فهرست مطالب

  • سال بیست و چهارم شماره 3 (پاییز 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • علی خسروی کزازی، فرهاد حسینعلی* صفحات 1-25

    روند رو به رشد جمعیت جهان به خصوص در نواحی شهری بر اهمیت مدل سازی سه بعدی می افزاید؛ چراکه مدل های سه بعدی برنامه ریزی شهری، تجسم شهر، مدیریت سیستم های حمل ونقل هوشمند، مدیریت بحران شهری و پهنه بندی آلودگی ها را تسهیل می کنند. هرچند استفاده از مدل های سه بعدی شهری که بر اساس استانداردهای موجود همچون CityGML طراحی شده اند، سبب افزایش کارایی و بهبود نتایج بسیاری از تحلیل های مکانی در شهر می شوند، اما به طور طبیعی کارایی، اثربخشی و به طور کلی کیفیت این مدل ها به شدت به داده های ورودی وابسته است. جمع آوری داده های سه بعدی که معیارهای کیفیت را برآورده سازد، به صورت تجاری و سنتی با صرف هزینه و زمان بسیار همراه خواهد بود. گسترش فناوری و ظهور امکانات جدید در حوزه اینترنت، بستری را برای تولید داده های مکانی توسط عموم مردم و به صورت داوطلبانه فراهم کرده و باعث گسترش مفهوم اطلاعات مکانی داوطلبانه (VGI) شده است. پدیده VGI پس از ظهور به شدت مورد استقبال پژوهشگران و توسعه دهندگان قرار گرفت؛ به شکلی که امروزه پروژه های متعددی همچون OpenStreetMap نه تنها داده های دوبعدی بلکه امکان استخراج داده های سه بعدی را از مشارکت مردم فراهم نموده اند. در این تحقیق روشی برای دستیابی به مدل سه بعدی ساختمان در سطح چهارم جزییات بر اساس استاندارد شناخته شده CityGML و به کمک اطلاعات مکانی داوطلبانه پیشنهاد شده است. به منظور ارزیابی قابلیت روش پیشنهادی، این روش برای تهیه مدل سه بعدی یک ساختمان پیاده سازی شد و بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، ارتفاع ساختمان مطالعه شده با خطای 9 سانتی متر نسبت به ارتفاع دقیق آن اندازه گیری شد که این مقدار بهتر از حداقل دقت لازم برای تهیه مدل سه بعدی ساختمان در سطح چهارم جزییات می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: اطلاعات مکانی داوطلبانه، مدل سازی سه بعدی، نقاط ناپدید شونده، استاندارد CityGML
  • علی مختاری کرچگانی*، مرتضی توکلی، زهرا احمدی پور صفحات 27-63

    موضوع این تحقیق تحلیل معرفت شناسی طرح های آمایش سرزمین ایران است. هدف از انجام آن، شناسایی، انتقاد و ارایه مشخصات دستگاه معرفت شناسی مطلوب برای طرح های آمایش استانی ایران است. برای رسیدن به این اهداف، ابتدا با استفاده از استراتژی نمونه گیری طراحی شده پنج طرح آمایش استانی مازندران، خراسان شمالی، خوزستان، مرکزی و همدان انتخاب شده است و پس از آن با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی اسناد آمایشی سعی شده دستگاه معرفتی طرح های آمایش استانی شناسایی و مورد نقد قرار گیرد. در نهایت، با بهره گیری از نظریات و تجارب موفق اخیر جهانی مشخصات دستگاه معرفت شناسی مطلوب شناسایی شده و برای اعتبارسنجی آن با استفاده از پرسشنامه، مورد آزمون صاحب نظران دانشگاهی قرار گرفته است. این تحقیق از روش شناسی ترکیبی (قیاسی استقرایی) پیروی می کند. ماهیت تحقیق توصیفی تحلیلی از نوع بنیادی است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهند که طرح های آمایش استانی ایران از دستگاه معرفت شناسی تحصلی پیروی می کنند. در حالی که تجارب و نظریات اخیر جهانی نشان می دهدند که تهیه طرح های آمایشی با این دستگاه فکری، برنامه ریزان را در سه حوزه نظری، روش شناسی و عملی با چالش های جدی روبه رو می کند. لذا ارایه یک دستگاه معرفتی نوین برای طرح های آمایش استانی ایران ضروری است. بنابراین، نتایج تحقیق حاکی از آن است که صاحب نظران تاکید خاصی جهت به کارگیری دستگاه معرفتی عقلانیت کثرت گرا انتقادی در طرح های آمایش استانی ایران دارند. این رویکرد توانسته ضعف ها و کاستی های دستگاه های معرفتی پیشین را در حوزه های نظری، روش شناسی و عملی رفع کرده و برنامه ریزان راه به یک رویکرد تلفیقی کارآمد برساند.

