فهرست مطالب

Nutrition, Fasting and Health - Volume:8 Issue: 3, 2020
  • Volume:8 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/06/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Amir Salari *, Saeid Khanzadi, Zeynab Rezaei Pages 141-144
    Introduction
    Water is vital for life, and its poor quality causes significant adverse effects on the health of individuals and the community. Groundwater is an important source of nitrate, and higher nitrate levels than the standard limits may lead to several health complications, such as hemoglobin metabolism and formation of nitro amino compounds. The present study aimed to determine the concentration of nitrate and nitrite in the drinking water of some universities in Iran. 
    Methods
    This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2016-2017 to measure the concentration of nitrate and nitrite in the drinking water of some universities in Iran, including Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Guilan University, Kerman University, Hamedan University, Chamran University of Ahvaz, Shiraz University, Qom University, Isfahan University, Sabzevar University, and Tehran University. In total, 156 samples were collected, and nitrate and nitrite concentrations were assessed using a HACH DR-5000 spectrophotometer (Germany). 
    Results
    The nitrate content in all the samples was below the standard limits. The highest level of nitrate was observed in the drinking water samples collected from Sabzevar University, and the lowest level was observed in the samples obtained from Guilan and Kerman universities. However, nitrite content was not detected in any of the samples. 
    Conclusion
    The World Health Organization standards for nitrate and nitrite levels in drinking water are less than 50 and 3 mg/l, respectively. Drinking water with lower levels of nitrate and nitrite than 50 and 3 mg/l is considered to be safe for public use. However, comprehensive studies are required for the monitoring of the chemical quality of water supplies and providing practical applications for the avoidance of the increased levels of these ions.
    Keywords: Nitrate, Nitrite, Iranian Universities, Drinking water
  • Ammar Salehi, Aref Momeni, Jamal Rahmani, Hamed Kord * Pages 145-150
    Introduction

    Ambient temperature is considered to be an influential factor in metabolism, and reduced/increased ambient temperature to the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) (20.3-23°C for covered populations) lead to metabolic changes, while also affecting the prevalence of obesity. The present study aimed to review the findings on the correlation of ambient temperature with obesity in various regions with ambient temperature. 

    Methods

    This systematic review was conducted in July 2019 via searching in databases such as PubMed and Scopus using three terms to describe the exposure and four terms for the outcome. The quality of the articles was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment. Among 461 selected articles, four cross-sectional studies were systematically reviewed. The quality of these studies was graded nine based on a nine-point scale. In addition, the four cross-sectional studies reported a correlation between the prevalence of obesity and ambient temperatures in various regions in Spain, Korea, England, and the United States. 

    Results

    An association has been reported between ambient temperature and obesity in various regions with ambient temperature, and increased ambient temperature to the TNZ has been associated with the higher prevalence of obesity, while higher temperature than the TNZ range has been reported to decrease the prevalence of obesity. 

    Conclusion

    Evidence suggests that ambient temperature may affect the prevalence of obesity. However, further investigations are required in different countries with wider temperature ranges in order determine the correlation between ambient temperature and the prevalence of obesity.

    Keywords: Obesity, ambient, Temperature
  • Sadegh Abdollahi, Khalid Mohamadzadeh Salamat *, Kamal Azizbeigi, Zaher Etemad Pages 151-158
    Introduction
    Deep heated oils produce toxins that pose significant risk to the human health. The present study aims to investigate the simultaneous effects of aerobic training and octopamine consumption on the mitophagy of the brown adipose tissue after the induction of intoxication by deeply heated oil in male Wistar rats. 
    Methods
    This study was conducted on 40 male Wistar rats after four weeks of feeding with heated oil. The animals were randomly assigned to the groups of control-intoxication (CI; n=8), exercise training-intoxication (ETI; n=8), supplement-intoxication (SI; n=8), supplement-exercise-intoxication (SEI; n=8), and healthy control (HC; n=8).Exercise training was performed for four weeks at the intensity of 50-65% VO2max for 20 minutes per session. Octopamine was used as the supplement for four weeks. In addition, intraperitoneal injection was carried out with the dose of 81 µmol/kg five days per week in the CI, SI, and SEI groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to evaluate the expression of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2A) genes. 
    Results
    No significant difference was observed in the PINK1 gene expression between the CI, ETI, and SEI groups (P˃0.05), while a significant difference was observed between the CI, ETI, and SEI groups with the HC in this regard (P≤0.05). The LAMP2 gene expression significantly was higher in the HC group compared to the other groups (P≤0.05). In addition, the LAMP2 gene expression in the SEI group was significantly higher than the HC group (P=0.001). 
    Conclusion
    According to the results, the combination of aerobic training and octopamine supplementation led to mitophagy induction through intoxication with heated oils by increasing the expression of the LAMP2A gene and induction of chaperones by the activation of the chaperones with binding to the LAMP2 receptor protein in the lysosome.
    Keywords: Octopamine, LAMP2A, PINK, Aerobic training
  • Fatemeh Roudi, Majid Sezavar, Omid Rajabi, Mohammad Safarian, Gholamreza Khademi, Mohsen Nematy, Golnaz Ranjbar * Pages 159-168
    Introduction

