فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:15 Issue: 3, 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/07/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Anoush Azarfar, Zahra Rafiee, Yalda Ravanshad, Niloufar Saber Moghadam, Elham Bakhtiari * Page 1

    Context: 

    The study aimed to systematically review the clinical data on the efficacy of Cystone® as an herbal treatment for urolithiasis.

    Methods

     Full text randomized clinical trials comparing Cystone® with placebo or citrate in patients with urolithiasis for urinary stone prevention or treatment were evaluated. Three databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library, were searched from January 2000 to December 2017. The main outcomes were the reductions in calculi number/size and urinary excretion rate of calcium, oxalate, and urate. The secondary outcome was the adverse effects of Cystone®. Documents were screened by two reviewers for eligibility. The Jadad score was used for quality assessment. The data were analyzed using the comprehensive meta-analysis version 2.2.064 software.

    Results

     Of 532 relevant studies, five were finally included. Cystone® was effective in the decrement of stone size in comparison with placebo (95% CI: 0.63, 9.13). There was a significant difference in the excretion rate of uric acid but not calcium compared to the placebo. Cystone® had no significant side effects.

    Conclusions

     Cystone® is more effective than a placebo in the treatment of urinary tract stones. It significantly induces stone size decrement and clearance compared to placebo. The low quality of reports is a major limitation in the applicability of these results.
     

    Keywords: Clinical Trial, Cystone, Urolithiasis’ Systematic Review
  • Ali ali Aghdam, Elham Karimi Sales, Javad Mahmoudi, Rafigheh Ghiasi, MohammadReza Alipour * Page 2

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disease that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. It seems that the reduction of oxidative stress or increasing antioxidant levels improves diabetic cardiomyopathy. Antioxidant effects of immunomodulatory drug (IMODTM) and also beneficial influences of exercise on diabetic complications have been shown. The present study examined the effects of IMODTM and exercise on cardiac oxidative stress and antioxidants in diabetes. For this purpose, 64 rats were divided into 8 groups: control (C), exercise (E), IMODTM (20 mg/kg) (I), exercise plus IMODTM (E + I), diabetes (D), diabetic rats treated with exercise (D + E), diabetic rats treated with IMODTM (D + I), and diabetic rats treated with exercise plus IMODTM (D + E + I). Treatments with exercise and/or IMODTM were performed for 8 weeks. Type 1 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. After the treatment period, all rats were anesthetized, and blood and heart samples were gathered for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress marker, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a cardiac injury marker, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as antioxidant enzymes. The present study, for the first time, showed that IMODTM alone or in combination with exercise had positive effects on alleviating hyperglycemia, MDA, and LDH along with elevation of antioxidant enzymes activities in type 1 diabetic rats.

    Keywords: Rat, Oxidative Stress, Diabetes, Heart, Exercise, IMODTM
  • Jamal Kasaian, Peiman Alesheikh, Ameneh Mohammadi * Page 3

    Context:

     Essential oils are secondary metabolites with versatile organic structures that, due to their compounds, have useful medicinal properties. There are about 250 species of the genus of Scutellaria perennial flowering plants from the Lamiaceae family. Its application for the treatment of allergy, inflammatory, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and hepatitis has a long history.

    Evidence Acquisition:

     Various studies on the chemical compounds of the Scutellaria genus have identified several ‎compounds, especially essentials oils. The current review is based on the evidence found in Chemical Abstract, Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar databases.

    Results

     Many studies on the chemical components of essential oils from the Scutellaria genus have identified several compounds. We summarized the chemical compositions and biological activities of Scutellaria essential oils. Hexadecanoic acid, germacrene D, β-caryophyllene, linalool, β-farnesene, and eugenol are the main compounds in essential oils of this genus. Despite many reports about essential oils of Scutellaria species (more than 38), a large number of species have not been studied yet. Therefore, several studies should be conducted on the chemical compounds and biological activities of unstudied Scutellaria essential oils.

    Conclusions

     This review has summarized reports on the chemistry and biological activities of Scutellaria essential oils,‎ such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifeedant, phytotoxic, and acaricidal toxicities, based on the recent literature.