    کلیدواژگان: تبیین معرفت شناسی، دستگاه معرفتی تحصلی، دستگاه معرفتی عقلانیت کثرت گرا - انتقادی، طرح های آمایش سرزمین ایران، رویکرد تلفیقی
  • سارا میرزایی، علی زنگی آبادی* صفحات 65-103

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تحلیل عوامل موثر بر تحقق پذیری شهر شاد و تبیین الگوی دستیابی به آن در کلانشهر شیراز انجام شده است. این پژوهش از نظر ماهیت یک پژوهش کمی و از نظر هدف یک تحقیق کاربردی است. داده های آماری پژوهش با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه محقق ساخته جمع آوری شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش، شهروندان بالای 18 سال و متخصصین و کارشناسان شیرازی بود. حجم نمونه مورد مطالعه، 22 نفر برای برنامه ریزی برنامه ریزی راهبردی و 384 نفر برای پرسشنامه شهروندان بود. به منظور به منظور تحلیل داده ها داده ها از رویکرد مدل سازی مدل سازی معادله معادله ساختاری کوواریانس محور کوواریانس محور و نرم افزارهای  نرم افزارهای  SPSS و Amos Graphic استفاده شد. درنهایت با استفاده از روش  به برنامه ریزی برنامه ریزی راهبردی و ارایهارایه راهبردهای تحقق شهر شاد در شیراز پرداخته شد.یافته های پژوهش نشان داد، میانگین شادی در شهر شیراز کمی بالاتر از حد متوسط (1/3) است. میانگین متغیرهای اثرگذار بر شادی شامل زیست محیطی زیست محیطی و اجتماعی در حد متوسط 06/3 و 02/3 و متغیرهای اقتصادی، کالبدی و مدیریتی پایین تر پایین تر از حد متوسط بودند. همچنین مشخص شد متغیرهای مستقل پژوهش توانایی تبیین واریانس متغیر شادی را در حد نسبتا بالایی (67/0) دارند و بر شادی اثر مستقیم دارند؛ یعنی با بهبود وضعیت هریک از 5 عامل اثرگذار، میزان شادی افزایش و با تضعیف هریک شادی کاهش می یابد. مهم ترین عوامل اثرگذار بر تحقق شهر شاد  در شیراز، عامل اجتماعی فرهنگی با اثر 33/0 و سپس عوامل اقتصادی و کالبدی بود. براساس نتایج برنامه ریزی راهبردی و باتوجه به موقعیت کنونی شهر شیراز، راهبردهای تدافعی برای تحقق شهر شاد انتخاب شد؛ از بین این راهبردها، راهبرد "«تقویت نقش مثبت نهادهای دولتی و خصوصی به عنوان عامل مهم و اصلی اثرگذار بر تحقق شهر شاد" » در اولویت اول قرار گرفت.

    کلیدواژگان: مدل سازی معادله ساختاری، شادی، شهر شاد، شیراز، _ برنامه ریزی راهبردی
  • عبدالرضا رکن الدین افتخاری، نشاط امیدوار*، حسین زنجانیان صفحات 105-137

    در دهه های اخیر، ارتقای شرایط زیستی و حل مسایل محیطی مناطق روستایی به دغدغه ای جهانی تبدیل شده است. در این میان، در کشور ایران، سکونتگاه های روستایی با مسایل گوناگونی، ازجمله وضع نابسامان کالبدی، مواجه هستند. بنابراین، در چند دهه ی اخیر، مدیران روستایی به اجرای طرح هادی روستایی توجه کرده اند. از آنجا که مدیریت طرح مذکور، کاری مهم به شمار می رود و در مطالعات بسیاری بر ضرورت شناخت، تحلیل و تقویت روابط میان سازمانی در مدیریت طرح هادی تاکید شده است، مطالعه ی حاضر با هدف تحلیل شبکه ی روابط بین سازمانی در مدیریت طرح هادی و بررسی میزان تحقق یافتگی این طرح براساس روابط بین سازمانی انجام شد. در این راستا، به منظور تعیین مرز اجتماعی شبکه در ابزار تحلیل شبکه ی اجتماعی، از روش نمونه گیری گلوله برفی استفاده شد. درنهایت، پس از بررسی سازمان ها، به منظور شناسایی دقیق کنشگران شبکه، لیست سازمان های مربوطه به دست آمد که 20 سازمان دخیل در طرح هادی روستای اسلام رود به عنوان مرز اجتماعی شبکه درنظر گرفته شدند. سپس، با انجام مصاحبه های نیمه ساختاریافته، پرسشنامه ها با کمک خبرگان سازمان ها تکمیل شدند که در آن ها، شدت روابط سازمانی (براساس طیف لیکرت) و همچنین روابط تعاملی و تضاد مشخص شد. یافته ها نشان داد که میزان تراکم در پیوند تبادل اطلاعات در شبکه 34.5 درصد است که با بررسی سایر شاخص های کلان شبکه، میزان تحقق پذیری طرح متوسط و تاحدی کم حاصل شد. همچنین، در شبکه ی موردمطالعه، بیش از نیمی از پیوندها در اختیار کنشگران مرکزی است که بیانگر نقش برجسته تر آنان در مدیریت چالش ها است.