    Oxidative stress and inflammation could occur after major gastrointestinal surgeries. Selenium is a micronutrient with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which could improve the inflammatory markers in the children admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after gastrointestinal surgeries. Due to the lack of evidence on the potential effects of high-dose selenium on post-surgical critically ill children, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of high-dose selenium supplementation on the levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress status in pediatric patients after gastrointestinal surgery. 

    Methods and analysis:

     We will conduct a single-blinded, randomized, parallel group superiority trial at Akbar Pediatrics Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. The sample population will consist of 70 patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery, who will admit to the ICU at the selected hospital. The control group will receive the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) doses of selenium, and the intervention group will receive 20 µg/kg/d of selenium. The primary outcomes, (the pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) status, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)) will be measured before surgery and upon discharge time. The secondary outcomes, (serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) level and serum and urine selenium levels), will be measured before surgery, after surgery, and upon ICU discharge time. We will perform the intra-group and inter-group data analysis in SPSS software, and we will consider the intention-to-treat approach, statistical significance level of <0.05, and 95% confidence interval in all the statistical analyses.

    Keywords: Selenium, Inflammation, Oxidative stress, Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric
  • Mohammad Nasiri *, Alireza Lotfi Pages 169-175
    Introduction
    Fasting is one of the religious duties of Muslims; it has many benefits. However, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fasting on students' spiritual and mental health and control of aggression. 
    Methods
    Using a convenience sampling method, 300 students (150 girls and 150 boys) were selected as a sample from Azad University, Khoy branch in 2019. One week before the holy month of Ramadan (pre-test), the subjects completed the GHQ Mental Health Questionnaire, Palutzian-Elison Spiritual Health Questionnaire, and AAI Aggression Control Questionnaire; one week after the end of Ramadan (post-test), they completed the same questionnaires again. One-way analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. 
    Results
    The results showed that there was a significant difference in students' spiritual health, mental health, and control of aggression post-test scores. The effect of fasting on students' spiritual health, mental health, and aggression control post-test scores were 0.86, 0.89, and 0.88, respectively. 
    Conclusion
    The religious duties, especially fasting, impact on spiritual health, mental health, and aggression control of people in society. Therefore, the youth should be encouraged to perform these religious duties.
    Keywords: fasting, Spiritual health, Mental health, Aggression, Students
  • Ramona Massoud, Anousheh Sharifan * Pages 176-185
    Introduction
    Antimicrobial compounds have recently attracted the attention of researchers across the world. Essential oils (EOs) could be used as potent herbal antimicrobial materials and natural antioxidants in the food industry. The present study aimed to assess the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (REO) with variable phenol contents on the properties of probiotic yogurt containing Bifidobacterium bifidum. 
    Methods
    Yogurt was prepared by adding Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter and the Bifidobacterium bifidum as the probiotic strains. REO was also added at the three concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 3%. Titratable acidity, pH, syneresis, and rheological, microbial, and sensory properties were evaluated at three storage times (7, 14, and 21 days). The total phenol content was approximately 8.93±0.11 milligrams of gallic acid. 
    Results
    The bacterial activity significantly declined in all the samples during 20 days of storage (P<0.05), and the addition of REO decreased the lowering rate of bacterial growth in the probiotic and starter strains over 21 days. Moreover, refrigerated storage decreased the pH and viscosity (P<0.05), which increasing increased titratable acidity and syneresis (P<0.05). The probiotic yogurt with REO exhibited thixotropic non-Newtonian behavior, and the samples containing 1% REO had the highest scores of flavor, odor, texture, and overall acceptability. 
    Conclusion
    According to the results, high levels of phenolic compounds contributed to the biological, physicochemical, and rheological properties of probiotic yogurt, as well as its sensory scores.
    Keywords: Probiotic, bacterial activity, Essential oil, flow behavior, Yogurt
  • Afsaneh Salari, Mohammad Hashemi, Arash Mardani, Malihe Dadgar Moghadam, Zahra Khyrati, Sajedeh Yousefian, Asma Afshari * Pages 186-191
    Introduction
    An increasing interest concerning probiotics has emerged among the public, researchers, governmental organizations (such as the WHO/FAO), and medicinal and food companies. Little is known about probiotic consumption, despite its increasing availability. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the knowledge of the educated level of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran towards the benefits of probiotics. 
    Methods
    This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400   academic staff and students at Mashhad University of medical sciences through a designed checklist. The checklist includes demographic characteristic questions (age, sex, marital status, and education level) as well as questions evaluating the knowledge of individuals about the probiotics. Statistical analyses were done by SPSS, Software, Ver. 16.0. 
    Results
    The total number of the current study respondents was 400 with the mean age of 36.3 ± 12.8 and a majority of them were males (53.4%, n: 212), married (54.8%), and had an academic position (46.2%). Probiotic knowledge was significantly linked with marital status and those who were at the position of assistant professor (p<0.05). There was a significant association between the consumption of probiotic dairy products and education level (p<0.05), as the highest percentages of participants who consumed dairy products were assistants and associated professors (89.2% and89.1%, respectively). 
    Conclusion
    In this study, although the majority of the participants were aware of the presence of beneficial microorganisms in probiotics dairy products, they did not consume adequate amounts of dairy products and dairy-based probiotics. According to the information obtained from this study, there is a need for further education and promotion of the students in regards to the definition, oral benefits, and sources of probiotics.
    Keywords: Knowledge, Probiotic, Dairy Products, Consumption level
  • Fateme Shokri, MohammadAli Azarbayjani *, Maghsoud Peeri, Farshad Ghazalian Pages 192-198
    Introduction

