60.9%, 45.6 % and 33.5%, respectively. Skipping breakfast (15.8%) was more frequent than skipping dinner or lunch. Moreover, 10.6% of subjects had fast food daily and 16.2% had fast food weekly. Overall, 55.2% of participants watched television for at least 2 hours a day; and 27.1% reported to have a sleeping time of less than 8 hours a day. Low physical activity, i.e. less than 30 minutes per day, was less frequent among participants with high socio-economic status (SES) compared to those with medium or low SES (57.6% vs. 61.3% and 64.1%, respectively, P value = 0.010).


    Improvement of lifestyle habits should be considered in public health plans for health promotion of adolescent girls and the next generation. Primordial prevention of chronic diseases by improving healthy lifestyle of adolescent girls should be a national public health priority

    Keywords: Adolescent girls, Dietary behavior, Life style, Physical activity, Prevention
  • Hassan Boskabadi, Gholamali Maamouri, Farnaz Kalani-moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Ataee Nakhaei, Maryam Zakerihamidi, Forough Rakhshanizadeh* Pages 530-535

    Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is one of the most frequent causes of respiratory distress in neonates. A relationship has been shown between vitamin D deficiency and respiratory disorders in neonates. This research was carried out to evaluate the serum level of vitamin D in TTN newborns and their mothers compared to the control group.


    This case-control research was conducted during 2016-2019 in a general hospital affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Thirty-four infants with TTN and 82 neonates in the control group as well as their mothers were investigated. The levels of umbilical cord serum vitamin D in infants with TTN and also their mothers were compared to the control group.


    The mean levels of serum vitamin D in infants with TTN and their mothers were 8.11 ± 4.32 and 12.6 ± 10.12 ng/mL, respectively (P<0.001), whereas they were 19.21 ± 12.71 and 25.96 ± 16.6 ng/mL in the newborns of the control group and their mothers, respectively (P<0.001). The mean differences (95% CI) of neonatal and maternal vitamin D level between the two groups were 11.10 (7.92–14.28) and 13.36 (7.90–18.08), respectively. In the TTN group, 100% of the infants had vitamin D levels less than 30 ng/mL (79.4% had severe, 17.6% had moderate and 2.9% showed mild deficiency). However, vitamin D levels lower than 30 ng/mL were observed in 76.4% of the neonates in the control group (28.8% had severe, 31.1% showed moderate and 16.3% had a mild deficiency) (P<0.001).


    The serum vitamin D levels of infants with TTN and their mothers were significantly lower than the control group. Therefore, TTN in infants may be reduced through the treatment of vitamin D deficiency in mothers.

    Keywords: Newborn, Respiratory distress, Transient tachypnea of the newborn, Vitamin D deficiency
  • Huseyin Aygun, Suna Eraybar*, Fatma Ozdemir, Erol Armagan Pages 536-541

    Identification of critically ill patient is particularly important in the emergency department (ED). The prolonged duration from hospital admission to delivering intensive care service is related to increased mortality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) for identifying critical patients with malignancy in ED settings.


    We evaluated patients with malignancy who were admitted to our ED of a tertiary university hospital in Turkey over a three-month period. We evaluated MEWS on admission as MEWS 1. After the initial treatment depending on the patients’ health status in ED, at 2 hours after admission, we evaluated MEWS again and recorded as MEWS 2. All patients were followed up for 30 days after the initial admission.


    Mean age (SD) was 59.2 (13.5) and male/female ratio was 295/206. MEWS1 was higher than MEWS2, (MEWS1: 3.05 ± 3.31, MEWS2: 2.35 ± 3.17, P < 0.001). A total of 362 patients (72.3%) survived and 139 (27.7%) died within 30 days of initial admission. MEWS1/MEWS2 values for alive and dead patients were 1.66/0.87, and 6.67/6.21, respectively, and the difference was significant (P < 0.001). ROC analysis was performed for MEWS 1; the area under curve (AUC) for hospitalization was 0.768 (95% CI 0.729 to 0.804) and for mortality was 0.900 (95% CI 0.870 to 0.924). ROC analysis revealed a cut-off value of 2 for predicting both hospitalization and mortality in these patients. The sensitivity of the presented cut-off was 77.32% (72.1%–82.0%) for hospitalization and 76.24% (95% CI 71.5–80.5) for mortality; the specificity was 69.52 (95% CI 62.8–75.7) for hospitalization and 90.65 (95% CI 84.65–94.9) for mortality.


