فهرست مطالب

هویت شهر - پیاپی 43 (پاییز 1399)
  • پیاپی 43 (پاییز 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • زهرا فتاحی، علی شماعی*، علی موحد صفحات 5-16

    این پژوهش بهآسیب شناسی پایداری محله های 26 گانه منطقه یک تهران با تاکید بر آسیب های اجتماعی پرداخته است. هدف اصلی توزیع فضایی آسیب های اجتماعی در سطح محلات و بسترسازی برای مدیریت کنترل، کاهش توسعه پایدار محله ای است. هویت شهری از شاخص های توسعه پایدار است. روش پژوهش اکتشافی-تحلیلی است. داده ها و اطلاعات از طریق منابع اسنادی و میدانی گردآوری شده اند. تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از نرم افزار Super Decisions در سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی استفاده شده است. نمونه آماری 30 نفر از کارشناسان حوزه برنامه ریزی شهری و تعداد 372 نفر از ساکن محلات با استفاده از فرمول کوکران است. یافته های پژوهش نشان دادند که محلات منطقه یک شهرداری تهران با آسیب های اجتماعی روبه رشدی روبرو هستند. آسیب های اجتماعی مشترک در سطح منطقه طلاق، دختران فراری، تکدی گری، اعتیاد به مواد مخدر و کارگران فصلی است. ازلحاظ توزیع فضایی بیشتر در میدان ها ازجمله میدان تجریش محله های پرتراکم قابل توجه است.

    کلیدواژگان: آسیب شناسی محله های شهری، توسعه پایدار، آسیب های اجتماعی، هویت شهری، منطقه یک شهر تهران
  • علیرضا تغابنی*، علی اکبر صارمی صفحات 17-28

    معماری کیچ، یکی از انواع آفت ها درحرکت های خلاق به شمار می رود که شناختن آن و گونه شناسی این نوع معماری و بازشناسی و ریشه یابی آن در معماری امروز، ما را به شناخت بهتری از خود و روش هایمان می رساند. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، تحلیلی بر گونه شناسی «کیچ» در بناهای معاصر ایران و شناسایی معیارها و مشخصه های این معماری در ایران است. در این راستا، 150 بنایی که ازنظر مردم و مشاورین املاک، پروژه ‏های شاخص معماری قلمداد می‏شدند، انتخاب شده و موردبررسی قرار گرفتند. با توجه به این که نما، بیرونی ‏ترین تظاهر معماری و بهترین وجه بنا برای آزمون شاخصه ‏های کیچ است، نما‏های این بناها از سه جنبه ایده و شکل و جزییات مورد مقایسه با شاخصه های «کیچ» قرار گرفتند. روش این پژوهش، تیوری برخاسته از زمینه است. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است که این شاخصه‏ ها، در سه گونه «کیچ های» سبکی، الگویی، مصالح و جزییات قابل تبیین است.

    کلیدواژگان: معماری کیچ، کیچ سبکی، کیچ الگویی، کیچ مصالح و جزئیات، معاصر
  • ماندانا ملک، علیرضا عندلیب*، زهرا سادات سعیده زرآبادی، حمید ماجدی صفحات 29-44
    پایداری اجتماعی یکی از ابعاد سه گانه توسعه پایدار و بازآفرینی یکی از متاخرترین رویکردهای مواجهه با مسایل و مشکلات محلات شهری، است. هدف این مقاله، تبیین ابعاد و مولفه های بازآفرینی محلات شهری و اصول کلان و سیاست های پشتیبان آن با رویکرد ارتقاء پایداری اجتماعی است. روش تحقیق، بر مبنای مطالعات اسنادی بوده، ضمن بهره گیری از روش دلفی، با استفاده از دیدگاه خبرگان، امتیاز دهی به 4 بعد و 21 عامل مستخرج از مبانی نظری انجام، تحلیل و مدل بازآفرینی محله با رویکرد پایداری اجتماعی ارایه شده است. یافته های تحقیق حاکی از آن است اصول تبیین شده بازآفرینی محلات شهری با رویکرد پایداری اجتماعی در قالب چهار دسته کالبد و محیط زیست پایدار، اجتماع پایدار، اقتصاد پایدار و حکمروایی صورت بندی شده است. درنهایت سیاست های 32 گانه پشتیبان در راستای تحقق پایداری اجتماعی در فرآیند بازآفرینی محله و مدل پیشنهادی که ترتیب عامل های هر بعد آن معنی دار است، ارایه شد
    کلیدواژگان: بازآفرینی محله، محلات ناکارآمد شهری، پایداری اجتماعی
  • توحید حاتمی خانقاهی*، لیلا عبدالعلی زاده، مهرداد ابراهیمیان صفحات 45-60

