فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 170 (تابستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/07/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • محمدابراهیم مظهری*، فاطمه پودات، علی حسینی صفحات 3-14

    روستا، نوعی دیرین از سکونتگاه های بشری است که مامن الگوی بومی سکونت بشر و شیوه های بدیع سازگاری با محیط است. روستاییان خالق مناظر فرهنگی بی بدیل هستند، مناظری که میراثی ماندگار برای نسل های آینده اند. به همین دلیل شناخت الگوهای غالب در مناظر روستایی همواره موردتوجه پژوهشگران بوده است. سازمان فضایی زیستگاه های انسانی را نتیجه ی مستقیم فرایندهای اجتماعی، اقتصادی، سیاسی و نهادی می دانند. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی الگوی فضایی و پیکربندی کالبد روستایی و واکاوی تاثیر سبک زندگی و معیشت روستاییان در شکل گیری آن با مطالعه و قیاس دو روستا در جنوب غربی ایران می باشد. روستاهای موردمطالعه، روستای شلحه امام حسن در شهرستان آبادان، در امتداد رودخانه جزرومدی اروند و روستای حدبه ی خنافره در شهرستان شادگان در جوار تالاب شادگان می باشند که دارای محیط فرهنگی مشابه لیکن از نظر نوع معیشت متفاوت اند. روش این پژوهش از نوع مدل سازی و مطالعه موردی و با استفاده از سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) می باشد. با استفاده از سنجه های سیمای سرزمین در دو مقیاس منظر و بافت، الگوی فضایی روستاهای موردمطالعه کمی و مورد تجزیه وتحلیل هندسی قرار گرفت. مطالعه و قیاس نتایج حاکی از وجود تفاوت هایی در الگوی فضایی و پیکربندی کالبد روستا به رغم محیط فرهنگی و بستر اجتماعی مشابه هر دو روستا است. تجربه حاضر نشان داد که عوامل فرهنگی اجتماعی اگرچه در مقیاس مسکن بسیار تاثیرگذارند، اما در مقیاس منظر آنچه بیشتر می تواند نظام فضایی و الگوی سکونتگاه روستایی را تعیین کند، ظرفیت بهره برداری معیشتی از بستر جغرافیایی است. با توجه به ریشه های اقتصادی شکل گیری الگوی منحصربه فرد کالبد هر دو روستا، هرگونه تغییر در معیشت یا طبیعت مورد بهره برداری معیشتی روستاییان می تواند منجر به تغییر در ساخت و الگوی کالبد روستاهای موردمطالعه شود و تبعاتی چون آسیب های اجتماعی و مهاجرت به دنبال داشته باشد. این مهم، ضرورت شناخت الگوی فضایی سکونتگاه را پیش از هرگونه سیاست گذاری جدید و طرح های توسعه ای در سطح روستاها و یا در سطوح کلان و تاثیرگذار بر بستر جغرافیایی روشن می سازد.

    کلیدواژگان: سکونتگاه روستایی، پیکربندی فضایی، الگو، شلحه امام حسن، حدبه ی خنافره
  • اسفندیار زبردست، محمدمهدی عزیزی، الناز باقرنژاد* صفحات 15-28

    درک فرم شهری تاب آور بسیار مهم و ضروری است زیرا در فرایند برنامه ریزی شهری، مصرف منابع، پویایی و حتی حیات شهر پس از مواجهه با سانحه تحت تاثیر تصمیمات پیشین در زمینه ساختار کالبدی شهرها است. فرم شهری به عنوان ساختار شهر بر فروپاشی و یا پایایی سیستم شهری در برابر سوانح می تواند تاثیر بگذارد. ازسوی دیگر، فرم شهری به مثابه نمود فضایی و کالبدی فعالیت های انسانی، بستر و زمینه ای برای ابعاد مختلف اجتماعی، اقتصادی، زیست محیطی تاب آوری است. با وجود تاثیر فرم شهری بر تاب‏آوری، فرم شهری تاب آور همچنان به عنوان یک موضوع اکتشاف نشده تاب آوری شهری است. در این پژوهش با تکیه بر ویژگی های شهر تاب آور، ویژگی های فرم تاب آور همچون استحکام، تنوع، ارتباطی، کارآمدی، افزونگی و مدولاریتی معرفی شده است. سپس با هدف شناسایی مولفه های فرم شهری که ویژگی تاب آوری را دارند، ارتباط معنی دار شاخص ها و مولفه های فرم شهری با تاب آوری و ابعاد آن تبیین شده است. برای این کار، در این پژوهش با انتخاب محلات کلان شهر تهران به عنوان محدوده موردمطالعه (368 محله)، پس از تعیین و سنجش ابعاد تاب آوری و مولفه های فرم شهری با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی، از تحلیل رگراسیونی جهت تبیین ارتباط میان مولفه های فرم شهری و تاب آوری و ابعاد آن استفاده شده است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که مولفه های مختلف فرم شهری بر عوامل مختلف تاب آوری تاثیر متفاوت گذاشته و در برخی موارد، رفتار متضادی بر مولفه های تاب آوری داشته اند. در میان ابعاد تاب آوری، تاب آوری جامعه ای هیچ تاثیری از مولفه های فرم شهری نمی گیرد. بیشترین ارتباط میان مولفه متراکم بودن با تاب آوری زیرساختی مشاهده شده است. بعد اجتماعی و تاب آوری کل بیشترین ارتباط را با مولفه دسترسی به قطعات داشته اند. درمجموع ارتباط مستقیم مولفه های دسترسی به حمل ونقل عمومی و دسترسی به قطعات و ارتباط معکوس مولفه های دسترسی به مراکز تجاری و میزان فضای باز و سبز با تاب آوری و ابعاد آن، نشان از تاثیر مولفه های فرم شهری بر افزایش یا کاهش تاب آوری در برابر سوانح دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: تاب آوری، فرم شهری، فرم شهری تاب آور، تحلیل رگراسیونی، کلان شهر تهران
  • سید فرزین فائزی*، حسن زارع زاده صفحات 29-40