    We found in our study that MEWS evaluation for patients with malignancy on admission to ED is predictive of mortality in the subsequent 30 days, and it is a valuable tool for identifying the critical group. Also, AVPU scores alone can predict mortality in patients admitted to ED.

    Keywords: Critical patient, Emergency department, Malignancy, MEWS
  • Esmaeil Hajinasrollah *, Amir Zamani, Hadi Mirhashemi, Bahaor Oshidary, Mohsen Soori, Fariborz Rashnoo, Hassan Peyvandi, Mohammad Amin Shahrbaf Pages 542-547

    The incidence of smuggling and illegal transport of substances by internal concealment, also known as body packing, is increasing. The clinical approach to body packers has changed significantly over the past two decades. In addition, the mortality of body packers is an important issue in patient management. The purpose of the current study is to determine the statistics and mortality related to body packing.


    In this cross-sectional study, all body packer patients who referred to Loghman Hakim hospital were evaluated from 2010 to 2017. Demographic characteristics, findings of clinical imaging, treatment, and outcome of the patients were recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.


    A total of 303 patients were enrolled in the study after the diagnosis of body packing by abdominal CT scanning without contrast. Conservative treatment including whole bowel irrigation (WBI) accompanied by close monitoring was done for 78% (n = 236) of patients; moreover, 26 patients (8.5%) underwent surgery after WBI, and 41 patients (13.5%) underwent surgery without bowel irrigation. Mortality was observed in eight patients (2.7%) five of whom (62.5%) died before surgery and had the clinical manifestation of crystal (methamphetamine) and cannabis toxicity. Furthermore, three patients (37.5%) died due to the complications of surgery such as gastrointestinal leakage of an abdominal abscess.


    Conservative treatment seems to be better for the management of body packers. In addition, it is necessary to monitor patients for possible signs and symptoms of intoxication and gastrointestinal obstruction.

    Keywords: Body packing, Body stuffing, Drug concealment, Drug smuggling, Illicit substance
  • Fatemeh Malekzadeh, Abdullah Gandomkar, Zinab Malekzadeh, Hossein Poustchi, Mohsen Moghadami, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Maryam Moini, Amir Anushiravani, Roozbeh Mortazavi, Shahrokh Sadeghi Boogar, Vahid Mohammadkarimi, Firoozeh Abtahi, Shahin Merat, Sadaf G. Sepanlou *, Reza Malekzadeh Pages 548-556

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in Iran. A fixed-dose combination therapy (polypill) was proposed as a cost-effective strategy for CVD prevention, especially in lower-resource settings. We conducted the PolyPars trial to assess the effectiveness and safety of polypill for prevention of CVD.


    The PolyPars trial is a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial nested within the Pars Cohort Study. Participants were randomized to an intervention arm and a control arm. Participants in the control arm received minimal non-pharmacological care, while those in the intervention arm received polypill in addition to minimal care. The polypill comprises hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg, aspirin 81 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg, and either enalapril 5 mg or valsartan 40 mg. The primary outcome of the study is defined as the first occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (non-fatal myocardial infarction and unstable angina), fatal myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, new-onset heart failure, coronary artery revascularization procedures, transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accidents (fatal or non-fatal), and hospitalization due to any of the mentioned conditions. The secondary outcomes of the study include adverse events, compliance, non-cardiovascular mortality, changes in blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and lipids after five years of follow-up.


    From December 2014 to December 2015, 4415 participants (91 clusters) were recruited. Of those, 2200 were in the polypill arm and 2215 in the minimal care arm. The study is ongoing. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT03459560.


    Polypill may be effective for primary prevention of CVDs in developing countries.

    Keywords: Cardiovascular prevention, Non-communicable disease risk factors, Polypill
  • Nasrin Changizi, Alireza Raeisi, Hamed Barekati, Abbas Habibolahi, Haniye Sadat Sajadi*, Nezhat Emami-Afshar, Laleh Radpooyan Pages 557-560