    امروزه شاهد توجه تحقیقات علمی به خواسته های مردم در ارتقای کیفیت فضاهای شهری هستیم. از بین مجموعه عوامل موثر بر ارتقاء کیفیت فضاهای شهری، رنگ و نور به عنوان روش های در دسترس با تاثیر زیاد، نقش مهمی بر عهده دارد. هدف این پژوهش ارزیابی مولفه های ذهنی مرتبط با طراحی جهت ارتقاء کیفیت فضاهای شهری به کمک رنگ و نور جهت بهره برداری توسط طراحان است. روش تحقیق کیو، با 49 گزاره نوشتاری و 22 گزاره تصویری و روش نمونه گیری در دسترس ذهنیت منتخبین جامعه آماری را بررسی نمود. داده های حاصل از جدول مرتب سازی اجباری توسط نرم افزار spss تحلیل شد. برآیند ذهنیت حاکم، بیانگر وجود دو عامل مهم کالبدی و فرهنگی در خصوص گزاره های مربوط به راهکارهای اجرایی و دو ذهنیت مشخص در مورد گزاره های تصویری بود. در ادامه گزاره های مرتبط با هرکدام از ذهنیت های مذکور اولویت بندی و همچنین گزاره های توافقی و متمایزکننده بین گروه های ذهنی استخراج گردید.

    کلیدواژگان: ذهنیت، رنگ و نور، روش تحقیق کیو، کیفیت فضاهای شهری
  • ریحانه خرمی روز، محمدمنصور فلامکی*، ویدا نوروز برازجانی صفحات 61-74

    جنسیت به عنوان مقوله ای اجتماعی و متاثر از فرهنگ جامعه و متغیر در طول زمان، با واژه جنس که به مسایل زیست شناختی و تفاوت های فیزیکی اشاره می نماید متفاوت است. این مقاله در صدد بررسی ارتباط جنسیت و فضا بوده و با تبیین مولفه های برگرفته از جنسیت و تحلیل آنان در مراکز خرید، در پی رسیدن به تعادل جنسیتی در فضا است. نتایج مشخص می نماید که مولفه های کیفی اشاره شده سبب می شوند تا کاربران مختلف ازنظر جنسیتی، استفاده های متفاوت از فضا داشته باشند. در صورت عدم توجه به جنسیت، فضا از کیفیت لازم برخوردار نبوده، بنابراین کاربران بخصوص زنان که حساسیت بیشتری به فضا داشته، در پاره ای موارد آن را به دلخواه خود تغییر داده و یا استفاده از فضا اجتناب می کنند. روش پژوهش، روش تحقیق کیفی در قالب نمونه های موردی است که 4 مرکز خرید در شهر تهران جهت بررسی انتخاب شده و مورد مشاهده، مصاحبه و تحلیل قرارگرفته اند.

