فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:25 Issue: 7, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/05/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Samaneh Nakhaee, Mahsa Mehrpour*, Bahareh Mortazavi, Stephanie T. Weiss, Omid Mehrpour Page 1
  • Ashraf Mahmoudzadeh, Sam Abbaszadeh, Hamzeh Baharlouei, Abdolkarim Karimi* Page 2
    Background

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) causes some neuroplastic changes in the brain, which result in body perception impairment. The Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire (FreBAQ) is a suggested tool for the diagnosis and evaluation of back perception in people with LBP. The aim of this study is to translate and cross culturally adapt the FreBAQ into Persian language and to assess its reliability and validity in patients with chronic LBP (CLBP). Materialsand

    Methods

    Fifty people with CLBP and fifty healthy people participated in this study. To evaluate the discriminant validity, we assessed the ability of the FreBAQ to discriminate between people with and without LBP. After an interval of 1 week, 25 patients with CLBP completed the questionnaire in the retest session. Data obtained from the first test administration were used for internal consistency and data obtained from repeated testing were used for test–retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed by investigating a correlation between the FreBAQwith the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), Visual Analog Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. In addition, the construct validity of Persian FreBAQ was measured by factor analysis.

    Results

    The test–retest reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.96. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.74 for Persian FreBAQ. The standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change were 0.91 and 2.52, respectively. Construct validity was demonstrated by statistically significant relationship between the Persian FreBAQ and questionnaires of PCS (P < 0.001) and RDQ (P = 0.01).

    Conclusion

    The Persian version of FreBAQ is a valid and reliable measurement tool for evaluating back perception changes in Persian‑speaking patients with LBP

    Keywords: Body image, Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire, Persian, reliability, validity
  • Behnaz Souizi, Rahim Akrami, Fateme Borzoee, Mohammad Sahebkar Page 3
    Background

    This study was aimed at comparing the efficacy of different routes of misoprostol administration, including sublingual, oral, and vaginal, on the induction of medical abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Materials and Methods

    This open‑label, randomized clinical trial study was performed on 172 individuals in three parallel groups of vaginal, sublingual, and oral administration of misoprostol. The participants were randomized using permuted blocks of six. A dose of 600 μg of misoprostol every 6 h (maximum of 4 doses) was administrated to each group. Higham chart and demographic questionnaires were completed by the investigator. Data were analyzed using Stata software version 12.

    Results

    The mean age of the participants was 29.81 ± 6.7 years, and the mean gestational age was 8.45 ± 2.32 weeks. We found a significant difference regarding the abortion success rate and the time interval between the administration of the drug among three groups (P = 0.036 and < 0.001 in turn). There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups in terms of severity and duration of vaginal bleeding until day 7 after induction (P = 0.091 and 0.143, respectively). Furthermore, we found statistically significant differences in some drugs, which induced side effects namely vomiting and headache, between the three groups (P = 0.032 and 0.028 in turn).

    Conclusion

    The findings suggest that vaginal administration of misoprostol is more successful than the sublingual and oral route for complete abortion; vaginal administration of misoprostol is an appropriate alternative to curettage.

    Keywords: Abortion, first, misoprostol, missed, pregnancy trimester
  • Esmaeil Mousavi Asl, Behzad Mahaki, Banafsheh Gharraee, AliAsghar Asgharnejad Farid, Atefeh Shahverdi Shahraki Page 4
    Background

    Metacognitive beliefs play an essential role in the maintenance of binge eating behavior. Examining the psychometric properties of tools in societies with different cultures than western societies can help with examining the external validity of those tools. This research aimed at standardization and validation of the Eating Beliefs Questionnaire (EBQ‑18) in Iran. Materialsand

    Methods

    Persian version of the EBQ‑18 was produced through forward translation, reconciliation, and back translation. A total of 302 non‑WEIRD nonclinical students were selected through convenience sampling method and completed a set of questionnaires, including the EBQ‑18, Eating Attitude Test‑16 (EAT‑16), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale‑16 (DERS‑16), Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire‑Short Form (SF), self‑esteem scale, and self‑compassion scale (SCS) short‑form. The construct validity of the EBQ‑18 was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis and divergent and convergent validity. Internal consistency and test‑retest reliability (2 weeks’interval) were used to evaluate the reliability. Data analysis was performed using LISREL (version 8.8) and SSPS (version 22) softwares.

    Results

    EBQ‑18 and subscales were found to be valid and reliable measures, with high test‑retestreliability and good internal consistency in the nonclinical sample. Cronbrash’s Alpha coefficient, for the whole of scale, negative beliefs scale, Permissive Beliefs scale, and Positive Beliefs scale were gained. 96.,89.,90, and. 94 respectively. Intraclass correlations coefficient, for the whole of scale, negative beliefs scale, Permissive Beliefs scale, and Positive Beliefs scale were gained. 84.,78.,75, and. 87, respectively. In terms of convergent validity, EBQ‑18 and subscales showed a significant positive correlation with selfreport measures of EAT‑16 and DERS‑16 (P < 0.01). EBQ‑18and subscales showed a negative correlation with self‑compassion, self‑esteem, and eating self‑efficacy, thus demonstrated divergent validity with these constructs (P < 0.01). The results showed that three factors of negative beliefs, positive beliefs, andpermissive beliefs had the goodness of fit indices (root mean square error of approximation = 0.08, normed fit index = 0.97, nonnormed fit index = 0.98, comparative fit index = 0.98, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.04). The results of this study support the EBQ‑18 three‑factor model.