    Keywords: Essential Oils, Chemical Composition, Lamiaceae, Biological Activities, Scutellaria
  • Pari Tamri *, Rasool Haddadi, Majid Pirestani Page 4
    Background

     Hypertrophic scars are the consequences of the aberration of normal wound healing. To date, therapeutic strategies for abnormal scarring have been unsuccessful. ‎‏The abnormal extracellular‎ matrix is one of the most important contributing factors to ‎hypertrophic scars. ‏Scrophularia striata has been used in Iranian folk medicine for the treatment of burn wounds. ‏The plant extract accelerates wound healing and attenuates scar formation.

    Objectives

     The study was performed to investigate the effects of Scrophularia striata hydroalcoholic extract (SSE) on MMP1, MMP8, fibronectin, collagen type І, and total collagen produced by human skin fibroblasts in the culture medium.

    Methods

     The effects of SSE on the expression of MMP1, MMP8, fibronectin, and collagen type І in human skin fibroblast (HSF) were evaluated using Q-PCR and Western blotting methods. In addition, the effect of SSE on the total collagen content was measured in cultured HSF using Red Sirius Kit.

    Results

     SSE significantly induced the expression of MMP1 and suppressed the production of fibronectin at the mRNA and protein levels. The total collagen content was significantly lower in SSE-treated cells than in untreated cells. SSE did not have any significant effect on MMP8 and collagen type І expression.

    Conclusions

     The results of this study revealed that SSE could modulate the extracellular matrix turnover and had the potential for the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scars.
     

    Keywords: Fibronectin, Hypertrophic Scar, Scrophularia striata, MMP1, MMP8, Total Collagen, Collagen Type І
  • Mojdeh Aein, Soudabeh Fallah *, Fatemeh Ahmadpour, Sheyda Dabili, Asie Shojaii, Reza Fadaei Page 5
    Background

     Natural products derived from various sources are being used to develop chemotherapeutic drugs. Euphorbiaceae is widely used to treat different types of cancers. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second and third cause of cancer in women and men, respectively. CRC is strongly associated with the deregulation of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PPAR) protein.

    Objectives

     The current study aimed to examine the effect of doxorubicin, ethanol extract, and the flavonoid-rich fraction of Euphorbia Splendida Mobayen on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death, APC gene expression, and PPAR concentration.

    Methods

     Following treatment of cells by Euphorbia ethanol extract, Euphorbia flavonoid-rich fraction, and doxorubicin, cell viability assay was used to investigate the viability status of the HT-29 cell line. Total RNA was isolated from the cell line and converted into cDNA. The expression level of the APC gene was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PPAR) protein was detected by the ELIZA method.

    Results

     We found that Euphorbia ethanol extract, Euphorbia flavonoid-rich fraction, and doxorubicin can stimulate dose-dependent cell death in the HT-29 cell line, increase ACP gene expression (P = 0.001, P = 0.041, P = 0.019), and decrease PARP level (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively).

    Conclusions

     The findings indicated that doxorubicin, ethanol extract, and the flavonoid-rich fraction of Euphorbia Splendida Mobayen had cytotoxic effects on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by possibly stimulating apoptosis.

    Keywords: Doxorubicin, Colon Cancer, Flavonoid, HT-29 Cells, Cell Death
  • MohammadReza Mehrabi, MohammadAli Shokrgozar, Tayebeh Toliyat, Masoomeh Shirzad, Azadeh Izadyari, Laya Zoghi Mofrad, Mohsen Chiani *, Azim Akbarzadeh, * Page 6