    کلیدواژگان: جنسیت، زنان، تعادل جنسیتی، معماری، مراکز تجاری
  • علی مجنونی توتاخانه* صفحات 75-88

    مفهوم شهر خلاق میانه اندام از توجه به ابعاد منحصربه فرد انسانی و محیطی این شهرها ناشی می شود که به دلیل جدید بودن موضوع، نیازمند تحلیل بیشتر به برای شناسایی پیشران های کلیدی است. هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی و تحلیل پیشران های کلیدی در شکل گیری شهرهای خلاق میانه اندام بناب است. نوع تحقیق کاربردی و ازنظر ماهیت تحلیلی- اکتشافی است. برای استخراج متغیرها، از 98 کارشناس و برای تحلیل متقاطع، از 40 خبره استفاده شد. مولفه های شناسایی شده، 10 معیار اصلی، 16 زیر معیار و 106 متغیر است. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها، از روش های ترکیبی پنل خبرگان، اثرات متقاطع و نرم افزار MICMAC استفاده شد. یافته ها نشان داد که وضعیت سیستم شهر خلاق در بناب ناپایدار است. همچنین 14 پیشران کلیدی، بیشترین مقدار تاثیرگذاری مستقیم و غیرمستقیم بر خلاقیت شهری بناب داشتند که از این تعداد، شش پیشران مربوط به طبقه خلاق و سه پیشران مربوط به زیرساخت های خلاق بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: شهر خلاق، آینده پژوهی، پیشران، شهر میانه اندام، بناب
  • زینب میرسندسی، بهناز امین زاده* صفحات 89-102

    یکی از مسایل مهم منطقه ای، عدم توجه به توان های درونی منطقه و درنتیجه وابستگی آن ها به مناطق هم جوار است، درحالی که خود دارای توان و ظرفیت های محیطی برای فعالیت هایی مانند گردشگری می باشند. گردشگری پایدار ابزاری قوی برای توسعه مناطق و تعادل بخشی آن ها محسوب می شود. هدف این پژوهش بررسی چگونگی استفاده از پتانسیل های گردشگری پایدار منطقه در ترکیب با نظریه برنامه ریزی مرکز-پیرامون برای سنجش و ایجاد تعادل منطقه ای است. بدین منظور با استفاده از روش فرا تحلیل، مدل مفهومی پژوهش و شاخص ها تدوین گردیده و در ادامه با استفاده از دو روش تحلیل عاملی و تحلیل نمایی شهرستان های خراسان رضوی سطح بندی شده و تعادل منطقه ای بر مبنای توان گردشگری پایدار سنجیده شده است و با استفاده از نرم افزار GIS بر روی نقشه استان نمایش داده شده است. نتایج تحقیق شامل ارایه مدل مفهومی در سنجش تعادل منطقه یا توجه به توان گردشگری پایدار است. یافته های پژوهش در نمونه مطالعه نشان می دهد که استان خراسان رضوی از تعادل منطقه ای در استفاده از پتانسیل های پایدار گردشگری برخوردار نیست.

    کلیدواژگان: تعادل بخشی منطقه ای، گردشگری پایدار، تحلیل عاملی، تحلیل خوشه ای، استان خراسان رضوی
  • علیرضا جزء پیری، مهرداد متین* صفحات 103-122

    موضوع پژوهش، پردازش تاریخ گرایی در معماری معاصر ایران است. نشانه های تاریخی در معماری، بارزترین مشخصه تاریخ گرایی در حوزه معاصر است. سوال پژوهش «چگونگی نمود تاریخ همچنین نشانه های تاریخ گرایی در دوره بندیهای تالیفات معماری معاصر؟» و فرضیه «عینیت یافتن نشانه های تاریخی همچنین امکان دوره بندی آثار معاصر بر اساس شاخصه های تاریخ گرایی» هستند. پژوهش پس از پردازش مفاهیم تاریخ گرایی و جایگاهش در تالیفات، الگویی برای بررسی آثار ارایه می دهد. پژوهش کیفی است با راهبرد تفسیری که با روش تاریخی- انتقادی پس زمینه تاریخ معماری را بازنمایی و با استفاده از فرایند تاریخ گرایی هگل که از روش های تحقیق تاریخی است، دوره بندیهای معاصر را ارزیابی کرده و پس از استنتاج مدلی 3 گانه برای تاریخ گرایی، در راستای پاسخ به سوالات تحقیق برمی آید. نتیجه اینکه، مجموعا شش نوع دوره بندی در تالیفات دهه 80 هجری شمسی قابل استخراج است. پنج اثر تالیفی تاریخ گرایی سمبولیک و تنها یک اثر تاریخ گرایی فلسفی دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: تاریخ گرایی، دوره بندی، معماری معاصر ایران
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  • Zahra Fattahi, Ali Shamai *, Ali Movahed Pages 5-16

