فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:11 Issue: 7, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 35
|
  • Akram Sanagoo, Diana Sarokhani*, Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi, Kourosh Sayehmir, Leila Jouybari Page 1
    Background

    Quality of work life (QWL) is considered as a universal concept in human resource management and organizational development, and its promotion is the key to the success of organizations’ management. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QWL in Iran through systematic review and meta‑analysis.

    Methods

    In this study, all articles related to the QWL in Iran during the years 2011–2017 were systemically reviewed by searching national and international databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Springer, SID, Magiran, Barakat Knowledge Network System, Medlib, and the Google Scholar search engine using valid keywords. The results of the studies were combined using the random effects model. The heterogeneity of studies was studied using the I2 index. Data analysis was done using STATA ver 11.

    Results

    The mean QWL score of 15,323 samples were 60.13, 36.80, 76.19, 58.90, 68.78, 50.69, 32.24, 8.01, 70.63, 39.70, and 44.41 based on Walton, Casio, Sirgy, Mirsepasi, SF‑36, Ghasem zadeh, Dehghan, Dargahi, NIOSH, Venlar, Quality of nursing work life questionnaires, respectively. Meta‑regression showed that the QWL of employees had no significant relationship with the sample size and years of research.

    Conclusions

    The mean score of QWL in Iranian employees was 56.90, with the highest and the lowest score for the questionnaire.

    Keywords: Iran, meta‑analysis, quality of work life (QWL)
  • Gurusaravanan Kutti Sridharan*, Rathnamitreyee Vegunta, Radhakrishna Vegunta, Babu P. Mohan, Venkata R. P.Rokkam Page 2

    The world is combating a common and invisible enemy severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV2), a highly transmissible virus responsible for serious respiratory illness coronavirus disease‑2019 (COVID‑19). As with all respiratory viruses, public health measures are focused on contact tracing, isolation, and treatment of affected individuals, who have respiratory symptoms. However, it is spreading efficiently, and it can be explained from its stealth transmission from presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Droplet and contact precautions are followed universally. Healthcare workers are at higher risk of acquiring infection and they are additionally required to follow airborne and eye protection. Recent studies indicate viral particles can be isolated from many body fluids including feces, saliva, semen, and tears, suggesting transmission could be possibly occurring through some of these routes as well. We have done an evidence‑based review of all potential modes of transmission and discussed preventive measures to stop the spread. There is an urgent need for educating the healthcare professionals, governments, and public regarding other potential modes of transmission. Strict preventive measures need to be used to stop the spread.

    Keywords: COVID 19, novel coronavirus, Pandemics, SARS‑CoV2, transmission
  • Bahman Mohammadi, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Bijan Nouri, Samaneh Rouhi* Page 3
    Background

    Ethambutol (EMB) resistance is a major concern in patients with tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency rate of mutations in the embB306 gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) resistant to EMB, based on a systematic review and meta‑analysis.

    Methods

    Thirty‑seven original articles (1997–2015) that have been published in valid databases were considered for this research. The articles were systematically reviewed for the prevalence and rate of mutations in embB306 in EMB‑resistant M. tuberculosis. Data were analyzed using meta‑analysis and random effects models (CI 95%, P < 0.10).

    Results

    With a 6,931 sample size in 37 original articles, the lowest rate was related to EMB resistance that was observed in 2014 with 0.05 (95% CI: 0.04–0.07) and the highest prevalence rate was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.68–1.01), observed in 1997. Lowest and highest prevalence rates of embB306 gene mutation in M. tuberculosis were 0.03 (95% CI: 0.01–0.07) in 2014 and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.71–1.84) in 2005, in the USA, respectively.

    Conclusions

    The present study revealed the prevalence and association of mutations in the embB306 gene of M. tuberculosis with resistance to EMB. Detecting EMB‑resistant M. tuberculosis can help in controlling and correcting the administration of drugs for patients with TB.

    Keywords: Codon 306, embB gene, ethambutol, mutations, Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Hooman Sharifi, Mostafa Ghanei*, Hamidreza Jamaati, MohammadReza Masjedi, Mohsen Aarabi, Ali Sharifpour, Golnar Radmand, Hadis Najafimehr, A. Sonia Buist Page 4
    Background

    Globally chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was reported as the fourth leading cause of death (5.1%) in 2004 and is projected to occupy the third position (8.6%) in 2030. The goal of the present project is to describe the prevalence and risk factors of COPD in a province in the north of Iran.