    تقویت و توسعه بخش مسکن روستایی و ارایه خدمات فنی و مهندسی باعث بهبود ارتقای کیفیت زندگی، ایجاد اشتغال پایدار، توسعه روستا و تنوع بخشیدن به اقتصاد روستا، افزایش درآمدها و کاهش فقر و درنتیجه محرومیت زدایی شده است. همچنین لزوم ساخت مقاوم و امن در مقابل خطرات حوادث طبیعی ضرورت تشکیل یک نظام کنترلی، اصولی و فنی در ساخت وسازهای روستایی ضروری می‏باشد. هدف اصلی این تحقیق، ارزیابی عوامل موثر بر عملکرد نظام فنی و مهندسی بنیاد مسکن در روستاهای شهرستان مهریز می‏باشد. روش تحقیق، از نظر هدف کاربردی، از لحاظ روش انجام تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی می‏باشد. گردآوری اطلاعات موردنیاز به شیوه میدانی انجام شد و به منظور جمع آوری اطلاعات موردنیاز از ابزار مصاحبه، مشاهده و پرسش نامه استفاده شد. پرسش‏نامه‏ای توسط محقق با توجه به اهداف پژوهش تهیه شد. پرسش‏نامه از سوالات بسته با پاسخ‏های در طیف لیکرت پنج مقیاسی تشکیل شده، که سوالات آن در جهت برآورد نیاز محقق تعریف شدهاند. به منظور سنجش اعتبار درونی، ابتدا از روش اعتبار محتوا برای افزایش اعتبار پرسش‏نامه استفاده شده است به منظور سنجش پایایی ابزار تحقیق از آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد. جامعه آماری این تحقیق شامل سرپرست خانوار، دهیاری و شورای اسلامی روستا، مدیران و کارشناسان بنیاد مسکن انقلاب اسلامی، مدیران و کارشناسان بخشداری و فرمانداری شهرستان و مدیران و کارشناسان امور روستایی استانداری را در برگفته‏اند. از آمار توصیفی برای خلاصه سازی نتایج پیمایش، از آزمون کای اسکویر برای آزمون فرضیه‏ ها، از آزمون فریدمن و t برای اولویت‏بندی متغیرها در محیط نرم‏افزار آماری اس‏پی‏اس‏اس استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان دادند که عوامل موثر بر عملکرد نظام فنی و مهندسی بنیاد مسکن در سه شاخص خلاصه شدند به ترتیب 1- مهم ترین عامل از شاخص نیروی انسانی، تعامل مناسب بین کارکنان در جهت پیشبرد کار ارباب رجوع، 2- مهم ترین عامل از شاخص مالی و اقتصادی، اختصاص اعتبار مناسب برای ساخت، 3- مهم ترین عامل از شاخص کارگاهی و تجهیزاتی، استفاده از مصالح نوین، پیش ساخته، بادوام و باکیفیت برای اجرای پروژه‏های روستایی، می‏باشند.

    کلیدواژگان: مسکن روستایی، مقاوم سازی، پرسش نامه، بنیاد مسکن، شهرستان مهریز
  • علی فرنام* صفحات 41-52

    انگاشت مناطق شهری چندمرکزی در دو دهه اخیر در زمره سیاست های برنامه ریزی فضایی بسیاری از کشورها قرار گرفته است. در تعریفی موجز، منطقه شهری چندمرکزی1 عبارت است از دو یا چند شهر نزدیک، مستقل با ساختار ارتباطات شهری متقابل غیرسلسله مراتبی که ظرفیت و توان ناشی از همکاری بین آن ها فراتر از حاصل جمع تک تک شهرهاست و در عین بهره مندی از مزایا و صرفه های تجمع و مقیاس، اندازه بازار؛ مشکلات ازدحام و تراکم مناطق متمرکز شهری را نیز ندارند. در این مقاله خاستگاه نظری و پیشینه، سیر تکامل موضوع تبیین و با بررسی پژوهش های کاربردی کشورهای مختلف، گسترش و بسط موضوع در دهه اخیر تصویر گردید.ازآنجایی که انگاشت چندمرکزیت مبتنی بر شناسایی الگویی از توسعه منطقه ای در مناطق شهری اروپای غربی پدید آمده است، ضمن پرداختن اجمالی به نمونه های شاخص و شناخته شده ازجمله رانشتاد هلند، راین - رور آلمان، فلمیش دیاموند بلژیک؛ ویژگی های متمایز آن ها، مزیت ها و نقدهای مترتب بر رویکرد منطقه شهری چندمرکزی تبیین گردیده است.مبتنی بر مبانی نظری و مقایسه نظریات گوناگون مورد وفاق و پژوهش های کاربست موضوع در کشورهای مختلف و با بهره گیری از یافته های بررسی نمونه های شاخص؛ تعریف پیشنهادی و معیارهای اصلی انگاشت منطقه شهری چندمرکزی ارایه گردید و به منظور تطابق با زمینه و بستر و مناسبات فضایی ایران، جایگاه این انگاشت در ارتباط با نظام برنامه ریزی فضایی کشور تحلیل و برهمین اساس، پنج تفاوت مهم زمینه ای که در کاربست این انگاشت در ایران باید مدنظر قرار گیرد، نمایان شد. نظر به خلا موجود در برخورد با مصادیق انگاشت و هم سویی با رویکردهای موردپذیرش و وفاق کشور در توسعه منطقه ای، تمرکززدایی از کلان شهرها و مناطق کلان شهری، حمایت از شهرهای کوچک و میانی و افزایش رقابت پذیری بین شهرها؛ با توجه به ظرفیت قانونی مصوبه تعریف مجموعه های شهری و شاخص های تبیین آن، گنجاندن این انگاشت در این مصوبه از طریق شورای عالی شهرسازی و معماری ایران پیشنهاد گردید.

    کلیدواژگان: مناطق شهری چندمرکزی، چندمرکزیت، مجموعه های شهری
  • سعید ستارنژاد*، کریم حاجی زاده، رضا رضالو، اسماعیل معروفی اقدم صفحات 53-66

    فضاهای دستکند گونه خاصی از معماری است که در آن مصالحی برای تولید فضا استفاده نمی شود و با کاست توده های صخره ای توسط انسان از بستر زمین و صخره، فضا ایجاد می شود. در مناطق مختلفی از کشور تاکنون شمار زیادی از فضاهای دستکند شناسایی و معرفی شده است. شهرستان مراغه واقع در دامنه های جنوبی کوهستان سهند یکی از مناطق مستعد برای این گونه معماری می باشد. براساس پیمایش میدانی مشخص شد در محدوده شهرستان مراغه فضاهای دستکند متنوعی باقی مانده است؛ که بررسی و مستندنگاری آن ها ارزشمند می باشد و علاوه براین، نتایج این پژوهش می تواند الگوی مطالعات بعدی آثار معماری دستکند سایر روستاهای دامنه کوهستان سهند گردد. بررسی ها نشان می دهد با وجود تنوع و تعداد نسبتا زیاد فضاهای دستکند صخره ای در برخی از روستاهای این منطقه، تاکنون مطالعات کاملی در مورد آن ها صورت نگرفته است؛ بنابراین فضاهای دستکند این منطقه کمتر شناخته شده و اقدامی جهت ثبت این آثار فاخر در فهرست آثار ملی کشور نشده است؛ برهمین اساس این پژوهش ضمن شناسایی، معرفی و تبیین ویژگی های فضاهای دستکند این منطقه، به عامل شکل گیری این فضاهای معماری نیز پرداخته است؛ بنابراین در کنار روش میدانی جهت ثبت، ضبط و توضیح وضعیت کنونی، از مطالعات اسنادی و براساس روش توصیفی - تحلیلی، برای شناخت عامل شکل گیری معماری دستکند شهرستان مراغه استفاده شده است؛ همچنین از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS) نیز برای شناخت الگوی توزیع فضاهای دستکند روستاهای مراغه بهره گرفته شد.نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که آثار دستکند روستاهای مراغه براساس ریخت شناسی در قالب های سطحی و زیرسطحی قابل دسته بندی هستند؛ همچنین ازلحاظ گونه شناختی و تقسیم بندی ماهیت کاربری دارای استفاده های مختلفی، از قبیل الف) سکونتگاهی، ب) آیینی - مذهبی، ج) استحفاظی، د) عام المنفعه است. هم اکنون بسیاری از این فضاهای دستکند صخره ای دچار ویرانی شده و کاربری اولیه خود را از دست داده اند و بیشتر در قالب فضاهای انباری و نگهداری احشام مورداستفاده قرار می گیرند.