    The social pathology of urban neighborhoods is very important in the sustainability of the city. This research studies the sustainable pathology of urban neighborhoods in Region 1 of Tehran city with an emphasis on social harms. The main objective of the social pathology and its spatial distribution at the neighborhoods level is to plan and manage how to control and reduce the social harms and make sustainable neighborhood development. Employing an exploratory analysis method, the present study is an applied research. The data has been collected through documentary and field studies. For analyzing the data, Super Decisions software and various tools have been used in Geographical Information System (GIS). The study area is the neighborhoods of Region 1 of Tehran municipality and the level of analysis is its 26 neighborhoods. The statistical sample consists of 30 experts in the field of urban planning and engineering, and 372 inhabitants of the 26 neighborhoods. These participants have been selected using Cochran Formula and random sampling. The findings of the study show that the neighborhoods of Region 1 of Tehran municipality are encountering growing social harms. Common social harms in this region are ​​divorce, runaway girls, beggary, drug addiction, and seasonal workers. In terms of spatial distribution, mostly squares are densely populated, e.g., Tajrish Square. Among the 26 existing neighborhoods, Evin (rank 1), Zafarranieh (rank 2), and Imamzadeh Qasem (rank 3) Neighborhoods have respectively the most amounts of social harms while Araj, Hekmat, Deszashib, and Mahmoudieh Neighborhoods have the least amount of social harms. Any appropriate social interventions and supportive measures require comprehensive studies and studies on opportunities and threats, the strengths and weaknesses, the nature and causes of injuries and social issues at a smaller level, namely, neighborhoods. According to the results of this study, effective preventive measures can be taken to improve the planning and optimal management of the city of Tehran in the municipality of Tehran, with the full knowledge of the existing damage and its type, and by achieving appropriate strategies to reduce the damage to the neighborhood system. In the area of ​​a Tehran municipality, in order to help improve urban planning and management through the identification and elimination of existing damage, it is possible to develop and improve these areas of the region in terms of the quality of life of citizens and minimize the damage.  In terms of the indices of urban development infrastructures and facilities, significant differences are also observed between the neighborhoods of this region using Fuzzy Method, e.g., Tajrish Neighborhood has the first rank in sustainable development due to the availability of facilities and access to offices and industries and several other development indices. Bagh-e-Ferdows Neighborhood has the second rank, while Golab Darre and Mahallati Neighborhoods are at the bottom of this ranking. According to the results of this study, it is possible to improve the planning and optimal urban management in a Tehran municipality region with full knowledge of existing damage and their type. They have taken effective preventive measures and appropriate.

    Keywords: Urban neighborhoods pathology, Sustainable development, social harms, Region 1 of Tehran City
  • Alireza Taghaboni *, Aliakbar Saremi Pages 17-28