    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل شبکه اجتماعی، روابط سازمانی، توسعه روستایی، طرح هادی، روستای اسلام رود
  • وحید مشفقی*، سمیرا یوسفیان صفحات 139-168

     این پژوهش تلاش می کند تا تاثیر تغییرات نرخ ارز بر تحولات کالبدی شهر تهران در دو بازه بازه زمانی قبل و بعد از افزایش شدید قیمت ارز در سال 1391 بررسی شود. پژوهش حاضر با رویکردی کاربردی و با روش شناسی علی - رابطه ای با هدف تبیین چگونگی تاثیرگذاری نیروهای اقتصاد بر تغییرات کالبدی شهر و ردیابی جریان سرمایه در شهر تهران انجام شده است. پژوهش در در پی یافتن پاسخ به چگونگی ارتباط نرخ ارز و ساخت وسازهای شهر تهران؛ ، جریان سرمایه در شهر؛ ، چگونگی ارتباط میان قیمت زمین و مداخلات کالبدی در مناطق 22گانه شهر تهران است. شیوه های مورد استفاده برای گردآوری داده ها به به صورت اسنادی و داده های تحقیق شامل قیمت دلار، تعداد پروانه های ساختمانی صادر شده و قیمت زمین به تفکیک مناطق 22گانه شهر تهران برای سال های 1385-1396 می باشد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد، جریان سرمایه در شهر و شیوه و شدت مداخله در شهرها با قیمت ارز در ارتباط است. تعداد پروانه های ساختمانی شهر تهران قبل و بعد از جهش 216 درصدی نرخ ارز در سال 1391، تغییرات معناداری داشته است. با مقایسه مقایسه میانگین سالانه سالانه پروانه های صادر شده مشخص می شود که شدت ساخت وساز در شهر با جهش قیمت دلار، کاهش یافته است. از سوی دیگر، تفاوت معناداری میان مناطق 22گانه شهرداری تهران از از نظر تعداد پروانه های ساختمانی و قیمت زمین است. در در واقع نتایج پژوهش به به واسطهه ردیابی جریان سرمایه در شهر تهران نشان می دهد که با افزایش نرخ ارز، جریان سرمایه در مناطق شمالی شهر تهران (مناطق 1، 2، 3، 4 و 6) متمرکز می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: قدرت، جریان سرمایه، مداخلات کالبدی، ساختار فضایی، تهران
  • وکیل حیدری ساربان* صفحات 170-200

    هدف این مقاله تبیین رابطه رابطه معنویت با بهبود تاب آوری روستاییان در در خصوص بحران زلزله در مناطق روستایی شهرستان ورزقان می باشد. این تحقیق از نوع کاربردی و به روش تحلیلی- تبیینی است که با استفاده از روش پیمایش انجام شده است. این تحقیق از نوع کاربردی و روش تحقیق آن، از نوع تحقیقات توصیفی - تبیینی است. جامعه جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل همه روستاهای آسیب آسیب دیده دهستان ازومدل جنوبی و خانوارهای ساکن در این روستاهاست. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات پرسش نامهپرسشنامه محقق ساخته بوده است که برای اطمینان از روایی آن به مصاحبه اکتشافی با 18 خانوار زلزله زده پرداخته شد. مطالعه مطالعه راهنما در منطقه منطقه مشابه جامعه جامعه آماری با تعداد 30 پرسش نامهپرسشنامه صورت گرفت و با داده های کسب کسب شده و استفاده از فرمول ویژه ویژه کرونباخ آلفا، پایایی بخش های مختلف پرسش نامهپرسشنامه تحقیق79/0 الی 91/0 به دست آمد. بالاخره، نتایج یافته های استنباطی تحقیق نشان داد که به به جز متغیرهای میزان خودصداقتی، درون گرایی، فردگرایی مثبت و فردگرایی مثبت و خوداتکایی بین تمامی متغیرهای تحقیق با بهبود تاب آوری روستاییان در در خصوص بحران زلزله در مناطق روستایی شهرستان ورزقان رابطه رابطه مستقیم و معناداری وجود دارد و در در نهایت با توجه به به تحلیل نتایج، پیشنهادات کاربردی ارایه شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: معنویت، تاب آوری، زلزله، مدیریت بحران، توسعه روستایی، شهرستان ورزقان
  • حسین نظم فر*، منیر شیرزاد گرجان صفحات 201-229

    در این تحقیق با استفاده از قابلیت تکنیک های سنجش از دور تغییرات کاربری اراضی دریاچه ارومیه و محیط پیرامون آن در بازده زمانی بیست ساله (1989 تا 2019م) با استفاده از تصاویر ماهواره ای سنجنده (MSS، TM وOLI OLI) مورد پایش قرار گرفته است. بررسی تغییرات کاربری اراضی نشان داد: مساحت کاربری کشاورزی از سال 1989 م تا سالتا 2019م افزایش چشمگیری داشته که دلیل آن مساعد بودن منطقه برای زراعت، حفر چاه های متعدد و استفاده از سفره سفره آب زیرزمینی بوده است. همچنین نوسان های قابل ملاحظه ای در سطح آب دریاچه رخ داده است. به طوری که تغییرات سطح آب از سال 1989م تا 2016م از 5.348 به حدود 2.705 کیلومتر مربع رسیده است. اما از سال 2016م تا 2019م به به دلیل بارش ها 1644کیلومتر مربع افزایش مساحت آبی داشته است. همچنین خطوط ساحلی به به ویژه در شرق و جنوب جنوب شرقی منطقه منطقه مورد مطالعه، پسروی بسیار قابل توجهی را نشان می دهد. به طوری که از سال 1989م تا 2000م مساحت این کاربری 378 کیلومترمربع افزایش داشته است و طی سال های 2000م تا 2016م مساحت آن همچنان روند صعودی داشته و  به 786 کیلومتر مربع افرایش یافته است.