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the Sustainable Development Goals. Although there is no vigorous evidence that pregnant women are in the high-risk groups in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is crucial to respond to the pandemic through providing required action plans for confirmed or suspected pregnant women cases while maintaining routine functions. Iran’s response and preparedness measures to COVID-19 aimed to meet the essential needs required to protect pregnant women and their families. Establishing a national maternal health network, relying on mechanisms for timely reporting, monitoring, and following-up, preparing guidelines and protocols required for COVID-19 management in pregnant women though a multidisciplinary team working approach, and embedding the precautions of reducing transmission in maternity care were the main measures taken to cope with COVID-19 in pregnancy. Iran’s experience in providing maternity care during the COVID-19 can guide other countries affected by COVID-19. However, it should be adapted to local health-care facilities, as well as in response to any further updates on COVID-19.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Disease outbreaks, Epidemics, Maternal health services, Mortality, Pregnancy
  • Reza Jafarzadeh-Esfehani, Mohsen Mirzaei Fard, Farzaneh Habibi Hatam-Ghale, Alireza Rezaei Kalat, Amir Fathi, Mohammad Shariati, Ariane Sadr-Nabavi, Rahele Miri, Hamid Reza Bidkhori*, Mohammad Hassan Aelami Pages 561-563

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now of global concern due to its rapid dissemination across the globe. The rapid spread of this viral infection, along with many of its unknown aspects, has posed new challenges to the health care systems. The main challenging effects of COVID-19 are rapid dissemination through close contact and varying clinical severity among different individuals. Furthermore, the medical staff in endemic areas are becoming exhausted and deal with a considerable level of job burnout, which can negatively affect their medical decision making. Also, due to the variable pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19, some physicians may misdiagnose patients. To overcome these issues, we proposed a web-based software to aid physicians in detecting possible COVID-19 cases through online consultation with different specialists and educate the not-well experienced physicians. Our results demonstrated that this software could improve the diagnostic rate for not-well experienced physicians.

    Keywords: Coronavirus, Pandemics, Telemedicine
  • Mojtaba Malek, Farhad Hosseinpanah, Hamid Reza Aghaei Meybodi, Seyed Adel Jahed, Farzad Hadaegh, Sasan Sharghi, Alireza Esteghamati, Mohammad E. Khamseh* Pages 564-567

    The coronavirus infection is an evolving pandemic with high morbidity and mortality, especially in people with comorbidities. The case fatality rate (CFR) is 9.2% in the presence of diabetes, while it is 1.4% in those without any comorbidity. Diabetes is a prevalent disease globally; hence, healthcare professionals are highly concerned about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic progression. Current evidence does not support higher incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with diabetes (PWD). However, people with diabetes are considered high risk for developing complications. Optimal metabolic control is a challenging concept, especially in the presence of an acute and severe respiratory viral infection. In this consensus, we considered the challenging issues in management of patients with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The consensus covers various aspects of outpatient as well as inpatient care based on the current evidence.

    Keywords: COVID-19, Diabetes management, Expert opinion
  • Seyedeh Sedigheh Hamzavi, Mohammad Amin Gholami, Anahita Sanaei Dashti* Pages 568-569

    Since December 2019, we have seen a significant number of cases of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCov), first identified in Wuhan China. Coronavirus might coexist with other infections such as Staphylococcus.

    Keywords: Coinfection, COVID 19, Staphylococcus
  • Ali Tabrizi*, Ahmadreza Afshar Pages 570-571
  • Mohammadreza Barzegartahamtan*, Seyed Rabi Mahdavi, Peiman Haddad Page 572
  • George Katsaras*, Vasiliki Chatziravdeli, Dimitrios Katsaras, Garyfalia Papavasileiou Pages 573-577

    The serpent is the most popular representative symbol of medicine. The two main figures commonly used are the rod of Asclepius and the caduceus. Much controversy exists in the literature on whether the caduceus is a false symbol for medicine or not. The history of how these depictions came to be ambassadors of the medical science is elusive to many physicians. Scholars suggest that the origin of this false belief dates back to 1902, when the US Army Medical Corps first incorporated the caduceus as its symbol. This current essay is an attempt to discover and interpret how the snake came to be part of the rod of Asclepius and the caduceus, and constitute the symbol of medicine in our days. It is widely accepted that a doctor’s obligation is not only in healing the ill, but the task that is bestowed upon him is more complex. Therefore, one should be considered more of a physician rather than simply a doctor.

    Keywords: Caduceus, Medical symbol, Rod of Asclepius, Staff of Hermes
  • Mohammad Hossein Azizi*, Farzaneh Azizi Pages 578-581

    In the past two centuries, several fatal infectious outbreaks have arisen in Iran. Presented here is a brief historical account of four fatal epidemics including cholera, plague, Spanish influenza of 1918 and smallpox between1796 and 1979. The lessons from these outbreaks could be helpful for better combatting other deadly epidemics including the present-day disastrous COVID-19 pandemic.

    Keywords: Cholera, Iran, Plague, Smallpox, Spanish influenza of 1918