    کلیدواژگان: شهرستان مراغه، معماری دستکند، عامل شکل گیری، طبقه بندی
  • مظفر عباس زاده*، حمید بهجت صفحات 67-82

    میراث روستایی شامل معماری و چشم اندازهای ویژه آن است؛ ساختار معماری سکونتگاه های روستایی برآیند مجموعه فعالیت های انسان در ارتباط با محیط طبیعی و فرهنگی بشمار می آیند. بطوریکه مصداق های خوب این گونه از معماری را می توان در معماری بومی مشاهده نمود که عمده ترین عنصر تشکیل دهنده بافت روستایی است؛ سازمان فضایی، نحوه استقرار و ساختار کالبدی آن بیانگر کیفیت استفاده از محیط، تاثیر اقتصاد، سنت ها و فرهنگ حاکم بر جامعه روستایی می باشد که پس از سالها آزمون وخطا، راهبردها، راه کارها، روش ها، الگوها و سرمشق های خود را منطبق با نیازهای مادی و معنوی مردم و محیط و فعالیت های روزمره آنان یافته است که می تواند به عنوان الگویی جهت برنامه ریزی و طراحی نمونه های جدید به کار گرفته شود. جلگه ارومیه به واسطه شرایط طبیعی از هزاران سال گذشته مسکون بوده و ساختار فضایی-کالبدی روستاهای واقع در آن نشان از اهمیت و غنای فرهنگی است و ارزش های معماری خانه های روستایی برجا مانده از گذشته آن نیز قابل توجه می باشد، که دراین ارتباط روستای سپورغان به واسطه وجود بقایای بافت سنتی و معماری خانه های تاریخی و سنتی؛ نمونه بارزی می باشد. این تحقیق باهدف شناخت جامع از سازمان کالبدی - فضایی خانه های تاریخی و سنتی روستای سپورغان شهرستان ارومیه به بررسی مجموعه ویژگی های روستا و معماری خانه های تاریخی و سنتی پرداخته است. داده های پژوهش به واسطه مطالعات کتابخانه ای و برداشت های میدانی حاصل شده که به روش توصیفی و تحلیلی موردبررسی قرارگرفته است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که در ساختار کالبدی - فضایی اعم از سازمان دهی فضاها، فن آوری ساخت، مصالح به کاررفته و همچنین جهت گیری خانه های روستا علاوه بر شرایط اقلیمی حاکم بر منطقه؛ متاثر از مسایل فرهنگی، سنت های محلی، باورهای دینی و مقتضیات اقتصادی است. به طوری که تمام بناهای موجود سمت گیری شرقی-غربی دارند و نورگیرها به سمت شرق و یا غرب می باشد. مجموعه این ویژگی ها ساختاری متفاوت نسبت به سایر گونه های مشابه در شهرستان ارومیه به وجود آورده است؛ که امروزه به واسطه مداخلات متعددی که صورت گرفته بسیاری از نمونه ها تخریب و از بین رفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: گونه شناسی، معماری سنتی، روستا، روستای سپورغان، ارومیه
  • میترا حبیبی، مهسا قانع* صفحات 83-98

    یکی از مهم ترین اهداف حرفه شهرسازی در سال های اخیر، تعدیل مشکلات اقتصادی، اجتماعی- فرهنگی و کالبدی بافت های فرسوده شهرهای کشور می باشد. با توجه به مطالعات نظری و تجارب جهانی، بازآفرینی فرهنگ مبنا به عنوان رویکردی جامع و اجرایی با قابلیت بهره وری از مشارکت نوآورانه ساکنان، در دستور کار پژوهش های متعددی قرار گرفته است. همچنین از استراتژی های نوین توسعه مجدد شهری می توان به محرک های توسعه که منجر به راه اندازی و هدایت توسعه در بافت های فرسوده شهری می گردند، اشاره داشت. ازجمله اهداف اصلی پروژه های محرک توسعه، دستیابی به بازآفرینی شهری است، رویکردی که به عنوان یک راهبرد جامع، برای ایجاد تغییر در یک مکان با نشانه های زوال به کار می رود. ازاین رو پژوهش حاضر، امکان سنجی قابلیت های استفاده از هنر عمومی به عنوان محرک توسعه در بازآفرینی بافت فرسوده را به عنوان هدف اصلی برگزیده است و سعی گردیده به موضوعاتی همچون شناسایی مولفه های هنر عمومی، میزان تاثیرگذاری آن ها و همچنین امکان سنجی استفاده از هنر عمومی در محله موردمطالعه پاسخ داده شود. این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی- توصیفی و با رویکرد کمی در محله «چهارراه مازندران شهر سمنان» با جمعیت 5504 نفر صورت گرفته است. جهت جمع آوری اطلاعات نیز با تدارک نمونه تصادفی 384 نفری (با استفاده از فرمول کوکران) و توزیع پرسشنامه از روش آماری تحلیل مدل عاملی تاییدی مرتبه دوم استفاده گردیده و با نرم افزار لیزرل تحلیل شده است. نتایج این پژوهش بیانگر این است که از بین مولفه های بررسی شده به ترتیب: هنر منظر (مبلمان و فضای سبز)، هنر معماری (موزه، چایخانه، سفره خانه و آموزشگاه)، هنر زنده (نمایش خیابانی، مسابقات، نمایشگاه، اسکان هنرمندان و جشنواره)، هنر دیجیتالی (نورپردازی، صداگذاری و نمایش فیلم)، هنر نقاشی (نقاشی دیواری، گرافیتی، موزاییکی و کنده کاری) و هنر مجسمه سازی (المان، مجسمه و یادبود)، از میان گونه های متعدد هنر عمومی در محله موردمطالعه از ظرفیت و قابلیت استفاده بیشتری جهت توسعه و بازآفرینی بافت فرسوده برخوردار بوده است. در این پژوهش نهایتا علاوه بر امکان سنجی گونه های مختلف هنر عمومی، مکان گزینی مناسب جهت استقرار آن ها ارایه گردیده که می تواند الگوی مناسبی برای بسط هنر عمومی جهت بازآفرینی بافت های فرسوده برای سایر مطالعات باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: بازآفرینی، بازآفرینی فرهنگ مبنا، محرک توسعه، هنر عمومی، محله چهارراه مازندران
  • اکبر شریفی نیا* صفحات 99-110