    Changing today's dietary pattern has increased the share of deep-fried oils (DFO) in the daily diet. These DFO appear to have negative effects on the angiogenesis process of visceral adipose tissue. It seems that aerobic training(AT) and the intake of sympathetic mimicry herbal materials by stimulating the process of lipolysis and increasing the utilization of lipids can reduce the negative changes caused by the use of DFO.Present study aimed to review the effects of octopamine (O) and AT on VEGF and HIF-1a gene expression levels in visceral adipose tissue of rats fed with DFO. 

    Methods

    In this experimental study rats were divided into 1)HFO + O, 2) HFO + AT, 3) HFO + O + AT, 4) DFO- control and 5) healthy control groups. During 4 weeks the rats were given intra- peritoneal injection of 81 μmol/kg/dayO for 5 days per week. AT was also performed for 5 days per week with moderate intensity on the treadmill.Two- way ANOVA and independent sample t- tests were used for statistical analysis of data (P≤0.05). 

    Results

    DFO intake significantly increased visceral fat HIF-1 (P=0.001); While significantly reducedthe VEGF (P=0.021). AT significantly reducedHIF-1 (P=0.01) and increased VEGF (P=0.003). O administration also decreased HIF-1 (P=0.002) and increased VEGF (P=0.002). Osimultaneously with AThad no significant interactive effects on HIF-1 and VEGF (P≥0.05). 

    Conclusions

    It appears that O and ATcan improve the angiogenesis process of visceral adipose tissue, which was impaired by DFO and reduce the damage caused by DFO feeding.