    کلیدواژگان: تغییرکاربری اراضی، فن آوری سنجش از دور، دریاچه ی ارومیه، طبقه بندی نظارت شده، لندست
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  • Ali Khosravi Kazazi, Farhad Hosseinali* Pages 1-25
    Introduction

    World population growth increases the importance of 3D city models because these models make some essential spatial analysis (such as visualization, navigation, emergency responses, disaster management and urban planning) possible or at least easier. 3D city models which were created based on common standards like CityGML are almost general comprehensive. However, quality, capability and precision of 3D city models depend on their input data. Traditional and commercial 3D data capturing methods that meet quality criteria are expensive and time-consuming. Technologic developments and new internet-based tools have provided a platform to capture spatial data by participate participation of public and volunteers. These participations are known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). VGI is strongly welcomed by researchers and developers, as todaychr('39')s multiple projects such as OpenStreetMap not only work with two-dimensional data, but also capture 3D data produced by the volunteers.

    Methodology

    In this research the goal is using VGI to collect the required data for 3D city modeling based on the well-known CityGML standard. Thus, a mobile application connected to a server was developed. We used image processing algorithms such as SIFT, Canny and RANAC for image matching, edge detection and vanishing point recognition respectively. Images were transformed to ground coordinate system. Finally, acquired textures via VGI are were assigned to 3D model.

    Results and discussion

    In order to evaluate the proposed method, 3D model of a building in Shahid Rajaee University (as the most important part of a 3D city model by VGI) was created. The building height was calculated 53.34 meters. For elevation accuracy control, the building height was measured by ground-based operations. The building height based on this method was 34.44 meters. According to the defined the level of details on the CityGML standard, the required precision to create a 3D model in the fourth level of details is 20 cm. So, details can be obtained through volunteered information and images into the 3D model of building with the fourth level of details.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results obtained by the proposed method, the calculated building height is only 9 cm different with the exact height of the building obtained through the surveying operation. This difference is less than 20 centimeters, that is the required accuracy for fourth level of detail in 3D modeling. This suggests that through the proposed method, the 3D model of the building could be achieved through VGI at the fourth level of details. In addition to being an affordable method for creating a 3D city model, using VGI is a fast way to collect various information. In further studies, it is proposed to use machine learning and deep learning techniques to automate the process of creating a 3D model from volunteered geographic information in order to complete and develop this approach.

    Keywords: Volunteered Geographic Information, 3D City Modeling, Vanishing Points, CityGML Standard
  • Ali Mokhtari*, Mortaza Tavakoli, Zahra Ahmadipour Pages 27-63

    The subject of this research is the epistemological analysis of Iranian Spatial planning plans. Its The purpose is to identify, critique and present the characteristics of a desirable epistemic system for Iranian provincial planning schemes. To achieve these goals, five sampling plans of Mazandaran, North Khorasan, Khuzestan, Markazi and Hamedan were selected using designed sampling strategy. Provincial planning were identified and criticized. Finally, using the recent successful global theories and experiences, the characteristics of the desired epistemology system have been identified and tested by experts using a questionnaire. This research follows a combined (deductive - inductive) methodology. The nature of descriptive-analytical research is fundamental. The research findings show that the provincial spatial planning plans of Iran follow the academic epistemology.  Recent global experiences and theories have shown that preparing plans with this mindset poses serious challenges to planners in three areas: theory, methodology and practice. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a new epistemic apparatus for Iranian provincial planning plans. Therefore, the results of the research indicate that the experts should have a special emphasis on applying the epistemic system of pluralistic-critical rationality in Iranian provincial preparation spatial plans. This approach has been able to address the weaknesses and shortcomings of previous epistemic devices in the theoretical, methodological, and practical fields and has led planners to develop an efficient integrated approach.

    Keywords: Epistemological Explanation, Educational Epistemic Apparatus, Epistemic Apparatus of Pluralistic-Critical Rationality, Iranian Spatial planning Plan's, Integrated Approach
  • Sara Mirzaei, Ali Zangiabadi* Pages 65-103
    Introduction

    Since the sense of happiness is influenced by multiple structures of urban society on the one hand, and affects the process of urban community development and excellence on the other hand, it is one of the major issues discussed in urban planning literature, that has so far been studied more psychologically and sociologically.  Therefore, in order to have a happy city, it is necessary to pay attention to the indicators affecting happiness in the city and plan planning accordingly. The role of happiness in the lives of people in the community is so much important that the social thinker, Raskin, believes: The richest country is the one with the highest percentage of happy people. It is so important that since 2000, the United Nations has accounted the variable of happiness as a key variable to classify the developments of countries; that is, if people in a society do not feel happy and satisfied, they cannot be considered a developed society. Shiraz, as the international tourism counter, the third shrine of Ahl alBayt, and as the third Iranian tourist city, needs dynamic, happy and vital citizens. Therefore, doing this research can provide some strategies for enhancing happiness and vitality in Shiraz city, and on the other hand, helps to promote the level of hosting culture. Happy citizens have a better interaction with tourists and pilgrims, thereby increasing their satisfaction and attracting more tourists. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the realization of happy city in Shiraz metropolis. Research questions are: 1 How much is citizen’s happiness & their satisfaction with environmental, Sociocultural sociocultural, economical, physical & managerial factors in Shiraz?
    2 How much environmental, social, economical, physical and managerial variables influence on happiness?The present study has one main hypothesis:Hypothesis 1 Environmental, sociocultural sociocultural,economical, Pphysical & Mmanagerial factors influence on the realization of happy city in Shiraz.