    انسان همواره به دنبال رفع نیازهای خود، متناسب با توانمندی های محیطی است. اندیشه استفاده از این توانمندی ها، نشان دهنده تلاش انسان ها درزمینه انطباق با شرایط محیطی و استفاده حداکثری از آن ها با خلق آثار معماری گوناگون است. آسیاب آبی یکی از گونه های مختلف معماری ایرانی است که ارتباط مستقیمی با زندگی اجتماعی و اقتصادی ساکنان گذشته این سرزمین و به ویژه روستاییان دارد. در این پژوهش درنتیجه مطالعات بررسی و شناسایی باستان شناسی، 14 باب از آسیاب های آبی پراکنده در روستاهای شهرستان دره شهر با هدف مستندنگاری و مطالعه این آثار در شهرستان دره شهر و درک درستی از ساختار معماری و دیگر ابعاد اجتماعی و اقتصادی آن ها شناسایی و موردمطالعه قرارگرفته است. براین اساس و برای نیل به چنین مقصودی، سوالات پژوهش عبارتند از؛1: ساختار معماری و اجزای سازنده آسیاب های آبی شهرستان دره شهر چه بوده است؟2: آسیاب های آبی شهرستان دره شهر از کدام گونه آسیاب های آبی شناخته شده در ایران است؟3: اداره آسیاب های آبی چگونه و توسط چه کسانی صورت گرفته است؟4: الگوی پراکندگی آسیاب های آبی دره شهر، متاثر از کدام عوامل یا عامل محیطی بوده است؟ برآیند پژوهش نشان می دهد، آسیاب های آبی شهرستان دره شهر از نوع آسیاب های تنوره ای و الگوی پراکندگی آن ها به طور مستقیم وابسته به مسیر رودخانه هایی است که از کوه کبیرکوه سرچشمه می گیرند. ساختار معماری این آسیاب ها شامل؛ تنوره، توره، بلسکه، مزگیو، پره پره، کینه میخ، سنگ میره(مهره)، خو، چقچقه، سرسویل، سردوللون، سنگ های آسیاب، ژیرشو و محل استراحت است. مدیریت و نظارت بر این آسیاب ها که برخی از آن ها را افراد متمول روستاها صاحب بودند به ترتیب بر عهده اشخاصی بنام های؛ اوستا آسیاو، لوینه و میشه کونه بوده و تامین دستمزد آن ها به صورت برداشت آرد غلات چون، دریافت 1 من از 20 یا 10 من محصول وارداتی به آسیاب ها توسط لوینه، برداشت یک کاسه تا 1من آرد از گندم آسیاب شده توسط شخص میشه کونه و یا اجاره دادن این آسیاب ها در ازای 5 خلوار گندم یا جو بوده است. این پژوهش با روش توصیفی - تحلیلی و اطلاعات آن براساس مطالعات میدانی و کتابخانه به سرانجام رسیده است.

    کلیدواژگان: دره شهر، آسیاب های آبی، معماری، شیوه اداره، الگوی پراکندگی
  • زهرا شریفی نیا* صفحات 111-123

    در سال های اخیر طرح های هادی روستایی در کشور به منظور بهبود کیفیت سرزندگی در مناطق روستایی اجرا می شود، بنابراین ارتقا و بهبود سطح کیفیت سرزندگی روستاییان به عنوان هدف اصلی اجرای برنامه های توسعه روستایی و از مهم ترین آن ها یعنی طرح های هادی به عنوان موردی ترین طرح های توسعه محلی است. در این راستا نیاز بود که پس از گذشت چند سال از اجرای طرح های هادی، ارزشیابی لازم انجام شود، تا از یک سو پیامدهای اجرای طرح بر تغییرات سطح کیفیت سرزندگی روستاییان مشخص گردد و از سویی دیگر با شناسایی نقاط قوت و ضعف، اطلاعات لازم برای مدیریت بهتر طرح های یادشده جهت ارتقای مطلوب سطح کیفیت سرزندگی روستاییان حاصل آید. هدف این تحقیق تحلیل ساختاری- کارکردی طرح های هادی روستایی در ارتقای کیفیت سرزندگی روستاییان در دهستان پنج هزاره بخش مرکزی شهرستان بهشهر است. در تحقیق حاضر با روش  توصیفی- تحلیلی و برداشت های اسنادی و میدانی اطلاعات لازم گردآوری گردیده است. جامعه آماری شامل 9 روستا در دهستان پنج هزاره است، که چندین سال از اجرای طرح در آن ها می گذرد و با استفاده از فرمول کوکران و با خطای 07/0 تعداد 186 نفر به عنوان نمونه آماری انتخاب گردید. برای تحلیل داده ها از آمار توصیفی و استنباطی (کای اسکویر، t  تک نمونه ای، همبستگی و تحلیل واریانس) و مدل وایکور استفاده شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که کارکرد اجرای طرح های هادی روستایی، زمینه تغییراتی را در ابعاد مختلف کیفیت سرزندگی شامل ابعاد اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی، زیست محیطی، زیرساختی و کالبدی فراهم کرده است، که تغییر و تحولات در شاخص های فرهنگی و کالبدی نسبت به دیگر شاخص بیش تر بوده است. همچنین یافته های مدل وایکور نشان می دهد که روستای پاسند با میزان (0) به دلیل نزدیکی به مرکزیت دهستان و دسترسی به خدمات دارای بالاترین رتبه و روستای چالکده با میزان (983/0) به دلیل فاصله زیاد نسبت به مرکز دهستان و انزوای جغرافیایی، دارای پایین ترین رتبه از لحاظ میزان کیفیت سرزندگی در بین روستاهای محدوده موردمطالعه بوده است.