    The word of "Kitsch" is German in origin and previously had been translated into French as "art de pacotille (junk art)" or "art tape-à-l’oil (garnish art)", but the original term has now become firmly established in all European languages. The German word Kitsch has no equivalent in French. It refers to all genres of objects in bad taste of artistically pretentious junk, popularizing commonplace forms through their mass-production, but it also applies to literary, artistic or musical works which aim for easy effects (such as melodrama) and pomposity, and cultivate sentimentality or mindless conformity. The term “kitsch”, which is often related to artistic disciplines, is very hard to identify and describe. Definitions fluctuate from mass-produced everyday items to achievements of pop-art and other self-aware implementations. Kitsch art may often contain palatable, pleasant and romantic themes and visuals that few would find disagreeable, shocking or otherwise objectionable; it generally attempts to appeal to the human condition and its natural standards of beauty on a superficial level. It may also be quaint or "quirky" without being controversial. The notion of Kitsch first appeared in the nineteenth century and it is an international movement of classical painters, founded in 1998 upon a philosophy proposed by Odd Nerdrum. It became the object of keen attention when mass society—helped by increased leisure time—had at its disposal a “culture for the masses” that, by its nature, seemed to threaten the very existence of authentic culture. Kitsch covers all different means of expression once they abandon rigor in order to cater to a wider public. Kitsch architecture is one of the types of pests in the creative movement that recognizing it and the typology of this type of architecture and recognizing it. It's rooted in today's architecture, gives us a better understanding of ourselves and our ways and methods. A methodology of this research is qualitative and its method is Grounded theory includes "open coding and axial coding. Grounded theory is a systematic methodology in the social sciences involving the construction of theories through methodical gathering and analysis of data. It operates inductively, in contrast to the hypothetico-deductive approach. A study using grounded theory is likely, to begin with, a question, or even just with the collection of qualitative data. As researchers review the data collected, repeated ideas, concepts or elements become apparent, and are tagged with codes, which have been extracted from the data. The purpose of this research is analyzing the typology of "kitsch" in contemporary Iranian buildings and identify the criteria and characteristics of this form of architecture in Iran. In this regard, 150 buildings which consultants by the people and real estate, were considered as architectural projects, were selected and reviewed. All of The facades could be categorized based on three aspects based on idea, shape, and details in relation to the concept of the Kitsch. The results of the research indicate that these attributes can be explained in three types of kitsch: style-based Kitsch, pattern-based Kitsch, material and detail- based Kitsch.

    Keywords: Style-based Kitsch, Pattern-based Kitsch, Material, detail- based Kitsch
  • Mandana Malek, Alireza Andalib *, Zahra Zarabadi, Hamid Majedi Pages 29-44
    Declined urban neighborhoods are those parts of cities that failed to establish a balanced economic, social, and functional relationship with the rest of the city during the industrialization and urban development process. Indicators of urban poverty and deteriorated quality of life are visible in such neighborhoods. Actually these declined areas do not have the ability to compete or exchange economic, social or cultural benefits with other part of cities and other urban areas without government support. Social sustainability is a manifestation of sustainable development, which in recent years has gained increased recognition as a fundamental component of sustainable development, beginning to receive political and institutional endorsement within the sustainable development agenda, and the sustainable urban regeneration discourse.Moreover, regeneration is considered as one of the most significant, most effective approaches to improve and renovate urban neighborhoods. Urban regeneration tackles "quality of life" issues in communities through working to narrow the gap between the most disadvantaged neighborhoods and the rest of society. In this policy debate often an area based approach, integrating horizontal policies, with sustainable perspectives, collaborative inhabitants, is advocated.    The aim of this analytical review is to establish the dimensions and components of urban community regeneration, its substantial principles, and supporting policies with an eye on social sustainability, and its conceptual framework. In line with its goals, this policy study is a library and document research involving content analysis of theoretical texts. Furthermore, drawing on the Delphi method and based on a conceptual model, an analysis concerned with community regeneration was carried out assuming a social sustainability approach.Also, the opinion of experts rating 4 aspects and 21 factors derived from theoretical principles were used to finalize the community regeneration model.The findings are suggesting that the principles extracted from an initial literature review comprised social participation, social capital, social composition, social coherence, sustainable policy (governance), welfare and quality of life, the environment, services and housing, preserving the identity and cultural heritage, security and wellbeing, being community-based, and equal access (to housing, services, open spaces, jobs, resources, etc.) can be classified into four groups (sustainable environment and space, sustainable community, sustainable economy, and governance). Of the 21 factors identified through the literature review, and according to the experts’ opinions, the sense of belonging, sustainable transportation, and information systems are the essential criteria, whereas the remaining ones except resilience received an acceptable score in the hierarchy of the criteria. Based on the nine principles extracted in this study, a conceptual model was presented in whose aspects the factors feature a significant order. At the conclusion this article presented, 32 supporting policies which can be used in the process of neighborhood regeneration in order to improve social sustainability. Concurrent attention to these strategies as a balanced set of issues is important. Because the fulfillment of each policy without considering the others will complicate the situation of the declined neighborhood and its local community. Moreover involvement of local communities during the process, is the key success point of the neighborhood regeneration programs.
    Keywords: Urban Regeneration, Declined Urban Neighborhoods, Social sustainability, Delphi method
  • Tohid Hatami Khanghahi *, Leila Abdolalizadeh, Mehrdad Ebrahimian Pages 45-60