    Methodology

     The present study is quantitative in nature and applied in terms of purpose. Research data are collected using library studies and field method. Using the this field’s studies in this field presented in the study research literature study’s literature, and then using the three stages of the Delphi questionnaire compiled by Iranian experts in psychology, social sciences, geography and urban planning, and architecture and urban design, the factors influencing realization of the happy city have been identified and extracted, which we have investigated them in another study and are used as research variables in this study. The variables affecting happiness in the present study, including socioculturalsociocultural, ecologicalenvironmental, economiclivelihood, physicalstructural and M managerialadministrative, were extracted as independent variables, and happiness as dependent variable. Statistical data are collected using experts and citizen questionnaires in Shiraz metropolis. The statistical population of the study were inhabitants and experts of Shiraz city. The sample size was 22 experts and 384 people based on population of Shiraz city in 2017 using Cochran method. The study time interval was autumn and winter of 2018. Data analysis was done in two parts: descriptive and inferential. In the descriptive section, the status of the research sample was presented, and the status of the city of Shiraz was studied in terms of research variables. In the inferential section, to test the research hypotheses, the variancebased structural equation modeling (partial least squares) approach was used, and SPSS and Amos Graphic software were used for statistical analysis. Finally, by using the SWOT method, the strategies for realizing a happy city in Shiraz were presented.

    Results & Discussion

    According to the results of the study, the current status of happiness in Shiraz is above average, which is relatively good due to Iranchr('39')s very low level of happiness globally compared to global ones.  In terms of factors affecting the realization of a happy city, the environmental & sociocultural sociocultural factors were in the middle level, and other economic, physical and managerial factors were lower than the average, which indicate the inadequate status of these factors in the city of Shiraz. Moreover, of course, it shows that the people of Shiraz are, in themselves, happy people, regardless of the factors involved. However, given the impact of each of these factors, it can be seen that by prioritizing them and planning to improve each one, the happiness of the citizens will increase. Another important result of this study was the effect of independent variables on happiness, which was confirmed, and it was found that all 5 factors have a direct effect on happiness. By improving each of the affecting factors, the happiness of Shiraz will increase, and, on the contrary, by decreasing each of them, the happiness lowers down. Sociocultural Sociocultural, economic and physical variables were the most influential variables, followed by environmental and managerial variables, respectively.

    Conclusion

    In order to make the city happy, all of the influencing factors must be taken into account at the same time.  However, if we want to prioritize planning according to the status of the independent and dependent variables of the research and the extent of impact of each of them, the managerial variable should be the first priority of happy city planning and then socioeconomic variable, followed by the physical variable.  Considering the relatively appropriate status of environmental indicators and of course the importance of this indicator for sustainable development, which underlies the realization of a happy city, this variable must be considered along with other variables in all planning. Based on the results of strategic planning, defensive strategies were selected for the realization of happy city; among these strategies, the strategy of "strengthening the positive role of public and private institutions as an important and main factor influencing the realization of a happy city" was given to first priority.

    Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Happiness, Happy City, Shiraz., Strategic Planning
  • Abdolreza Roknodin Rokneddin Eftekhari, Neshat Omidvar*, Hossein Zanjanian Pages 105-137
    Introduction

    As the 21st century continues to unfold, the rural developments, life quality, and tackling environmental issues have become a worldwide concern in rural areas. Currently, in Iran, rural settlements are dealing with a variety of problems; one among many is unorganized physical conditions. Thus, rural managers have prepared, enacted, and implemented some developing plans such as the Rural Hadi Plans. These plans are considered as interdisciplinary programs that engage various companies and organizations such as Housing Foundation of Islamic Revolution, Provincial Government, Jihad Agriculture Organization, Rural Municipality, Department of Environment, etc. The complexity of this program emphasizes on demand for analyzing the relationships of among the abovementioned organizations in a more elaborated way, so as to help the managers to improve their relationships with other organizations and enhance their collaboration in order to reduce their possible conflicts. Hence, the principal aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between among the organizations related to the Islamroud Rural Hadi Plan.

    Methodology

    Considering the Islamroud village as the case study, in order to achieve the aim of this study, data was collected through library resources and documentary research. In addition, Social Network Analysis was applied as an effective method to evaluate organizational relationships. In this study, the network data was collected through a snowball sampling that it led to identify identification of 20 different organizations as focal organizations in Islamroud Rural Hadi Plan. In addition, some semi-structured interviews were conducted, and a specific questionnaire was designed based on the Likert scale (zero, very low, low, moderate, high, and very high) to report the intensity of relations. Besides, a part of the questionnaire investigated the collaborating and conflicting relationships that are filled by associated experts in 20 different organizations. Furthermore, UCINET and NETDRAW software were used to analyze the network measures and visualize the organizational relationships graph.