    کلیدواژگان: مناطق روستایی، طرح هادی، کیفیت سرزندگی، دهستان پنج هزاره بخش مرکزی شهرستان بهشهر
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  • MohamadEbrahim Mazhari*, Fatemeh Poodat, Ali Hosseini Pages 3-14

    The village is a long-standing form of human settlement that embodies the vernacular pattern of human habitation and innovative ways of adapting to the environment. Village dwellers are the creators of unique cultural landscapes which are looked upon as the heritage for future generations. Therefore recognizing the dominant patterns in rural landscapes has always been of interest to researchers. The spatial organization has considered that human habitats are the direct result of social, economic, political, and institutional processes. By studying and comparing two villages located in southwestern of Iran, the study’s aim is to investigate the spatial pattern and configuration of the rural form and examine the effect of villagerschr('39') lifestyle and livelihood on the formation of those patterns. One of the village case studies is Shalheh-ye Emam Hasan located in Abadan city along the Arvand tidal river which enable the villagers to develop their gardens of palms as far as the tidewater is available. The other one is Hadbeh Khanafreh village in Shadegan city at the edge of Shadegan wetland in which the village dwellers’ livelihood is dominantly based on small livestock farms, keeping water buffaloes within their houses and hunting wetland fauna such as birds and fish. Both villages have similar cultural backgrounds and are inhabited by indigenous Arab tribes but the villages are different in terms of the type of the livelihood and settlement organization.The research method is case modeling and case study benefitting from Geographic Information System (GIS). By applying landscape metrics, the blocking, mass and space system, grain size, spatial distribution and arrangement, physical density, shape of texture patches, and texture connectivity, the spatial patterns of villages were quantitatively studied and analyzed geometrically in two scales of landscape and texture. The comparison of the results demonstrates that despite the similar cultural environment and social context, there are differences in the spatial pattern and configuration of two villages’ textures and landscapes. The dispersed pattern of the houses located in Shalheh is due to the vast area of the village and the rows of the palm grounds which are included in each house and this fact gives rise to the probability of houses accumulation in each block. Meanwhile, the amount of residential texture of Hadbeh is 32% of the village area due to its confinement with the wetland. Similarly, the numbers of building blocks in Shalheh village are twice that of Hadbeh. The building blocks of both villages have relatively similar dimensions. However, in Hadbeh, the building blocks are applied in the larger number of houses. Particularly, in spite of the similar social and cultural environment, residential units in Shalheh village are, on average, larger and owing to the land limitation in Hadbeh, the dwelling houses are smaller. Besides, the results of nearest neighbor distance and the connectivity demonstrate the compact arrangement of the houses in Hadbeh and the scattering distribution of the houses in Shalheh despite their linear form, moreover the studied area in Shahleh village is by far larger than Hadbah while just 1.8% of which is included by village blocks. This study found that rural economy is closely related to the geographical context and settlement order of the village and totally the combination of these factors play an effective role on the formation of the spatial pattern of the rural settlement’s texture. This research shows that although social and cultural factors are very influential on a housing scale, what can further determine the spatial structure and pattern of rural housing is the capacity to exploit the geographical context in favor of livelihood. Due to the economic roots result in formation of the unique structure in both villages, any variations in economy or natural resources involved in the economy of the villages can lead to changes in the structure and pattern of the studied landscapes and have subsequent consequences including social disorders or migration. This highlights the need to understand the spatial pattern of the settlement before any decision making and planning at rural or large scale on the geographical basis. The use of landscape metrics in this study has made it possible to compare those metrics and trace the root causes result in formation of vernacular patterns.

    Keywords: rural settlement, spatial configuration, landscape pattern, Shalheh-ye Emam Hasan, Hadbeh khanafereh, Iran
  • Esfandiar Zebardast, MohammadMehdi Azizi, Elnaz Baghernejhad* Pages 15-28

    While it has been only two decades since resilience as a concept entered the field of urban planning, there has been an increasing interests and a wide range of studies surrounding the issue in this short span of time. Considering this fact, surprisingly a few passionate endeavors have attempted to assess "urban resilient form" as the subject, while urban form as the structure of the city can directly influence its collapse or resistance in facing the disasters. In fact, variation in the form of a city can have a negative or positive influence on its resilience. Moreover, urban form as the spatial and physical embodiment of social and economic interactions of cities is the context of various social, economic, and environmental aspects of resilience. So it is a bit of a surprise that despite this undeniable influence of urban form on resilience, their relationship has not been thoroughly explored. Thus, by considering the features of resilient city this research has attempted to embark on redefining the urban structure from the resilient point of view and determined certain characteristics of chr('39')urban resilient formchr('39') such as robustness, connectivity, redundancy, modularity, diversity and efficiency. Then, for obtaining the qualities of resilient urban form, it is tried to analyze a meaningful relationship between the indicators and factors of urban form and the extent of resilience, in order to specify urban resilient form together with the contributing factors affecting its resilience. Multi-dimensional urban form and resilience together with the impact of the scale on the components and parameters make it necessary to investigate the phenomenon and their relationship in a specific scale.This research takes neighborhoods’ scale to look at its case study, Tehran metropolitan area, in order to assess its resilience in the face of disasters, in addition to specify the modifier indicators of urban form in the neighborhoods of Tehran metropolitan city and examine the relationship between the components of the urban form and resilience. For achieving the aim of the study, initially the indicators and the scale of resilience in 368 neighborhoods have been evaluated to access the relation between the urban form and resilience scale. It benefits assessable indicators suggested by three resilience assessment approaches; CDRI, CRI, and BRIC, in the scale of neighborhood units. By taking the advantage of exploratory factors analysis, four domains of infrastructure, economic performance and community have been specified and then according the points which the factors obtained, the resilient degree of the neighborhoods were specified. Furthermore, the collection of six factors including denseness, green and vacant area accessibility, non-permeability, retail accessibility, components and transit accessibility along with 22 indicators are introduced as factors and indicators for urban form in the neighborhoods of Tehran metropolitan city.Finally, for obtaining the main goal of study which is illuminating the relation between urban form and resilience indicators in the neighborhoods of Tehran metropolitan city, linear regression analysis has been applied. The results of this analysis show that different urban form components have various and even contrasting influences on resilience. The strongest relationship can be found between infrastructure resilience and density, as the main component of urban form. The economic performance aspect is also, like infrastructure resilience feature, has been most positively influenced by density factor. Among all of urban form factors, accessibility to components has the most powerful bond with social aspect and the whole resilient composite index. Community resilience is not influenced by urban form components at all and there is no relationship between them whatsoever. There is a direct relationship between accessibility to public transportation and components availability with resilience. On the other hand, factors such as accessibility to business centers and the amount of open and green spaces have a reverse relationship with it. Overall, the influence of urban form components on increasing and decreasing the degree of resilience can clearly be demonstrated. However, the results of the effects of urban form components on resilience pose challenges for future studies. Economic performance dimension aside, these challenges include the negative impact of the density component on social resilience, the negative impact of the permeability component on infrastructure resilience and the negative impact of access to business centers on the dimensions of resilience.