    Methods

    This study followed a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The stratification of the sample according to the 31 provinces of Iran is incorporated in the sampling process. The single most important outcome measure obtained as part of this protocol was spirometry before and after the administration of 200 mg (2 puffs) of salbutamol. The descriptive statistics for categorical variables included the number and percent and for continues variables included the mean ± SD.

    Results

    A total of 1007 subjects were included in the study. Among all participants, 46 (5%) subjects had COPD on the basis of symptoms and 43 (8.3%) subjects had COPD on the basis of spirometry criteria. In univariate analysis, urban inhabitants in comparison with rural inhabitants had lower COPD risk (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24–0.95), smoker had higher risk compared with nonsmokers (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.01–3.82), and subjects with exposure to dust (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.09–3.94) had higher risk compared with contrary status.

    Conclusions

    This study showed that occupational and environmental smoke exposure was associated with COPD. A new design of preventive measures must be taken to control cooking energy and cooking stoves, particularly in rural areas.

    Keywords: Airway obstruction, burden of obstructive lung disease, Iran, prevalence
  • Fatemeh Owlia, MohammadHasan Akhavan Karbassi, Reyhaneh Rahimi* Page 5
    Background

    Molar‑‑incisor hypomineralization (MIH) could be appeared in condition of calcium (Ca2+) disorders. Body height is an index of growth health monitoring in child that may be assumed by calcium metabolism. This study was designed to compare the body height of 8‑‑9 years old schoolchildren with MIH and control group.

    Methods

    This cross‑sectional study was carried out by examination of 606 Iranian healthy schoolchildren for recording enamel defects and body height measurements by a single trained examiner. Putative etiological factors were evaluated using the structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was about maternal, prenatal, and postnatal factors. Statically analysis was done using t‑test and Chi‑square test in SPSS 22.

    Results

    The prevalence of MIH in the schoolchildren was 52.9%. Prevalence of MIH significantly was higher in girls. Most of maternal and child’s parameters appeared to have no significant correlation with MIH except birth weight, antibiotic therapy, maternal disease in pregnancy, and medication (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    In spite of lower body height in schoolchildren with MIH, there was not any significant correlation between them.

    Keywords: Body height, dental enamel hypoplasia, incisor, Iran, prevalence
  • Elmira Niknami, Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi, Ardeshir Talebi, Mohsen Minaiyan Page 6
    Background

    Vitis vinifera (black grape) is cultivated worldwide and has numerous oral and therapeutic applications. It has proven anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of black grape seed (hydroalcoholic) extract (BGSE) and black grape seed oil (BGSO) on experimental colitis.

    Methods

    BGSE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and BGSO (2, 4, and 8 mL/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) in groups of six male Wistar rats, 2 h before induction of colitis and continued further for 4 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and mesalamine (100 mg/kg) were used as  reference drugs. Weight/length of colons, macroscopic and histopathologic indices, and biochemical parameters including myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated.

    Results

    All doses of BGSE and BGSO significantly decreased the colon weight, ulcer index, and total colitis index in comparison with the control group, although greater doses of both fractions had more significant protection. Data of MPO activity revealed that all treated groups with the exception of BGSE (50 mg/kg) and BGSO (2 mL/kg) showed a meaningful decline in comparison with the control group. Concerning the MDA values in colonic tissue, it was demonstrated that BGSE (100, 200 mg/kg) and BGSO (8 mL/kg) caused a significant dip in this oxidative stress parameter.

    Conclusions

    Oral administration of BGSE and BGSO had an appropriate anti‑inflammatory effect and so could be considered as a suitable candidate for treating or preventing ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, detailed studies are warranted to explore the exact mechanism of action and clinical preference of these compounds.

    Keywords: Animal model, colitis, plant extract, rats, seeds oil, Vitis vinifera
  • Fatemeh Rajabi, Azar Pirdehghan, Zahra Sanaie, Laleh Ghadirian, Azadeh Sayarifard, Farzaneh Esna‑Ashari* Page 7
    Background

    Health literacy (HL) has been recognized as an important concept in patient education and disease prevention. The rising burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Iran is significant. Hence, we designed and validated an HL questionnaire on the most important domains of NCDs, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer.

    Methods

    Literature review was conducted to examine the definition and dimensions of HL. After reaching consensus about the HL dimensions and conceptual models in focus group discussions with experts, they designed questions in each domain. Then, face, content, and construct validity as well as reliability were determined by a pilot study on 72 participants. At the end, a cross‑sectional study was implemented on 206 Hamedan university employees, to finalize the questionnaire.

