فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Maryam Chehrehgosha* Pages 1-3
  • Abolfazl Jafari-Sales*, Homeira Khaneshpour, Mehrdad Pashazadeh, Rozita Nasiri Pages 4-10

    On December 31, 2019, the Wuhan-China Health Commission reported a case of pneumonia in the city. The first symptoms began in mid-December 2019. Clinically isolated specimens identified the coronavirus as the cause of the disease. It was first shown as 2019-nCoV, and as the number of victims of the coronavirus crossed the border of thousands of people, the World Health Organization chose the official name COVID-19 for its illness. Although it appears to be of animal origin, it is rapidly transmitting from person to person around the world. The World Health Organization released a statement calling the outbreak of the new Corona virus a Public Health Emergency Situations that poses a threat to the whole world, not just China. In this study highlights how the virus is transmitted, the clinical signs, the laboratory characteristics, the pathogenicity of the virus, Vaccines, and the prevention and control of the spread of the virus.

    Keywords: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, COVID-19, Pandemic
  • Sakine Beygom Kazemi, Mehrnoosh Jafari*, Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini, Ali Maher, Mohammad Karim Bahadori Pages 11-23
    Background and Purpose

    One of the important and common applications of telemedicine is the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. However, teledermatology requires further commitments to provide standard services and appropriate electronic data transfer for reliable diagnostics to comply with technical standards and legal requirements. The present study aimed to determine the factors affecting the establishment of Teledermatology in the qualitative and quantitative sections .

    Methodology

    A mixed-method study (including quantitative and qualitative sections) was conducted in 2018. In the qualitative section, experts were selected by purposive sampling and the data were collected through 2 focus group discussions and 6 semi-structured interviews. The content of sessions and interviews were transcribed and then analyzed by the content analysis method. In the quantitative section, 384 participants were selected randomly. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability were confirmed. Data analyses were performed in SPSS.

    Results

    A total of 8 categories and 58 subcategories were extracted. The 8 categories of the factors affecting the establishment of teledermatology in Iran included service provider, service recipient, structural, technological, economic, policymaking, legal, and cultural. Cultural factors (3.95±0.77) and policymaking factors (3.22±0.84), respectively, had the highest and the lowest effects on the establishment of teledermatology in Iran.

    Conclusion

    Factors affecting the establishment of Teledermatology are diverse and extensive, which the most effective factors were cultural factors, technological factors and factors related to service providers. These findings can help the policymakers and managers interested in the establishment of teledermatology in Iran.

    Keywords: Telemedicine, Teledermatology, Mixed methods study
  • Sayede Shadi Nazari, Solmaz Norouzi*, Mohammad Asghari Jafar-Abadi Pages 24-33
    Background and objective

    Prevalence and the spread of novel Coronavirus (2019-ncov) cause significant life and financial destruction worldwide and is the cause of severe respiratory infection in humans. The present study briefly reviews the latest information on how the virus is distributed around the world. The main question of the study are: 1- In which geographic regions of the world is the Coronavirus more concentrated? 2- Is the distribution of the Coronavirus geographically stable?

    Methods

    To answer these questions, we first began collecting and studying the available scientific resources. The required data was obtained from a daily report of confirmed, recovered, and deaths by the Coronavirus separated by state which was collected from January 22, 2020 to Jun 19, 2020. Based on analyzing available patterns in spatial statistics tool in ArcGIS and geostatistical models, we examined how the Coronavirus was distributed around the world.

    Results

    The spread of the disease is increasing all over the world. Using the results of Map 1, it is seen that the spread of Corona virus has a trend and starts in China and then spreads to the Middle East, Europe and the United States in a linear manner. The results also show that the prevalence of mortality is higher than that of recovery. Central mean and median for all types (Confirmed, Recovered and death) are close to each other. Death mean and median was close to Western countries and Recovered mean and median was close to Eastern countries, while confirmed mean and median was located in the center.

    Conclusion

    Based on spatial statistics tool in ArcGIS and geostatistical models, we examined how the Coronavirus was distributed around the world. Our results showed that the spread of Corona virus had a trend and started in China and then spread to the Middle East, Europe and the United States in a likely linear manner.

    Keywords: Corona Virus, ArcGIS, descriptive study
  • Roghieh Golsha, Nona Gorgitabar, Behnaz Khodabakhshi, Abdullah Abbasi, Hamed Kalani* Pages 34-40
    Background and objective

    Currently, due to an increase in the number of individuals with immune deficiency, long-term chemotherapy, and underlying diseases, an appropriate situation has been provided for the development of opportunistic infections, including fungal infections. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and the treatment outcome of mucormycosis in diabetic individuals.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional retrospective study, all recorded cases of mucormycosis in the health centers of Gorgan city, northeast of Iran, in diabetic individuals were extracted during 15 years from 2002 to 2016. All information was extracted from patient-related records and then was analyzed. In the period from 2002 to 2016, 12 diabetic individuals with mucormycosis were referred to health centers.

    Results

    There were statistically significant differences in the categories of sex, residence, education, taking drug, addiction, diabetes status, methods of diagnosis, involved area with mucormycosis, treatment type of mucormycosis, and treatment outcome of mucormycosis. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was observed in the categories of age, underlying diseases (other than diabetes), hospitalization, and diagnostic time.