    Keywords: Aerobic training, Octopamine, Angiogenesis, Visceral Adipose Tissue, Deep- Fried Oil
  • Fatemeh Ghannadiasl *, Neda Hoseini Pages 199-204
    Introduction
    The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction has significantly increased in the last years, and most previous studies have focused on the body mass index. The present study aimed to examine the association between body image and body composition among women. 
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 women attending a nutrition clinic in Ardabil during 2019. Data were collected using the multidimensional body self-relations questionnaire, anthropometric measurement, and body composition analysis. The data were analyzed in SPSS software (version 21.0) through a two-tailed test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. 
    Results
    Correlation analysis indicated a significant positive association of body composition with the subjective weight and overweight preoccupation subscales. The highest association of subjective weight subscale was found with body fat percentage followed by visceral fat level and trunk fat mass. Moreover, the highest association of overweight preoccupation subscale was with body fat percentage and visceral fat level followed by visceral fat area and trunk fat mass. The correlation between body composition components and the subjective weight subscale was stronger than that between body composition components and the overweight preoccupation subscale. 
    Conclusion
    Body image dissatisfaction was associated with body fat percentage, trunk fat mass, and visceral fat obesity among women attending a nutrition clinic. These results indicate the need for interventions designed to improve body composition, and consequently, body image dissatisfaction.
    Keywords: Body composition, body image dissatisfaction, Visceral Fat, Women
  • Mehrdad Modaresi *, Bita Mazaheri Pages 205-212
    Introduction
    Today, the use of medicinal herbs to prevent and slow down the progression of Parkinson's disease has attracted the attention of researchers. This research seeks to answer the question of whether the extract of leaf of olive can be used as an appropriate alternative to levodopa in reducing the symptoms of Parkinson's. 
    Methods
    In this study, 60 small mice were assigned in 6 groups including control, Parkinson, levodopa, and 3 groups receiving the hydroalcoholic extract of olive leaf in three doses of 50,100 and 200 mg/kg. All groups except the control group received paroxetine for 19 hours at subcutaneous intervals of 48 hours. After induction of Parkinson's by Rotenone, the drug group received levodopa ½ mg/kg of mice weight, and the extract groups received an intraperitoneal injection in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of mice, respectively, and 55 minutes after injection, each mice was individually evaluated behavioral by both Rearing test and bar test, and standard assessment indicators were checked and recorded through the analysis the review and recorded. 
    Results
    The results show that extract in a dose of 100 mg/kg in bar test compared with the drug group and other doses of the extract significantly increased the holding time of the bar by the mouse which indicating a reduction in the symptoms of Parkinson's. 
    Conclusion
    Based on the results, it seems that the hydroalcoholic extract of the olive leaf with a dose of 100 mg/kg of mice weight can be considered as a suitable alternative to levodopa in reducing Parkinson's symptoms.
    Keywords: Parkinson, Olive leaf, Levodopa, Alternative drug, Rearing test, Bar test, Mice
  • Zahra Shabani, Amin Mohammadi *, Ali Khajehlandi, Khadijeh Asadi Pages 213-219
    Introduction
    Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a psycho-neuroendocrine disorder in which biological, psychological, and social parameters are involved. Recently, regular and fun sports exercises and the use of some herbal medicines have been considered by researchers as the recommended treatment options for this syndrome. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of a selected period of exercise training and consumption of Vitex Agnus Castus extract on the psychological and physical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome in young girls. 
    Method
    This research was a quasi-experimental study conducted among female students living in Gachsaran Azad University dormitories. In this study, out of 75 female students with PMS who had the conditions to enter the study, 40 people were randomly selected and divided into 4 groups of 10 people, including:1) Aerobic Training, 2)Vitex extract consumption, 3)Aerobic Training+ Vitex, and 4) control. The training group performed 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks and 35 to 45 minutes each session at a maximum intensity of 55 to 65% of maximum heart rate. The Vitex group took 40 drops of Vitex Agnus Castus before breakfast with juice and six days before menstruation up to menstruation for two consecutive cycles. At the end of the eighth week, the PMS questionnaire was completed again by the subjects and the data analysis was performed in SPSS using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)at P≤0.05. 
    Results
    Eight weeks of aerobic training and consumption of Vitex extract had a significant effect on the psychological (P≤0.05) and physical (P≤0.05) symptoms of intervention groups compared to the control group (P≤0.05), but there was no significant difference between some intervention groups in terms of reducing physical symptoms(P≤0.05). Also, the effects of treatment in the Vitex+ Training group and the Vitex consumption group were higher than the Aerobic Training group (P≤0.05). 
    Conclusion
    Regarding the fun nature of exercises and low cost and low side effects of Vitexextract, it is recommended that young girls use aerobic training and Vitexextractas as an alternative treatment to treat and reduce PMS symptoms.
    Keywords: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), Vitex castus extract, Aerobic training, Young girls