    Clinical application of vincristine sulfate as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and severe side effects. This study aimed to improve the bioavailability and reduce side effects of vincristine sulfate through entrapping in PEGylated niosomes. We evaluated the anticancer activity of PEGylated niosomal vincristine sulfate (PEG-nVCR) in a mouse model of lymphoma induced by BCL1 clone 5B1b cell line. PEG-nVCR was prepared by the thin-film hydration method. The prepared niosomes were characterized by size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The drug release pattern, neurotoxicity experiment, and in vivo anticancer activity of PEG-nVCR were evaluated by the dialysis diffusion method, rotarod performance test, and flow cytometry, respectively. The mean particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of nisomes were obtained around 220 nm, -19 mV, and 81%, respectively. A sustained release behavior was indicated by PEG-nVCR so that the maximum release of VCR from niosomes reached to 69% after 36h of incubation. After the treatment of mice by different formulations, a significant reduction in lymphoma cells in the spleen was obtained for the PEG-nVCR, as compared to the free vincristine sulfate. In the neurotoxicity experiment, a 2.5-fold lower motor incoordination effect was observed for the PEG-nVCR group with respect to the free VCR group. According to these findings, it can be concluded that the PEGylated niosomal formulation could be a suitable carrier for the delivery of VCR to the lymphoma cells or other related cancer cells.

    Keywords: Vincristine Sulfate, Drug Delivery, Niosomes, Cytotoxicity, Neurotoxicity
  • Tayebeh Tahamtan, Maryam Akhgari *, Zahra Mousavi, Alireza Jahanbakhsh Page 7
    Background

     Obesity is one of the health issues all over the world. Patients always demand convenient and fast methods for weight reduction. Hand-made herbal drugs are advertised by herbal practitioners to gain this goal. Unscrupulous manufacturers produce herbal products that are adulterated with hidden legal or illegal drugs to lose weight in a shorter period of time.

    Objectives

     The main purpose of the present study was to analyze hand-made herbal slimming drugs to detect undeclared active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Methods

     Forty hand-made herbal products sold as weight loss aid were prepared from 270 herb shops in Gilan province, Iran, in a six-month period. All samples were analyzed using UHPLC and GC/MS instrumentations.

    Results

     The results showed that 25% of collected herbal preparations contained caffeine. Moreover, an unlabeled herbal tablet contained metformin.

    Conclusions

     Herbal slimming products in Gilan province were not adulterated as much as herbal drugs collected from other provinces in Iran. However, adulteration practices may endanger the health or safety of consumers.

    Keywords: Hand-Made Herbal Drugs, Slimming Products, Adulteration Practice, Analytical Toxicology
  • Fataneh Hashem Dabaghian *, Asie Shojaii, Jinous Asgarpanah, Maliheh Entezari Page 8
    Objectives

     Regarding the high prevalence of cancer in Iran and the cytotoxic properties of T. polium, the current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and anti-mutagenicity effect of T. polium essential oil (TpEO) on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29).

    Methods

     HT29 cells were cultured in L-glutamine, RPMI Sigma (1640), with 10% of FBS (fetal bovine serum). Then, the cultures were incubated with 5% CO2 at 37°C, and MTT assay was used to recognize cell proliferation under the inhibitory influence of TpEO. The cell cycle progression was monitored by Sub-G1 apoptosis assay using flow cytometry. Eventually, the anti-mutagenicity property was evaluated using the Ames test employing TA100 and exposure to sodium azide as the carcinogenic substance.

    Results

     The cytotoxic effect of TpEO on HT29 cells was 66.867 ± 1.37 µg/mL. Cultured HT29 cells treated with TpEO exhibited morphological features of apoptosis. TpEO preventive effect was about 78.18%.

    Conclusions

     This study showed that TpEO may be useful for treating colon cancer.

    Keywords: Persian Medicine, Herbal Medicine, Mutagenicity, Teucrium polium, HT29 Cell Line, Anti-Neoplastic Agents
  • Shima Afshar, Fariba Afshar, Amir Rezazade, Zeinab Shaker Ardakani, Zahra Jafari Azar, Gholamreza Amin, Mamak Shariat Fedyeh Haghollahi* Page 9
    Background

    Menopause is a critical period with frequent sexual disorders.

    Objectives

    The current study assessed the therapeutic effect of a combination of the aerial part of Melissa officinalis, fennel fruit extract, and Nigella sativa seed powder on the sexual dysfunction of postmenopausal women.