    Conclusion

    Due to the rareness or lack of an appropriate diagnostic method, and in addition, due to lack of an appropriate treatment, attention should be paid to invasive mucormycosis in individuals with immunodeficiency.

    Keywords: diabetes, gorgan, Iran, mucormycosis
  • Eraj Baghery Nasab Najaf Abad, Ali Khajehlandi*, Amin Mohammadi Pages 41-50
    Background and objective

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease that leads to increased levels of lipids, therefore the present study aimed to investigate the effect of eight weeks of aerobic training(AT) with silymarin (S)consumption on lipid profile in men with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods

    60 middle-aged male volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups, including: (1) control(C) + placebo, (2) AT + placebo, (3) S consumption and (4) AT+S consumption. The AT groups performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week and 20-45 minutes per session at an intensity of 60 to 85% of the reserve heart rate, and the S groups of consumed 140 mg / kg of S daily (in two meals).  Serum levels of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Cholesterol (CHO), and Triglyceride (TG) were measured before and after the test. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test, and P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

    Results

    AT reduced serum levels of LDL, CHO, TG and increased HDL in men with T2D(P ≥ 0.05). Consumption of S reduced LDL, CHO, TG and increased HDL in men with T2D(P ≥ 0.05). AT and S consumption reduced LDL, CHO, TG and increased HDL; also, decrease in LDL, CHO, TG and increase in HDL in the AT and S consumption group was more favorable than the effect of S alone (P ≥ 0.05).

    Conclusion

    It seems that AT and S consumption simultaneously have interactive effects on reducing LDL, CHO, TG and increasing HDL in men with T2D.

    Keywords: Aerobic training, Silymarin, Cardiovascular risk Factors, Type 2 Diabetes
  • Farideh Kaikhosravi, Farhad Daryanoosh*, Maryam Koushkie Jahromi, Javad Nemati Pages 51-59
    Background and objective

    Proper exercise and nutrition can help prevent bone disorders in old age, therefore present study aimed to investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) with genistein (Ge) on biomechanical properties of femur bone in elderly female rats.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, 40 elderly female rats with mean age of 18- 24 months and mean weight of 220.15±15.28 g were divided into five groups of eight rats including: 1) control (C), 2) sham (Sh), 3) HIIT, 4) HIIT + Ge, and 5) Ge. During eight weeks groups 3 and 4 performed HIIT for three sessions per week with an intensity of 90 to 95% of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) in high intensity intervals and 40 to 45% VO2max in low intensity intervals and groups 4 and 5 received 60 mg/kg/day Ge peritoneally. Maximum bending strength (Fmax) measured with three- point bending test and serum levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus were measured by o-Cresolphthalein and molybdate methods, respectively. Shapiro- Wilk, one way ANOVA with Tukey’s post- hoc tests were used for analysis of data (P≤0.05).

    Results

    HIIT (P=0.02), Ge (P=0.001) and HIIT+Ge (P=0.001) significantly increased Fmax also Ge (P=0.04) and HIIT+Ge (P=0.03) had more favorable effect on increasing Fmax compare to HIIT nevertheless HIIT, Ge and HIIT+Ge had not significant effect on Ca and phosphorus (P≥0.05).

    Conclusion

    Although HIIT and Ge alone can enhance Fmax in femur of elderly female rats, nevertheless HIIT+Ge has more favorable effect on increase of Fmax compare to HIIT.

    Keywords: Exercise, Genistein, Biomechanical, Properties, Femur
  • Omid Mozafari, Aioub Sofizadeh*, Hamid Reza Shoraka, Javad Namrodi, Ehsan Allah Kalteh Pages 60-78
    Background and objective

    zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is one of the most important health problems in Golestan Province, northeastern Iran. Several studies have investigated various aspects of the disease in this province. Herein, we provide a detailed review of the results of all studies related to leishmaniasis to give a reliable insight into the state of the disease in this province.

    Methods

    The search for articles was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science without language restriction until the beginning of 2019.  Articles in Persian were retrieved from the Magiran, Scientific Information Database, and IranMedex. Overall, 41 articles were subjected to content analysis under the different themes.

    Results

    Counties of Gonbad-e-Kavus and Maraveh Tappeh are endemic areas of ZCL with an incidence rate 99.4-379.1 in 100000 population and has mesoendemic situation in these counties. Leishmania major is the dominant (99.1%) agent of leishmaniasis. Among 18 sandflies species detected in the province, Phlebotomus papatasi was the main vector of the disease with a mean infection rate of 9.2%. Peak of sandflies activity was recorded in the mid-July and mid-September. Rhombomys opimus and Meriones libycus were the main reservoirs of this disease with a mean infection rate of 25.3 and 31.8%. The density of sandflies and wild rodents were highest in the endemic areas for ZCL.

    Conclusion

    In Golestan Province, ZCL has been in a hypoendemic situation and in some areas in a mesoendemic situation and has increased significantly in recent years, so it is recommended to investigate the reasons for this increase.

    Keywords: cutaneous leishmaniasis, sand fly, wild rodents, Golestan