    Today, we are seeing the attention of scientific research to the demands of the people in the design of urban spaces. Out of the set of effective factors, color and light play an important role in improving the quality of urban spaces. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the mental components associated with the design to improve the quality of urban spaces by using color and light that using the Q research method, solutions for using color and light on improving the quality of urban spaces in the city of Ardabil, Simetry street in Iran. The results indicate that there are two important mental groups in text propositions and two important mental groups in image propositions on the Simetry Street in Ardabil. The propositions, the writing of the first group has a more formal look in design and the first factor had a significant factor load and the second group with significant factor load on the second factor focused on cultural issues. Also, on ways to use color and light in improving the quality of urban spaces in the first-order image propositions with a significant factor load on the first factor they have a modern look and believe in the use of new techniques and technology of the day and the second group looked conservative and believed in protecting the authenticity and status of the building. Factor load resulting from factor analysis indicates the degree of dependency and agreement or opposition of each of the Q contacts to each of the factors and factors mentioned above. The significance criterion of the factor loads is also due to the existence of 49 propositions and written card for 95% confidence the larger the factor load is 0.368. For the image cards, according to the existence of 22 propositions and to ensure a 95% higher load factor of 0.417 the criterion of factor load was considered. In the sequel, the statements related to each of the abovementioned mentality are prioritized and also agreeable and distinct propositions between subjective groups. Ultimately, this research will address the issues and problems that exist, the necessities and advantages of paying attention to color and light in improving the quality of urban spaces and disadvantages of neglecting it at first and then examine the theoretical foundations in the theme of color and light, Review the views of thinkers and experts and then an interview with residents in the scope of the case study, it was able to gain access to materials that were refined and prioritized by the Q method the people's mindset is about ways to use color and light in improving the quality of urban spaces. It should be noted that the statistical community was selected from among those who were in some way related to the field and who were spontaneously using color and light in their parts of the shop or on the floor of the road. Finally, 15 people were selected for direct participation in the topic and they answered the questions.

    Keywords: Mentality, Color, light, Q research method, quality of urban spaces
  • Reyhaneh Khorrami Rouz, MOhammadMnsour Falamaki *, Vida Nourouz Pages 61-74

    Social contexts are the most important areas for space users, and factors such as age, gender, and social class can be studied in this regard. Gender is a social category that has always been influenced by the culture of the community and changes over time and thus differs from the term sex, which refers to this from the point of view of biological and physical differences. Considering the sociality of gender, this paper seeks to study the relationship between gender and space along with the quality surveys of shopping malls as a public urban space so that it is possible to introduce a space with specific components, and also these components can be used in architectural design and as well as the needs of all gender groups in this space can be met. Since studies show that women’s needs are more important because of their responsibilities and limitations and because of their sensitivities, the space they deserve is suitable for both sexes. Therefore; this study focuses on the needs and perceptions of this group.The research method used is a qualitative research method in the form of case studies where Palladium Shopping Center in northern Tehran, Cyrus Shopping Center in the west of Tehran, Tirāgeh-2 Shopping Center in the east of Tehran and Reza Kuwaitis Passage in the south of Tehran have been investigated and observed. These shopping centers were selected in four geographical locations of Tehran for the reason that the results could be generalized to the whole city of Tehran.The results of the analysis of shopping malls space in Tehran provide some indicators that have been considered as effective factors in measuring the desirability and undesirability of space and measuring the effectiveness of space design. This level of space efficiency is one of the qualitative criteria for measuring space because each person seeks to meet their needs in the environment and when the environment provides the right conditions and the individual can do less effort to achieve his goals, it is a satisfaction and desirability for him/her, and the achievement of this feeling in the environment is the expectation that each person expects the space s/he desires.The results indicate that the qualitative components referred to, will cause different users to have different uses of space in terms of gender. But surveying shopping centers in Tehran shows that women are not passive while using space, and sometimes they resist the loss of their rights in urban areas and sometimes actively produce their own items. To create their needed security, they ignore some routes, choose other routes or visit the shopping center in a group. Whether they need to rest in spaces where this need is not foreseen, they use side steps or platforms next to space. These behaviors can be interpreted as the redefinition of space, which varies from person to person depending on their perception of space and their needs. Finally, if space is not reproducible and flexible for necessary uses, they will avoid attending the space.