    Conclusion

    These findings indicate that the EBQ‑18 is a reliable measure of eating beliefs in the Iranian population. In addition, the study supplements the literature on the cross‑cultural validity of this measure

    Keywords: Eating, factor analysis, psychometric, self‑report
  • Narges Zargar Balajam, Mahdi Shabani, Mahmoud Aghaei*, Mansoureh Haghighi, Farzad Kompani Page 5
    Background

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy with aggressive tumors of immature lymphocytes. T‑cell immunoglobulin and mucin‑domain 3 (TIM‑3) is a Type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is involved in cell proliferation. The objective of this research is to determine the TIM‑3 expression in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of 80 samples of normal and ALL patients.

    Materials and Methods

    The amount of mRNA and protein of TIM‑3 measured in the BM and PB the mononuclear layer of samples by real‑time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.

    Results

    Our findings indicated that relative mRNA expression of TIM‑3 in PB and BM of the mononuclear layer of ALL patients was 1.7 and 5 times higher than normals, respectively. We also reported that the protein level of TIM‑3 in mononuclear cells of ALL patients was 3.2‑fold in BM and two‑fold in PB more than normals.

    Conclusion

    In conclusion, this study shows that TIM‑3 increases in ALL patients, thus the expression of TIM‑3 in tumor cells may be considered as a potential predictive factor in ALL patients, which needs to be explored in future.

    Keywords: Gene expression profiling, precursor cell lymphoblastic leukemia‑lymphoma, real‑time polymerase chain reaction, T‑cell immunoglobulin, mucin‑domain 3
  • Reci Meseri*, Ceren Akanalc Page 6
    Background

    People may develop addiction to hyperpalatable foods, which may be a cause of obesity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity among adolescents and the effect of food addiction on obesity. Materialsand

    Methods

    In this cross‑sectional study, food addiction and obesity status of high school students were investigated. Among 17,000 10th and 11th grade students, assuming the design effect as 2.0, with obesity prevalence of 10%, with 3% error, and 95% confidence interval, at least 752 participants were included. Obesity was the dependent variable, whereas sociodemographic characteristics, body image, eating habits, and food addiction were the independent variables. Food addiction was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Obesity was determined by age‑ and sex‑specific body mass index (BMI) percentiles for adolescents < 18 years of age and BMI ≥ 30.0 for those aged ≥ 18. Data were collected through face‑to‑face interviews. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 25.0. After adjustment for age, sex, and other variables, the effect of food addiction on obesity was determined through logistic regression. P <0.05 was deemed statistically significant.

    Results

    Among adolescents (n = 874), 18.9% were food addict, 25.1% were overweight, and 12.1% were obese. After adjusted for age, sex, and other variables, food addiction significantly increased the risk of obesity (odds ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.167–3.335). Having a fragmented family, working mother, overweight father, and participants not knowing their weight correctly significantly increased obesity.

    Conclusion

    While quarter of the adolescents had weight problems, one‑fifth suffered from food addiction. After adjusting for confounders, food addiction significantly increased obesity. Identifying individuals with food addiction, providing treatment to overcome that, paying special attention to adolescents with obese parents or living in fragmented families, and providing support to both parents and adolescents could be useful in tackling obesity

    Keywords: Adolescents, food addiction, obesity, student
  • Junwu Wang, Wensu Yu, Na Wu, Elaine N Gitonga, Haitao Shen* Page 7
    Background

    Paraquat (PQ) poisoning is characterized by rapidly progressive acute poisoning with high mortality and no specific antidote. Although some clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the benefits of high‑dose ambroxol as an adjuvant treatment for PQ poisoning, the efficacy is controversial. Materialsand

    Methods

    After searching for relevant articles in English and Chinese databases from 1978 to 2019 according to the keywords (paraquat poisoning/methy viologen/gramoxone, and ambroxol/mucosolvan/Bromhexine), we found seven articles that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. A meta‑analysis was performed using fixed‑effects model and random‑effects model according to the I2 value in Stata software (version 15.0). Four outcome indicators (hospital mortality, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), and survival time of the deceased patients) were of interest to us.

    Results

    The meta‑analysis showed that adjuvant treatment with high doses of ambroxol increased PaO2 (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 13.73 [mmHg], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.68–18.79, Z = 11.80, P < 0.001), PaO2/FiO2 (WMD = 38.81 [mmHg], 95% CI: 29.85–47.76, Z = 8.49, P = 0.000), and survival time of the deceased patients (WMD = 2.58 [d], 95% CI: 0.97–4.18, Z = 3.15, P = 0.002) compared with usual treatment. Treatment with high doses of ambroxol also appeared to reduce the hospital mortality (relative risk = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.55–0.86, Z = 3.25,P = 0.001).

    Conclusion

    This study found that high‑dose ambroxol is an effective therapy for PQ poisoning and may reduce the in‑hospital mortality.

    Keywords: High‑dose ambroxol, meta‑analysis, paraquat poisoning
  • Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava Page 9