    Results and Discussion

    By analyzing network cohesion, the density of the whole network in communication relationships was %34.5, which is considered as the a low or relatively moderate amount. Also, the amount of in-degree centralization and out-degree centralization were %41.3 and %63.4, respectively. It means the lack of homogeneity and organizational cohesion in the network. Based on the results, more than half relationships were related to the core actors indicating their high political power. The amounts of reciprocity and transitivity were %57.8 and %52, respectively, indicating the existence of mediocre stability and balance in the network. Finally, the rate of average geodesic distances was 1.7, explaining the medium rate of communication speed in the organizational network, considering that the optimum amount is 1.5. There are some studies indicating the relation between network cohesion and the rate of plan/project progress. Therefore, based on the assumption, the rate of Islamroud Rural Hadi Plan progress during the defined period of time would be moderate or relatively low, and this statement is in consistency with the table of land uses from 2004 to 2016. Moreover, based on core/periphery result, many relations were connected to the core actors including Housing Foundation of Islamic Revolution, Provincial Government, County Office, Rural Municipality, Islamic Rural Council, Jihad Agriculture Organization, and Rural Water and Wastewater Company in which the density of core network was %80.4. Also, the results of centrality measures including In-degree/Out-degree centrality, Betweenness centrality, Eigenvector centrality, and Beta centrality showed that Housing Foundation of Islamic Revolution, Provincial Government, Rural Municipality, County Office, Governorate, Islamic Rural Council, Rural Water and Wastewater Company, and Jihad Agriculture Organization were the key stakeholders in the network. These organizations play a pivotal role in the preparation, enactment, and implementation of Rural Hadi Plan, and these findings are close to the core/periphery result. Finally, the analysis of collaborative and conflictive relationships indicated that the high rate of conflicting relationships regarding the Planning and Budget Organization is because of the low allocated budget to related organizations.

    Conclusion

    This study is conducted to analyze the structure of network relationships between the organizations interacting in the Rural Hadi Plan. The results demonstrate the mediocre or relatively low organizational cohesion, stability, and network balance that it can be improved with by increasing the level of relationships among periphery organizations. In other words, improving the relationships among the periphery organizations, rises the size and the density of the network and reduces the rate of centralization and thus enhancing enhances the level of organizational cohesion. Additionally, the centrality analysis determines the key actors (organizations) in 3 different sections of the Rural Hadi Plan (preparation, enactment, and implementation). The centrality analysis can help decision-makers to enact effective policies in order to increase the role of other organizations and effectively allocate the budget or additional resources.

    Keywords: Social Network Analysis, Organizational Relationships, Rural Development, Hadi Plan, Islamroud Village
  • Vahid Moshfeghi*, Samira Yousefian Pages 139-168
    Introduction

    Cites are affected by different forces. Changing Changes in the structure of the economy has caused different reactions from different groups of government, markets and people, that can be traced by its appearance in the city. One of the aspects of the impact of the economy on the city is physical interventions and urban construction, such as urban land use Changes changes, space utilization intensity, building congestion, and urban boundaries change. This study aims to explain the effect of economy on physical changes of the city. The researchers seeks the trace of capital flow in the city. The Research questions are as follows: 1- How is Tehranchr('39')s exchange rate and construction are related? 2. What is the nature and orientation of capital flow in the city? 3- How is the relationship between land price and physical interventions in 22 district of Tehran?

    Methodology

    This is an applied research and is one of among the causal and relational studies. The documentary and library-based methods is are used to collect and interpret data. First, the relationship between the exchange rate and the tendency to build in the city is examined using the index of building permits. In the second step, the level of intervention in the city is examined. In the third step, the district and regional effects of land price on the number of building permits were investigated through the spatial correlation between land price and building permits. The study area is 22 districts of Tehran. Tehran is the largest city and capital of Iran that has experienced rapid growth over the years. The area of Tehran has increased from 370 km 2  in 1975 to 751 km 2  in 2015.

    Results and discussion

    Currency exchange is associated with economic power. The increase in the exchange rate indicates the depreciation of the currency and the weakening of the economic power of the country. The turbulence in exchange rate fluctuations can be interpreted as instability in the countrychr('39')s economic conditions. At the first, the exchange rate changes and the number of building licenses were studied in different years. Accordingly, 2012 was identified as a breakthrough in exchange rate changes in the country. The result of Wilcoxon test shows that the number of building permits in Tehran before and after the 216% exchange rate jump in 2012, has changed significantly. A comparison of the annual average of building permits shows that the intensity of construction in the city has declined with the dollar price hike since 2012. The results of Kruskal-Wallis test indicate a significant difference among the 22 districts of Tehran municipality in terms of number of building permits and land price.Eventually, in conditions of economic stability, changes in the city are regular and it is subject to changes in land prices and market demand. But in conditions of economic instability and weakening, the common rules in physical interventions in the city and urban builders are disturbed. The demand elasticity and focus of the builders is limited to the high quality areas of Tehran (zones 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6) which create high value added. This exacerbates Class society.