    Keywords: Disaster Resilience, Urban Form, Resilient Urban Form, Regression Analysis, Tehran Metropolis
  • Seyed Farzin Faezi*, Hasan Zarezade Pages 29-40

    Strengthening and expanding the rural housing sector and providing technical and engineering services have led to improved quality of life, sustainable employment, rural development, diversification of the rural economy, increased incomes, reduced poverty and thus elimination of deprivation. Building a robust and safe environment against the dangers of natural disasters; makes it necessary to establish a basic and technical system which acts as a control mechanism in rural constructions.The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting the performance of technical and engineering services of the Housing Foundation in villages which are located in Mehriz County. In terms of method, the research is descriptive-analytical and with regards to purpose, it is the applied one. Required information was collected by field method by taking the advantages of interview, observation and questionnaire. A questionnaire was prepared by the researcher according to the research objectives. Questionnaire consists of the queries which are prepared according to answers in likert scale of 5 scales and moreover the questions were defined in order to satisfy the needs of the researcher. In order to measure the internal validity, first the content validity method was applied to increase the validity of the questionnaire and then Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure the reliability of the research tool. The statistical population of this research includes the head of household, village administration, village council, directors and experts of Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation, managers and experts of county prefecture, governor, and administrators and experts of rural affairs in governorate. Descriptive statistics method was applied for briefing the survey’s results, for examining the hypotheses, the Chi-square test was used and finally the researcher took the advantage of Friedman test and the t-test for prioritizing the variables in the technical software of SPSS. Sample size includes 46.7% of the head of the household, 20% of the rural municipality and the Islamic Council of the village, 20% of the managers and experts of the Housing Foundation of the Islamic Revolution, 6.7% of the managers and experts of the district and the governorate, finally 6.7% of the managers and experts of rural affairs. The results show that the factors affecting the performance of technical and engineering services of the Housing Foundation are summarized in three indices, respectively: 1- The most important factor in the human force index is the proper interaction between employees in order to advance clientschr('39') work. 2- The most substantial factor of the financial and economic indicators is the allocation of appropriate credits for construction. 3- The most significant factor of the workshop and equipment is the use of new, pre-fabricated, durable and quality materials for rural projects. Based on the results, the significance level of all data was less than 0.05, so the distribution of data obtained from research questionnaires is normal. For this purpose, parametric statistics can be applied to test hypotheses. Furthermore, considering that the value of Cronbachchr('39')s alpha coefficient calculated for each of the hypotheses is greater than 0.7, it can be concluded that the designed questionnaire has acceptable reliability. Based on the fact that out of the seven factors measured for the first index, two impact factors have shown up to 95% and five impact factors have shown up to 99%, so appropriate specialist staffs for providing the clients with services is determined as the most effective factor. Based on the fact that out of 8 factors measured for the second index, two impact factors have shown up to 95% level and 6 impact factors have shown up to 99% level, so the appropriate money and credit were allocated for the construction of projects are specified. Based on the fact that out of 8 factors measured for the third index, 2 impact factors have shown up to 95% level and 6 impact factors have shown up to 99% level, so the use of new, prefabricated, durable and quality materials for rural projects is determined.

    Keywords: rural housing, resistant plan, questionnaire, Housing Foundation, Mehriz city
  • Ali Farnam* Pages 41-52

    Theoretical Origin: Looking at the research on polycentric urban regions, two approaches can be distinguished:The first approach: looking upon the similarity of a polycentric urban region with geographic theories centered around polycentric cities or some others as attitudes including garden cities, urban networks or spatial approach of decentralization in the form of the French idea of métropoles d’équilibre The second approach: specific concept of polycentric urban region as a notion which has been observed in the efforts made by member countries of European Union in the last two decades As it is shown in the chart of applied research for this subject, the second approach is rapidly growing in the countries on a variety of scales. This paper, by an overview on the records and definition of this concept, is trying to explain the cons, pros and some evaluations about Polycentric urban region. Furthermore, with an overview of the regional plans in Iran, the capability of using this concept was assessed at various scales and simultaneously some contextual-structural considerations and differentiations for usability of this concept were extracted. Now, due to the absence of a metropolis or large city, there is no particular pattern or approach for the notion of polycentric urban region. However, it seems that in the regional planning system of Iran, the polycentric urban region concept can be applied to promotion of regions’ urban system and their spatial development strategies. Moreover, this concept is applied in synergy with wide arrays of objectives and spatial development strategies in Iran including decentralization decrease in regional disparities and enhancing the small and mid-sized towns. One of the first assumptions in this regard is that by formalizing Polycentric Urban Region, the new dimensions of synergy and complimentary will be emerged. Besides, increased interactions and connections between these cities led to internal coherence and external competitiveness. As an illustration, the well-known case of an urban area which is located in the north of Iran (central urban region of Mazandaran province) can take the advantage of similar financial and legal benefits (according to the regulations) which are currently assigned to the metropolitan areas. Major literature around polycentric urban region are focused on the most urbanized and compression regions in the Western Europe. It seems that the conditions surrounding the origin of this notion have had beneficial role in the development of polycentric idea. Owing to this fact, there have been some intrinsic differentiations between the prominent classical instances of polycentric urban regions (in Western Europe) and existing conditions in Iran which will be discussed below:- Strong communication infrastructure network between cities together with direct and immediate connections between the cities of the region: this issue has been considered somewhat self-evident, but in the case of Iran; it needs to be more emphasized. - Based on the form, most classical instances of polycentric urban region have taken the advantage of nonlinear form with intermediary matrix communications between settlements and diverse and high-quality access to destinations. - Locating all well-known reference instances of polycentric urban regions in plains and flat topographic terrains: while according to the position of cities in Iran, most of which are typically located in mountainside, this difference can be effective in the application of this concept. - In the index instances, targeting has been based on competitiveness and globalization in formation and development of polycentric urban region (PUR) but at least in the medium term, it cannot be included the goal of developing PUR’s in Iran. - Federal or relatively decentralized governance system provides a more favorable context for emerging and formation of such a regional framework. Propositions:1- It is suggested that the polycentric urban region is included on the agenda of High Council of Urbanization and Architecture of Iran 2- The polycentric urban regions distinctively shall be specified in the system of Iran spatial planning for facilitating regional planning objectives such as development and competitiveness of small and mid-sized cities, decentralization of urban system and reduction of migration process towards metropolitan areas.

    Keywords: Polycentric Urban Region, Polycentricity, Metropolitan Area
  • Saeid Sattarnezhad*, Karim Hajizadeh, REZA Rezaloo, Esmaiel Maroufi Pages 53-66

