فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 193 (تیر 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/04/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
|
  • بهروز برومند* صفحات 1-2

    پنجم شهریور ماه سال 1399خورشیدی زادروز محمدبن زکریای رازی (زادروز سال 865 ترسایی (مسیحی)- درگذشته 925 ترسایی) می باشد. جایگاه رازی در پیشینه دانش پزشکی بسیاردرخشان بوده است. دانشمندانی مانند زکریای رازی نام ایران را در دنیای باستان بلند آوازه نمودند. بررسی نوشته های گوناگون درباره پیشینه پزشکی در دنیا، نشان می دهد که ایرانیان سهم بزرگی در روند پیشرفت دانش پزشکی درسراسر گیتی داشته اند. برای نمونه فرازی از نوشته Goichon رابه زبان فارسی برگردانیده و برای آگاهی همگان می آورم. "هنگامی که نامی از فلسفه به زبان می آمد مردم به یونان می اندیشیدند و هنگامی که از دانش پزشکی یاد می شد نام ایران بیاد می آمد" (1). بیاد می آورم در سال پنجم دانشکده پزشکی دانشگاه تهران در سال 1342خورشیدی برای کارآموزی به بخش بیماری های داخلی بیمارستان رازی در شهر تهران فرستاده شده بودم. استاد فرهیخته زنده یاد دکتر مهدی آذر در نخستین روز برای دانشجویان سال پنجم دانشکده پزشکی دانشگاه تهران گفتند "باید برای پاسداری از نام پزشک ارزنده ای بنام محمد ابن زکریای رازی که بر پایه ستایش دکتر سارتن در پیشگفتار کتاب "تاریخ علم" (2) از زکریای رازی به عنوان "بزرگترین پزشک تمامی دوران ها" نام برده بکوشید تا در پزشکی بجایی برسید که نام ایران را بلند آوازه کنید. رازی تا سده هفدهم نامدارترین پزشک و پرچمدار پزشکی در جهان بشمار می رفت. ازهمان روز بر آن شدم که رازی را بیشتر بشناسم. ازاستاد دکتر آذر راهنمایی خواستم، با مهر بسیار کتابچه کوچکی از کتابخانه دفترخود به من دادند که فرازی از آن را هنوز به یادگار دارم، درباره رازی خواندم... "نشانه های بسیاری می رساند که روند کار پزشکی این بزرگان همگی برگرفته از آموزش های دانشگاه گندی شاپور (معرب آن جندی شابور می باشد) بوده است. کلاس های درس پزشکی رازی در بیمارستان ری و یادداشت های به جا مانده از آن دوران نشان دهنده همان روشی است که از دانشکده پزشکی گندی شاپور به یادگار مانده بود. نمونه ای از پزشکی رازی در بیمارستان و دانشگاه بزرگ ری را زنده یاد دکتر محمود نجم آبادی در کتاب ارزنده تاریخ پزشکی (3) در ایران چنین آورده: "...و سیاوش پورخسرو مبتلا به تب های مخلوط از زمان شش روز در میان تا هر روز بود و پیش از تب، مختصری لرز می نمود و به دفعات زیاد ادرار می کرد او اهل مشکویه بود. چنین نظر دادم که این تب ها یا باید به چهار یک مبدل گردد یا آن که بیمار دملی در کلیه ها داشته باشد. پس از اندک زمانی چرک با ادرار از بیمار خارج شد و من او را از قطع تب آگاه نمودم و چنان شد. علتی که در ابتدا مرا مانع شد که نظر قطعی دهم که بیمار دمل کلیه ها دارد این بود که بیمار قبلا نیز مبتلا به تب های یک روز در میان و نوع دیگر تب ها شده بود و گمان نمودم که این نوع تب مخلوط باید از تورم و التهاب حاصل شده بود و ممکن است به تب شدید تبدیل گردد". با گذشت بیش از هزار سال از آن زمان هنوز از دید من که یک پزشک بیماری های کلیه می باشم رازی در دانش پزشکی بسیار توانمند بوده است. آنچه از زکریای رازی گفته شده بود نشان دهنده ژرفای بینش پزشکی آن استاد آن هم در دورانی که دسترسی به آگاهی ها آسان نبود می باشد. برای آموزش پزشکی بسیار آموزنده است که شرح حال باید به درستی گرفته شود و درباره چرایی و چگونگی نشانه ها با ریزبینی بررسی کنیم و همه یافته ها را با بینش ژرف پزشکی کنار هم بگذاریم تا بیمار تندرستی را بازیابد. برای من باور کردنی نبود که شمار نوشته های زکریای رازی به 271 می رسد (5-4). از کتابی بزرگ مانند "الحاوی فی الطب" که در ده جلد با برگ های بسیار زیاد که همه پزشکی را به روشنی آموزش می دهد، تا کتابی همچون "الجدری و الحصبه " که در در دهه 1340 خورشیدی به نام "آبله و سرخک" به فارسی به وسیله انتشارات دانشگاه تهران چاپ شد و نشان می دهد که رازی در نوآوری پزشکی نیز بی مانند بوده و برای نخستین بار در دنیا، بیماری سرخک را شناخته بوده و یا کتاب ارزنده "من لایحضره الطبیب (کتاب الی من لایحضره الطبیب)" که برای هنگامی است که پزشکی دانش آموخته برای درمان بیمار در دسترس نباشد و همه 271 کتابی که نام آن ها پیوست می باشد نوشته است. اندوهبار آن است که بسیاری از کتاب های رازی که پاره ی از آن ها نیز درباره دانش های دیگر از فلسفه تا موسیقی می باشد در ایران شناخته شده نمی باشد. در جستجو برای کتاب های رازی به اسم کتاب "الحصی فی الکلی و المثانه" برخورد نمودم که دریافتم بدست آوردن آن بسیار دشوار می باشد. پس از پیگیری زیاد، یک نسخه از آن کتاب را در کتابخانه آیت آلله مرعشی در قم به زبان عربی و نسخه دیگری در کتابخانه ملی لیون فرانسه به زبان فرانسوی یافتم. با همراهی مترجمان فرهنگستان علوم پزشکی ایران این دو نسخه را به فارسی برگردانیده و پس از برابری آن دو نسخه با  سرور دکتر علی نوبخت که با هم عضو پیوسته فرهنگستان علوم پزشکی جمهوری اسلامی ایران بودیم با همراهی فرهنگستان علوم پزشکی جمهوری اسلامی ایران در سال 1387 خورشیدی به فارسی به نام "سنگ کلیه و مثانه" (6) در تیراژ 2000 جلد چاپ نمودیم که باید بگویم بی شک هنوز پس از هزارسال برای پیشگیری و درمان سنگ های کلیه سودمند می باشد. و سخن آخر اینکه امیدوارم با همراهی دانشجویان دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران بتوانیم همه کتاب های رازی را برای مجله ای که به نام این دانشمند بزرگ در دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران داریم به فارسی بر گردانیم تا کوتاهی پشینیان خود راجبران کنیم. ایدون باد (اینچنین باد).