    Conclusion

    The exchange value causes the city to be used as a commodity, the property of power-holders and capital, and to create added value. The easiest way to get [r1] it, is to invest in housing and buildings With the decline in economic power and the possibility for more power and capital intervention in the city, capital choose chooses one of the following ways.The capital flows from liquidity to real estate. Builders and physical changes in the city will be aimed not at reforming or meeting the need, but at creating a safe space for capital. Capital is directed to a place where it creates added value.The government seeks to drive capital out of real estate and direct it toward production.The phenomenon of space production has two aspects. One is consumer value, which comes from production and use. Second, the exchange value, which is profitable, rentier, intermediary and speculative in nature. The deceptive dimension of power must then be sought in exchange value, . Where where people try to take advantage of it. By transforming the city into a commodity, development becomes a tool for exchange value. The stronger the economy, the less foreign exchange capital flows into the land and the capital flows to production and consumption rather than to the exchange and commodification of limited land resources.Analyzes Analyses showed that the intensity of construction in Tehran has declined with the dollar jump since 2012.Analysis of the situation of Tehranchr('39')s 22 districts shows that there is a significant difference between the number of building permits and the price of land between Tehran municipality areas.

    Keywords: Power, Capital Flow, Physical Interventions, Spatial Structure, Tehran
  • Vakil Heidari Sarban* Pages 170-200
    Introduction

    Spirituality is acknowledged as an important part  of life by most individuals Spirituality is acknowledged as an important part  of life by most individuals Spirituality is acknowledged as an important part  of life by most individuals Spirituality has an important and individualized role in the overall well-being of a person, group, promotion of organization performance and human settlements such as urban and rural.  The way in which spirituality is experienced is unique for each person. Those with higher reported levels of spirituality have experienced positive benefits including, positive outcomes for those who are in recovery from substance addiction, decrease of suicide in young adults, reduction of competitive anxiety and achievement of higher levels of self-confidence and positive psychological functioning protection from depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation and enforcement of resiliency and struggle for decreasing of problems. Spirituality is an inclusive term boundless of any religious orientation or denomination: It is viewed as a motivating trait that remains stable over time. It inspires people to seek positive interactions for the benefit of others. Essentially this means humans are aware of their own mortality and therefore they strive to create a sense of meaning, purpose, and fulfillment.Spirituality has been associated with many positive outcomes. Overall, spirituality appears to provide a buffer to difficulty and increasing resiliency villagers versus of earthquake crisis resiliency of villagers on earthquake problems. Also, resiliency is defined in terms of the degree of psychopathology in a person who experienced negative life events. Fewer symptoms of psychopathology indicate higher levels of resilience.According to what was said the author field studies in rural areas of Varzgan city indicate this fact today, [r11] in rural areas, material and worldly values have replaced the sublime, sublime sacred and spiritual values. As a result, the resilience of the villagers to the hardships and difficulties of life has declined sharply. This means that the vitality of life in rural areas has dropped sharply and self-confidence of the villagers has been weekend.  And other villagers do not know how to resist and endure the difficulties and hardship of life. In addition, the weakness of spirituality in rural areas has made rural citizen less likely to rebuild their inner areas. Benevolence and otherness are gradually disappearing from their existence. They are not optimistic about the upcoming events and are not at peace with themselves. They are not much less to know the universe. [r12] They experience of noble life. Most lead a borrowed life. All of these components cause :first, spiritual values should be undermined in rural areas. The weakness of spirituality causes the amount of resiliency to decline was declined in the rural areas. Because it teaches spirituality teaches the art of living to human beings. Finally, the purpose of the present study was to explanation of spirituality in relation with improvement of villager’s resiliency on earthquake crisis in the rural areas of Varzeghan County.

    Methodology

    The purpose of the present was was to explanation of relationship between spirituality relation with and improvement of villager’s resiliency on earthquake crisis in the rural areas of Varzeghan County. It can be said that studied population in this study consists of all damaged villages of north Ozomdul Dehstan and households residing in this villages (N=398)  among which 196 persons were selected as statistical sample using Cochran formula. Sample size was determined based on the Cochran’s formula and the required data were collected through questionnaires. Content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by professors and experts and its reliability was determined based on Cronbachchr('39')s alpha (0.79-0.91)

    Results and Discussion

    The results of this beseech show that spirituality helps to promoting promotion of villagers’ resiliency versus on earthquake crisis. At Using this reason, moral humans create their personal virtually. Means,  it means that if human apprehend the meaning, philosophy and purpose of their life.  , the problems of life will be tolerated.   Additionally, spirituality helps to in increasing of resiliency versus on difficulty difficulties such as earthquake and other natural disasters, because abstract human has behavioral stability. In addition, spiritual humans love apprehending the existence. However, contemplative human has a stability, self-candor, self-love and positive self- knowledge. Also, ideal human is an optimistic, self-comprehended, just-oriented, responsible, introversion introverted, truthful, benevolent and self-reliance. Again, spiritual human has a positive individuality, self-confidence, gaiety and tolerance. Eventually, all above cases help in to enforcement of resiliency versus on difficulties.

    Conclusion

    The results of research show that, there are significant relations between all variables of research, except variables of self-honesty, introversion, positive individuality and self-reliance with improvement of villager’s resiliency on earthquake crisis in the rural areas of Varzeghan County. Finally, according to the study results, a number of recommendations are also presented. Since of occurrence of nature events, including earthquakes and other events, is are considered a natural events and probability of its their occurrence is probable at any time and place, therefore, it is recommended to that the villagers living in the studied area studied be informed. That The villagers of Varzeghan County consider the earthquake and its suffering and problems as a part of their lives so that they stand against it if it happens. In this regard, according to Nietzsche, instead of drinking beer on the plains, they should ease the pain of climbing mountains. According of to Nietzsche at this regard, in life the joys and sorrows of the twins are inseparable, it is also worthwhile to make arrangements that the flame of hope should not be extinguished in rural areas and among the villagers because otherwise, rural communities will succumb to the slightest unpleasant event. It is worthwhile to increase the level of psychological empowerment of villagers in case of crisis so that the villagers will not lose their morale and will be able to deal well with the earthquake disasters.