    Man-made caves or troglodytic spaces are special kinds of architecture in which no materials are applied for creating the spaces and in turn they are created through decreasing the rocky mass in the ground and rock’s bed by human being. The Man-made caves or troglodytic spaces have been identified and introduced in different parts of the country so far. Maragheh County which is located in the north western part of Iran, not only owns the numerous historical monuments from different periods, but also holds a number of Troglodytic sites. According to the available evidence, exploitation of indigenous architecture based on the environmental factors in Maragheh County has long attracted the attentions of many communities in this area. Therefore based on the needs of the residents, troglodytic spaces have been created in the land and rock beds with various applications. Based on the field survey, it was found that still there have been various man-made caves or troglodytic spaces in Maragheh County which is worth considering for investigations and documentations, furthermore, the results of this study can be applied as a model for further studies of Man-made caves or troglodytic architectures in other villages located in the foothills of the Sahand Mountain. Studies show that despite the diversity and relatively large number of rocky cliff troglodytic spaces in some villages of this area, it is hard to find any complete investigations in this field. Therefore, the troglodytic spaces of this region are less known and null action has been taken to register these magnificent works in the list of national works of the country. Due to this fact, in this research, by taking the advantages of the archeological and architectural studies, an attempt has been made to introduce the troglodytic spaces of Maragheh and then describe the formation factor, the general characteristics of the spaces and the period of its use. This research seeks to answer these fundamental questions: in which field the typology and architectural classification of the troglodytic spaces in Maragheh County are classified? What are the general characteristics of Troglodytic spaces in Maragheh County? The present survey aims to study and analyze the typology and classification of the mentioned Man-made caves or troglodytic spaces. Accordingly, while identifying, introducing and explaining the characteristics of the troglodytic spaces of this region, the research has also dealt with the formation factors of these architectural spaces. Besides, implementing the field method for recording and explaining the current situation, the survey adopted documentary studies based on the descriptive - analytical method to identify the formation factor of troglodytic architecture in Maragheh County. Also the study benefited from the Geographic Information System (GIS) for identifying the distribution pattern of the Troglodytic spaces in Maragheh villages.The results demonstrate that the troglodytic works of Maragheh villages can be categorized based on morphology in superficial and sub - surface forms. Moreover, in terms of typology and classification of usability nature, they are applied for various uses including a) residential, b) ritual-religious, c) protective and d) public benefit. Many of these troglodytic spaces are now destroyed and lost their original use; simultaneously they are mostly applied as storage and livestock spaces. Research method The present research is descriptive-analytical and data collection is done by library method based on field studies. The authors hope to provide a logical and reasoned answer to the questions raised about this kind of architecture by citing the results of field research conducted at the county level and also relying on library studies on troglodytic works.

    Keywords: Maragheh County, Troglodytic Architecture, Formation factor, Typology
  • Mozaffar Abbaszadeh*, Hamid Behjat Pages 67-82

    Rural heritage includes architecture and its special landscapes. The architectural structure of rural settlements is the result of a set of human activities related to the natural and cultural environment. The salient illustration of this type of architecture can be founded in local architecture, which is the main element of rural texture. The spatial organization, establishment and physical structure of local architectures reflect the quality of environmental usage, the impact of the economy, traditions and culture of the rural community which after years of trial and error have adapted their strategies, methods, patterns and models in accordance with the material and spiritual needs of people, their environment and daily activities that can be applied as a model for planning and designing new pattern. Urmia plain has been inhabited for thousands of years due to its natural conditions. The spatial-physical structure of the villages located in this city is a sign of cultural importance and richness, moreover; the architectural values of its rural houses left over from the past are also of high significance. Architecture that arises from the way of life, beliefs of the indigenous community and the heart of the village which has been influenced by spatial and cultural factors during the span of time has been formed in a special way. A few illustrations of the mentioned structure are found in some villages occasionally and sometimes sparsely. In this regard, the village of Sopurghan is a striking example due to the remnants of the traditional texture and architecture of historic houses.This study examines the characteristics of the village and the architecture of historical and traditional houses with the aim of achieving comprehensive knowledge of the physical-spatial organization of historical and traditional houses in the village of Sopurghan which is located in the city of Urmia. Furthermore, the research seeks to answer the questions including what are the special features of the historical and traditional houses of Sopurghan village compared to other adjacent villages in the region, what architectural pattern they follow and what factors affect their architectural structure.The research data were obtained through library studies and field surveys, which were studied descriptively and analytically. The results show that almost all available buildings are oriented east-west and the skylights are located to east or west. Regardless of the natural and climatic conditions of the plain, this way of orientation and settlement of the existing specimens has been influenced by local traditions, religious beliefs and economic requirements. The historical and traditional houses of Sopurghan village generally have lofty doors, facades and decorations and follow a specific pattern in terms of size, shape, form, spatial settlement in a way that that the mass is located in the wall of the passages and after passing through the architectural space, enters the courtyard, which strengthens the discussion of privacy and security. In relation to the quality of the mass and the space, with a big difference, the space dominates the mass. The most widely used materials in the architectural structure of houses are abundance adobe, stone, brick and wood respectively which due to different conditions in a direct relation of the climatic and indigenous conditions of the region they have been applied in the required sections. Subordination and coordination in the spatial-physical structure of the case examples have finally created an integrated and purposeful structure in the rural landscape and architecture. The combination of these features has created a different structure than other similar species in Urmia city. Today, due to various interventions many specimens have been destroyed.

    Keywords: Typology, Traditional architecture, Village, Sopurghan village, Urmia
  • Mitra Habibi, Mahsa Ghane* Pages 83-98

    In recent years, due to the increasing expansion of distressed urban fabric in Iran one of the most important goals of urbanization has been to moderate the economic, socio-cultural and structural problems of the distressed urban fabric. According to theoretical studies and global experiences conducted in this study, the regeneration of culture-based as a comprehensive and executive approach with the potential of utilizing the innovative participation of residents has been introduces as the agenda for several studies. In other words, culture-based recreation can be considered as one of the main approaches to urban regeneration in the last two decades. Furthermore, among new urban redevelopment strategies, development incentives leading to launch and direct development in worn-out urban contexts can be taken into consideration. Development stimuli are urban artifacts that are not necessarily non-physical but rather can be structural or measurable and are looked upon as the key elements in the process of urban development and regeneration. One of the main goals of development stimulus projects is to achieve urban regeneration, an approach that works as a comprehensive strategy to bring about change and development in various economic, cultural and aesthetic fields in a place with signs of decline. In this regard, the various categories of development stimulus projects in different urban scales have been introduced, one of which is taking the advantage of public art, which is the same approach applied in the present study. Therefore, the main goal of the present research is the feasibility study of using public art potentials as a development stimulus in the reconstruction of worn-out tissues and it has been tried to address issues such as identifying components of public art, their effectiveness degree and the feasibility of using public art in the case study neighborhood. For achieving the goal of the research, feasibility study of potentials application of public art as the development stimulus in recreation of worn-out textures, the study has been conducted as the applied-descriptive research with a quantitative approach in Mazandaran Crossroads’ neighborhood of Semnan city with a population of 5504 people. The conceptual model of this research is the result of theoretical studies and the use of global experiences regarding the remarkable successes of the use of public art as a stimulus for development. Collecting the information is obtained through preparing a random sample of 384 people (using Cochranchr('39')s formula) and distributing questionnaires and by taking the advantage of Second Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis and LISREl software and ultimately the analyzing the achieved data. The results of the study indicate that among the studied components in the various types of public art, respectively landscape art (furniture and green space), architectural art (museum, teahouse, cafeteria and institute), live art (Street shows, competitions, exhibitions, artistschr('39') accommodation and festivals), digital art (lighting, audio dubbing and film screening), painting art (wall painting, graffiti, mosaic and carving) and sculpture art (element, memorial and sculpture), have the higher potentials in development and recreation of worn-out textures. In this study, in addition to evaluating the potentials of different types of public art, the suitable locators for placing them are introduced which can be a proper model for further studies with the subject of developing of public art by the aim of recreation of the worn-out textures.