    Keywords: Gender, women, Architectural design, Shopping centers (malls)
  • Ali Majnouni Toutakhane * Pages 75-88

    Nowadays, creative cities are considered to be centers for innovation, creativity, and the transformation of ideas into wealth, and as cultural exchange centers and thinkers and advocates of different nations. Since the idea and innovation of the main competitive elements are in the age of globalization, having a creative city is the dream of any society. Widespread and rapid technological changes, globalization, climate change, local management, cultural production, immigration, etc. are among the issues that make it increasingly important and necessary to pay attention to the infrastructures of the creative city in all cities, from large cities to medium and small cities. Moreover, creative cities on various scales have been recognized as the guarantors of the comprehensive development of the country and preventing the factor of social injustice among citizens. Considering the importance of determining the key elements of the creative city in the scale of mid-sized cities, the present study identifies the key proponents of the formation of a creative city in mid-sized cities studied on Bonab city. this is an applied, analytic exploratory research, based on new methods of future study In the first stage of research and in order to extract research variables, invent from 98 experts with different specializations and related to urban issues, using a pilot approach was used. Questionnaires and interviews were used as survey method tools. In the second stage, for information analysis and study and analyze the degree of cross-effects of extracted variables from the first stage of research, 40 available urban experts were used. To analyze the data, we use the combination methods of expert’s panel, cross-impact analysis, and MICMAC software. The results of the study showed that the degree of filling of the cross-sectional matrix is 65.21%, which indicates that the selected factors have a high correlation and affect each other and the system has been in a state of instability. Based on the results of MICMAC software, the 14 key propulsion have the most direct and indirect impact on Bonab city creativity, of which there are six proponents of the creative class and three proponents of creativity infrastructure. It will have the greatest impact on the location of the infrastructure of the city of Bonab on the way to a creative mid-sized city. In other words, the state of city creativity in the mid-sized city of Bonab is more influenced by the class of scientific citizens, as well as research and development organizations such as academic centers. These 14 propulsion include the performance of service providers, physicians, lawmakers, and senior people, distribution of urban services, population, bachelor's degree, technicians, number of research and development units, awareness of citizenship rights, number of researchers of research and development units, Specialists and number of universities. Finally, according to the findings of the research and emphasizing the creative class and creative city infrastructure in the mid-sized cities, practical proposals have been presented in the field of implementation of creative mid-sized cities. Finally, practical suggestions have been made to improve the status of the creative city.

    Keywords: Creative City, Future Studies, Propulsion, mid- sized City, Bonab
  • Zeinab Mirsondosi, Behnaz Aminzadeh * Pages 89-102