    Keywords: Spirituality, Resiliency, Earthquake Management, Crisis Management, Rural Development, Varzeghan County
  • Hossein Nazmfar*, Monir Shirzad Pages 201-229
    Introduction

    Land use is one of the most important biophysical and socio-economic characteristics in any watershed. The science of land change has recently been introduced as one of the fundamental components of global environmental change and sustainable development research. Monitoring land changes is important in future planning and natural resource management. Therefore, the need to detect such changes in an ecosystem is very important. Therefore, the need to detect such changes in an ecosystem is very important to take appropriate action if necessary. . Due to the fact that Lake Urmia is an important ecotourism center in Azerbaijan, with the drying up of the lake, Greater Azerbaijan and all the areas affected by this phenomenon will face a recession of domestic tourists. These factors, in turn, will lead to the migration of residents of the villages of this region to the surrounding cities and social problems in these cities. Its catchment area has been one of the water resources of this area[r11] . But the extent to which these changes, and especially the change in land use, have taken place, requires special study. In general, it is possible to study land use changes in both terrestrial and remote sensing methods. However, in recent decades, with the development of hardware and software facilities for processing satellite images, as well as the ease of access to multi-spectral and ultraviolet images, the use of remote sensing techniques to produce land use maps has become more common. The use of remote sensing technology has a special place in natural resource studies. Multi-time comparison, information updates, digital processing, data diversity, and data transfer speeds have made remote sensing the most important technology in detecting changes.

    Methodology

    The approach of the present study is developmental-applied and its descriptive-analytical method. According to the subject of the research and in line with the objectives defined in this research, satellite image with the specifications listed in Table (1) and the softwares of Google Earth, ENVI4.8, ArcGIS10.2 have been used. To use satellite imagery to perform techniques, all images must have the same coordinates. Remote sensing techniques, especially those used to classify land use and detect changes, are usually monitored and analyzed based on similar pixels in multi-time images; Corrections, images are not properly geometrically and radiometrically corrected, research accuracy is reduced. Thus, the satellite images of 1989, 2000, 2016, and 2019 were returned to the image with an RMS error of 0.42 pixels, capturing 20 control points from the image surface to the image method. In geometric correction, the ground control points were tried to have a good distribution at the image level so that the mathematical model used to calculate the unknown coefficients in the equation would have less error. To convert the corrected image coordinates to the non-corrected image, a second-order function was used. . In this study, the numerical value reduction method of dark pixels for radiometric correction of images has been used. In this method, a constant value of the total value of the pixels in a given band is reduced to apply radiometric corrections to each satellite image. In the next step, the images were mosaic due to the location of the study area in two women (1368-348)[r12] . Then, using field visits and the global location apparatus, instructional samples for each use (lake, agriculture, salt marsh, other lands) were identified in the study area.

    Results and discussion

    In this study, three supervised classification methods (neural network, backup vector machine and maximum probability) have been used to extract land use maps. By comparing the accuracy of the classification obtained from the methods mentioned in Table (2), it was found that the classification method of the backing vector machine with a cap rate of 99.75% is more accurate than other methods. According to the results of both classification methods of machine vector support and neural network, precise methods for extracting land uses and in separating the phenomena that have close spectral behavior are very successful, especially support vector machine  , which . Which was a bit successful.[r13] 

    Conclusion

    In this study, first, images of measuring satellites (MSS-TM-OLI) were used and the map of Urmia Lake, lake landscaping and its surroundings were was extracted by applying supervised classification (support vector machine, neural network and maximum probability). . Comparison of image stratification methods showed that the support vector machine method has more classification accuracy than the other two methods due to its general accuracy and higher capability coefficient. The results also show that satellite imagery has a significant ability to extract land uses. Also, in order to investigate the trend of land use change, maps extracted from satellite imagery in 1989, 2000, 2016 and 2019 were compared. Examination of land use maps in the three mentioned periods showed significant changes in land cover. These changes include: Agricultural land use area has increased significantly from 1989 to 2019 due to the favorable area for agriculture and drilling wells. Numerous and the use of aquifers has been underground . Analysis of Landsat satellite images showed that significant fluctuations in the lakechr('39')s water level have occurred over the years. So so that the water level changes of Urmia Lake from 1989 to 2016 have increased from 5348 to about 2705 square kilometers. However, from 2016 to 2019, due to heavy cross-sectional rains, it had an increase in water area of ​​1644 square kilometers. The images also show that the coastline, especially in the east and southeast of the study area, has a significant number of boys. From 1989 to 2000, the area of ​​this land use increased by 378 square kilometers. Also, between 2000 and 2016, its area continued to rise and increased to 786 square kilometers. However, due to the increase in cross-sectional rainfall during 2016 to 2019, the water level of the lake has increased and some of the salt marshes have been submerged and the land use area of ​​the salt marshes has decreased by 838 square kilometers.

    Keywords: Land Use Change, Remote Sensing Technology, Urmia Lake, Supervised Classification, Landst