    Keywords: Distressed urban fabric, Regeneration, Development stimulus, Public art
  • Akbar Sharifinia* Pages 99-110

    Human has always been seeking to meet his needs and commensurate with his environmental capabilities. The idea of taking the advantage of these potentials reflects the human culture of adapting to environmental conditions and maximum use of them for creation of various architectural works. Water availability and its usage could be regarded as one of the factors influencing the sustainability of the civilizations. Optimal use of water in the old water networks and the other associated installations indicates the sufficient knowledge of their creators about the principles and science of water. The mill has been one of the vital structures whose existence was essential for human survival as it has been a valuable factor for better regulation of food system during different stages of life. Mill is one of the oldest industrial achievements of mankind having a long history in human life. Based on some Islamic narratives, Adam was the first one who learnt how to build and use mill stones. "For the first time Gabriel instructed Adam to build the mill under the mountain rock and ordered him to grind the wheat" Tabari wrote. Investigating the architectural structure and discovering the hidden socio-economic layers and functions of Iranchr('39')s water mills are of great importance in Iranian cultural and civilization studies owing to their direct connection to peoplechr('39')s livelihood. Water mill is one of the different types of Iranian architecture which has a direct relationship with the social and economic life of past inhabitants of this land especially the villagers. Darreh Shahr city is one of the areas in Ilam province possessing surface water resources which cover most of its villages due to its location on the slopes of Kabir Kuh and flowing seasonal and permanent rivers in it. The old inhabitants of these villages have rightly recognized the enormous potential of these surface waters and taken their advantages to meet their economic need, supplying wheat or barley flour. In this research, as a result of archaeological studies and identification, 14 water mills scattered in the villages of Darreh Shahr city have been identified and studied with the aim of documenting and gaining a true understanding of their architectural structures, social and economic aspects. Accordingly, for obtaining the purpose of the study, the research questions are specified in this way: 1) What are the architecture and components of Darreh Shahr’s water mills? 2) Among the mills that are known in Iran, what kind of water-mills are those located in Darreh Shahr? 3) How and by whom were the water mills been managed? and 4) What factors or environmental factors influenced the dispersion pattern of water mills in this city? The results show that the water mills in the city of Darreh Shahr are of the type of headrace mills whose distribution pattern is directly dependent on the rivers rout originating from Kabir Kuh Mountain and the past residents of the city have used part of those rivers through channel to turn the mill wheel. The structure of these mills is comprised of Tanoreh (headrace),Tavarah, Beleskah, Mazgio, Parah Parah, KouinahMikh, SangMirah, Kho, Chaghchaghah, Sarsoil, Sardoulalo, StonMill, Zhersho, rest place. The management and supervision of these mills, some of which were owned by rich people of the villages, were entrusted to persons named Awsta Asiaw, Lovinah, and Meyshah Konah, respectively. A full day milling activity to provide Awsta Asiaw’s wage, receiving 3 kg out of 60 or 30 kg of product imported to the mills by Lovinah, taking 1 bowl to 3 kg of flour out of the wheat milled by the Meyshah Konah and renting these mills for 1500 kg wheat or barley are some examples of the economic relationships underlying the architectural structure of the citychr('39')s water mills. This study was done through descriptive-analytical method and information collecting was based on the field and library studies.

    Keywords: Darreh Shahr, watermills, architecture, Management style, distribution pattern
  • Zahra Sharifi Nia* Pages 111-123

    Promoting and improving the quality of villagers’ vitality is looked upon as the main objective of implementing rural development programs and from which the most important ones, the guide plans, are considered as the most relevant local development plans. In this regard, it has been of vital importance to implement the necessary evaluation after several years of conducting the guide plans. This evaluations, on one hand aims to determine the consequences of the plan implementing on the quality of villagers’ vitality and on the other hand, by identifying the strengths and weaknesses, necessary information are obtained for better management of the mentioned projects in order to achieve optimal improvement in the quality of villagers’ vitality. Therefore, this research was carried out to implement structural-functional analysis of rural guide plans in improving the quality of villagers’ vitality in the Panj Hezareh Rural Area located in the central part of the Behshahr County. The purpose of this study is the structural-functional analysis of rural guide plans in improving the quality of the villagers’ vitality in Panj Hezareh Rural Area located in the central part of the Behshahr County. In terms of form, the research is quantitative, with regards to the purpose, it is the applied one and with the view to the data collection, it is considered as a descriptive survey. Moreover, according to the time, the research is cross-sectional and data collections were done during specific span of time in 2019.The statistical population of the study was 3772 people including all the population of villages where guide plans were implemented. The sample size was calculated with error of 0.07 based on Cochran software and the questionnaires were distributed randomly among the villagers. The validity of the questionnaires was done through face validity and several stages of reviews and revisions which were accepted by the professors and experts. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, the pre-test with 25 questionnaires was conducted and obtained Cronbachchr('39')s alpha coefficient was 0.745 indicating the validity of the designed questionnaire. Descriptive (frequency and percentage),inferential statistical methods (including chi-square test, one-sample t-test, Spearmanchr('39')s coefficient, and analysis of variance) and VIKOR model were used to analyze the data. The viewpoints of the locals in 9 villages of this county were investigated, then for fulfilling the set goals, the study took the advantages of descriptive and inferential statistical methods including chi-square test, one-sample t-test, Spearmanchr('39')s coefficient, analysis of variance and VIKOR model. The findings show that the implementation of rural guide plans for improving the quality of studied villagers’ livelihoods has influenced the quality of economic, social, cultural, environmental, infrastructural and physical livelihoods. Furthermore, distinguished changes in the cultural and physical indices were higher than the other indices; this result is natural and common due to the fact that implementing the guide plans are integrated more closely with the form and aesthetics modifications of rural areas. Besides, the function of these projects, the attitude of the people towards the quality of livelihood, the way the villagers treat each other and the preservation of the environment, etc. have also changed and in comparison to the past, people have applied more effort and gained further confidence. Otherschr('39') research indicates that the results of these kinds of projects in rural areas have led to a relative improvement in economic and social indicators. The present study suggests that the function of implementing guide plans in rural settlements not only affect the economic and social and economic indicators positively, but also it has provided the opportunity to improve the physical, infrastructural, environmental and cultural fields and ultimately has increased the quality of vitality in the studied rural areas. The findings of the Vikor model indicate that the spatial analysis of the villages and rural distributions by the indicators of economic, social, cultural, environmental, infrastructure and physical, implies a significant difference in the study area. So that according to the quality of vitality among the studied villages, Pasand village with 0 point has the highest rank due to proximity to rural center and access to services and Chaklade village with 0.983 point has the lowest rank owing to its distance from the center of the rural center and the factor of the geographical isolation.

    Keywords: rural areas, guide plan, quality of life, five millennium district of central part of Behshahr County