    One of the important issues in regional planning is the lack of attention to the inner strengths of the region and, therefore, its dependence on neighboring areas, while it itself has the power and capacity to be an environment for different activities such as tourism. Studies show little equilibrium in regional development in Iran in the last 50 years and this has created certain problems and issues for the spatial structure of cities and villages. The first step to face this problem is to evaluate a region according to its capacities and the way it benefits from them and then to provide a plan for enhancing or creating regional equilibrium, to help ordering the spatial structure of settlements in the region and to prevent some of the cities to grow unreasonably large. Sustainable tourism is a powerful tool for developing the regions and balancing them to an equilibrium point. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine how to use the sustainable tourism potential of a region in combination with the Core-Periphery planning theory for examining the region and, as a result, bringing it to a regional equilibrium. To this end, the conceptual model of this research and the indicators were developed using the meta-analysis method and then, they were rated using two methods of factor analysis and cluster analysis of Khorasan-e-Razavi province. The regional equilibrium is measured based on the sustainable tourism potential and is presented using the GIS software on the map of the province. The results of the research include providing a conceptual model for measuring regional equilibrium and paying attention to sustainable tourism potential. The research findings in the sample section show that Khorasan-e-Razavi Province does not have a sustainable balance for using the sustainable tourism potential of the province. Positioning Mashhad in the first place and 18 other cities at the lowest levels of tourism indicates an imbalance of the region which acts as a major factor in the collapse of the spatial order of the province on the one hand and causes the rapid and unpredictable growth of Mashhad on the other hand. In other words, tourism acts as an important factor in the collapse of the regional balance. Finally, in order to enhance tourism equilibrium in the province it is suggested that, first, all wealth gained for the province must be distributed in a balanced way, and second, development spread in the Core-Periphery theory is not sufficient on its own and the intervention of planners is also required. Therefore, through proper intervention and planning, planners can help to transfer tourism revenues from core to periphery to balance tourism development all over the province. So, the cities' rating and its spatial map provided in this paper are proper guides for finding the needs of the province by showing the parts in need of more consideration and those that are fertile and will flourish with a brief attention. Moreover, based on the results, some specific suggestions are put forward for enhancing the province equilibrium.

    Keywords: Regional Balance, Sustainable Tourism, Factor analysis, cluster analysis, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province
  • Alireza Joze Piry, Mehrdad Matin * Pages 103-122

    The subject of this research is the processing of historicism in the contemporary Iranian architectural works. Historical signs in architecture are the most prominent features of historicism in the contemporary context. This research begins with the question “How historicism is presented in contemporary architectural works?". It is assumed that history in contemporary architecture has presented itself with objective and subjective elements and has been crystallized in different ways. Also, the contemporary Iranian architectural works with a rich history of ancient architecture, are not exception for the acceptance of history in the contemporary world. Moreover, assuming that historicist practices allow the historical classification of the contemporary Iranian architectural compilations, these compilations must inevitably be placed in the identification model of the type of historicism.After processing the concept of historicism and periodization, the research provides a model for studying the works. Based on the views of Hegel and other architectural theorists such as Alan Colquhoun, this model classifies historicism into three types (Classical historicism, Symbolic historicism, and Philosophical). Colquhoun believes: historicism can be used for three things: The first one is an approach; the second is an artistic practice and the third is a theory of history. Attention to history leads to the emergence of historicism as a perceptible and analyzing process. A concept that, in a particularly, influential way in Hegel's philosophy, was found to be its clear and influential scheme and continued with various narratives in the next philosophical schools.Moreover, examining the periodization method of each work in the 2000s, this research conducts a thematic categorization and proceeds through the Hegelian historicism process, which is a method of doing historical research. “Periodization” is the separation of works and events in the form of occasional categories and styles. “Periodization” is a historical view and an attempt to express the “Zeitgeist”, Also is one of the main tools of historical studies. But using this tool has its own difficulties. Historical periodization, for historians, is a frequent controversy that implies the necessity of an agreement and often appears as a historic event. Analysis of the common periods and types of historicism is another aspect of this research for answering the research questions.This research is of qualitative type with an interpretive strategy that reflects the historical context of the architecture of Iran through a historical-critical approach. The selected case studies include contemporary Iranian architectural compilation works of the 2000s, which include a total of eight books attempting to determine the periodicity of the contemporary Iranian architectural works in various ways.The results of this paper show that historicism evaluated in the architectural works in the 2000s can be classified into six categories. In the study of various types of historicism, it was also found that there have been no compilations of classical historicism. In five works, symbolic historicism, and only in one book, philosophical historicism has been the criterion for determining the periodicity of the contemporary architectural works. There have been no signs of historicism in three works.

    Keywords: Historicism, periodization, Contemporary Iranian Architecture