    Results

    After doing the pilot study and analyzing the collected data and according to the Bartlett’s test of sphericity and Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin = 0.421 with P < 0.001, factor analysis was used. Considering the eigenvalue >1.4, a 27‑item questionnaire in seven domains was obtained which included attitude toward health, understanding information, social support, socioeconomic conditions, access to health services, and application of health information. Cronbach’s alpha was more than 0.70 in all domains except the last one (0.47). The second phase showed that overall 75.2% of the individuals had inadequate HL with lowest scores in the application of health information.

    Conclusions

    The designed tool seems appropriate for measuring the HL level among the Iranian population in the field of prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. The results can help policy makers to improve health promotion interventions.

    Keywords: Health literacy questionnaire, Iran, reliability, validity
  • Jia‑Ping Wu* Page 8
    Background

    A Chlorella sp. (CLC) has a health supplement in health effects including an ability to treat cancer. The Chlorella sp. Ability to reduce acetaminophen-induced liver injury is still unknown. The hepatoprotective function of CLC was determined in an APAP-induced liver injury mouse model.

    Methods

    Male ICR mice were randomly divided into normal control, APAP, APAP + Sm (silymarin) and APAP + CLC (0.2%, 0.5% and 1%) groups. The glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), Albumin, and BUN plasma activities were detected using blood biochemistry assay. The hepatic tissue GOT, GPT, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were also detected. Lipid peroxidation, MDA, protein expression levels were examined.

    Results

    The results showed that the 1% CLC supplementation group and Silymarin (Sm) could significantly alleviate increased serum GOT, GPT and BUN, and the decreased serum Albumin. At the same time, the increased hepatic tissue GOT and GPT activities were alleviated as well as MDA. Enhanced SOD and CAT protein expression levels were increased in APAP-induced liver injury. Lipofuscin and hepatic veins cups disappeared in the Sm and 1% CLC supplementation groups shown with H&E staining.

    Conclusions

    Therefore, CLC probably could develop hepatoprotective products against chemical-induced liver damage.

    Keywords: Acetaminophen, catalase, Chlorella sp. crude lysate, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, hepatoprotective function, superoxide dismutase
  • M. R. Suchitra, T. S. Shanthi, Srinivasan Parthasarathy * Page 9
    Background

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a biochemical disease which is characterized by elevated serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal thyroid hormone levels. In an attempt to correct the disease at its entry point, we wished to find out the incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism in female college students in Kumbakonam, a semiurban town of India.

    Methods

    Around 260 female college students who had no history of thyroid disease were screened for thyroid dysfunction by a TSH assay.

    Results

    The mean age ± standard deviation was 18.72 ± 2.27 years. The mean TSH value was 3.98 mIU/mL. The incidence of abnormally high TSH values was around 11.5%. The number of such cases was 30 with low T3 values in six students. One had a value of 150 with no symptoms. Another student had a value of 0.15 and her T3‑T4 profile was normal. All students were asymptomatic. None of the students had goiter.

    Conclusions

    In an unpublished but accepted study, we found an incidence of 3.5% in the school female children in the age group of 15–17. A sudden jump in the incidence is occurring in the age group of 18–22. This needs a workup of the causative factors and their possible correction.

    Keywords: Female, hypothyroidism, incidence, students
  • MohammadHossein Asadi, Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani* Page 10
  • Sora Yasri*, Viroj Wiwanitkit Page 11
  • Won Sriwijitalai, Viroj Wiwanitkit Page 12
  • Elahe Aleebrahim-Dehkordi, Ali Reyhanian, Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi* Page 16
  • Kioumars Chelongar, Sima Ajami* Page 17
  • Won Sriwijitalai*, Viroj Wiwanitkit Page 19
  • Jamshid Roozbeh, Mohammad HosseinImanieh*, Soheil Ashkani Esfahani Page 20
  • Won Sriwijitalai*, Viroj Wiwanitkit Page 23
  • Neda Ramezani, Iman Adibi, Omid Mirmosayyeb, Vahid Shaygannejad* Page 25
  • Amir Adibi, Aliashraf Mozafari, Golnaz Azami, Tayebe Jamshidbeigi, Ali Sahebi* Page 26
  • Mutsumi Murakami, Yuka Ikeda, Ai Tsuji, Satoru Matsuda* Page 27
  • Won Sriwijitalai*, Uno Tan Tan, Viroj Wiwanitkit Page 31
  • Sebastian Iglesias Osores*, Johnny Leandro Saavedra Camacho Page 32
  • Manouchehr Ahmadi Hedayati* Page 33
  • Rujttika Mungmunpuntipantip, Viroj Wiwanitkit* Page 34
  • Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava Page 35