    Methods

    This randomized clinical trial was performed on 48 menopausal women from April 2015 to October 2017. The participants included the menopausal women referring to the clinic of Gorgan health centers aged between 41 and 54 years with natural menopause (amenorrhea for at least 12 months) and discomfort in sexual activity. They were randomized into two treatment groups. Group 1 (n = 27) received 1000 mg capsules (Melissa officinalis, fennel extract, and Nigella sativa powder), and group 2 (n = 21) received a placebo (1000 mg starch capsules (in an eight-week course of treatment (one capsule per day for each group). The variables in the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire were compared in the two groups before and after the intervention.

    Results

    The results showed that the mean scores of sexual dysfunction in the domains of arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Despite many studies on the effectiveness of Melissa, Foenculum, and Nigella, this study showed that a combination of Foeniculum vulgare, Melissa officinalis extract, and Nigella sativa seed powder does not improve the sexual function of postmenopausal women with sexual dysfunction, and it might be the synergism effect of this combination.

    Keywords: Nigella sativa, Menopause, Melissa officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, FSFI Questionnaire, Fennel Fruits
  • Maryam Shirani, Layasadat Khorsandi *, Hadis Alidadi Page 10
    Background

    Most nanoparticles have adverse impacts on the liver, which is a vital body organ, by the induction of oxidative stress.

    Objectives

    This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of quercetin (QCT) against the toxicity of nanoscale titanium dioxide (NTiO2) in Wistar rats.

    Methods

    The present study was conducted on 32 adult female Wistar rats assigned into 4 groups of control, NTiO2 (50 mg/kg), NTiO2 + Quercetin (50 + 75 mg/kg), and Quercetin (75 mg/kg). The animals exposed to NTiO2 were administered by 50 mg/kg of NTiO2 for 21 days. The Quercetin + NTiO2 rats received Quercetin before exposing to NTiO2 for 7 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of serum were considered indicators of the hepatotoxicity. The oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver. TUNEL assay and histological changes were also assessed.

    Results

    The NTiO2 significantly elevated the MDA level (P < 0.01), enhanced the serum biomarker levels, reduced the CAT (P < 0.01) and SOD (P < 0.01) activities. The NTiO2 also aggregated the red blood cells, and caused inflammatory cell infiltration, nuclear pyknosis and fat deposit in hepatocytes, as well as induced apoptosis in the liver tissue. Pretreatment with QCT quenched oxidative stress, attenuated the histological changes, elevated the CAT (P < 0.01) and SOD (P < 0.01) activities, normalized the serum biomarker levels and decreased apoptosis (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The QCT has an inhibitory impact on hepatotoxicity induced by nanoparticles in rats.

    Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, Hepatotoxicity, Quercetin, Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
  • Firouz Ebrahimi *, MohamadReza Abedi Page 11
    Background

    An effective method to develop a safe vaccine against botulism is to utilize molecular biology techniques to produce recombinant antigens, which provoke the immune response in the recipient organism. A suggested antigen is a specific recombinant fragment of the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), which elicits the predictable immune response and does not have any toxic effects. In this study, the binding domain of the heavy chain of BoNT serotype A, which is the responsible subunit for binding to the receptor(s) of presynaptic membranes in neuromuscular junctions, is the selected fragment of this toxin to be recombinantly produced.

    Objectives

    In order to prevent a severe syndrome such as Botulism, developing efficient vaccines against it is a necessity. Efforts have been made to accomplish this throughout time; however, some have discontinued due to the risks and unreliability of their production and usage.

    Methods

    The encoding gene of BoNT/A-Hc was cloned into two different strains of Pichia pastoris, which were compared to each other based on the yield of the recombinant product.

    Results

    The results demonstrated that the expression of recombinant BoNT/A-Hc by PichiaPink strain was successful, and the achieved recombinant BoNT/A-Hc was subsequently purified and then verified by using the specific antibody and analytical methods.

    Conclusions

    In contrast, the expression results from the X-33 strain were not significant.

    Keywords: Vaccines, Recombinant Proteins, Subunit, Clostridium Botulinum A