  • داود نظرپور، احمد حیدرنیا، سید مصطفی پور یحیی، رضا داورنیا* صفحات 3-14
    زمینه و هدف

    رویکرد تصویرسازی ارتباطی یک نظریه و شیوه درمانی در مورد همسریابی، ازدواج و فرایند شکل گیری تعارضات زناشویی است. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی تاثیر زوج درمانی گروهی به شیوه تصویر سازی ارتباطی (ایماگوتراپی) بر بهبود کیفیت روابط زناشویی زوج ها انجام شد.

    روش کار

    این مطالعه به شیوه نیمه آزمایشی و با بهره گیری از طرح پیش آزمون- پس آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعه آماری این پژوهش زوج هایی بودند که به مرکز مشاوره و خدمات روان شناختی راستین در شهر گرگان در نیمه دوم سال 1396 مراجعه نموده بودند. نمونه این مطالعه 16 زوج بودند که به شیوه در دسترس انتخاب و با تخصیص تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل (هرکدام 8 زوج) جایگزین شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسشنامه وضعیت زناشویی گلومبوک- راست بود. جلسات زوج درمانی به شیوه تصویرسازی ارتباطی برای زوجین گروه آزمایش در 8 جلسه 120 دقیقه ای به شیوه گروهی اجرا شد، اما گروه کنترل مداخله ای دریافت نکردند. داده ها توسط آزمون تحلیل کوواریانس تک متغیری در نرم افزار SPSSV24 مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند.

    یافته ها

    نتایج تحلیل کوواریانس نشان داد که با کنترل اثر پیش آزمون، بین میانگین گروه آزمایشی و کنترل تفاوت معنی داری وجود داشت که نشان دهنده اثربخشی زوج درمانی به شیوه تصویر سازی ارتباطی در بهبود کیفیت روابط زناشویی زوج های گروه تحت مداخله است (65/72= F و 01/0<p).

    نتیجه گیری: 

    با توجه به نتایج پژوهش توصیه می شود، مشاوران و درمانگران خانواده از این مدل درمانی جهت حل تعارضات زناشویی زوج ها و بهبود روابط در خانواده استفاده نمایند.

    کلیدواژگان: زوج درمانی، تصویرسازی ارتباطی، کیفیت روابط زناشویی، تعارض، زوج
  • محمد خمرنیا، زینت مرتضوی، محبوبه عودی، محبوبه دهمرده، عزیز کسانی، مصطفی پیوند* صفحات 15-24
    زمینه و هدف

    تغذیه انحصاری با شیر مادر، موثرترین روش تغذیه نوزاد تا پایان 6 ماهگی است و میتواند از چاقی در بزرگسالی پیشگیری نماید، با توجه به نقش خطر ساز چاقی درکودکان که یکی از مهم ترین عوامل شیوع بیماری های زمینه ای در بزرگسالی است، لذا مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین رابطه تغذیه با شیر مادر و نمایه توده بدنی کودکان دبستانی انجام گردید.

    روش کار

    این پژوهش مقطعی با هدف کاربردی درسال1396در شهر زاهدان انجام شد. جامعه پژوهش شامل تمامی کودکان12-6 ساله دبستانی شهر زاهدان بود که تعداد443 کودک با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای-طبقه ای انتخاب شدند. داده ها به کمک پرسشنامه محقق ساخته عوامل مربوط به شیر خوار و عوامل تاثیر گذار برتغذیه انحصاری جمع آوری شدند. همچنین نمایه توده بدنی کودکان نیز محاسبه گردید. داده ها با کمک نرم افزار  SPSS-V21و با استفاده از آمار توصیفی و آزمون کای اسکور تحلیل شدند.

    یافته ها:

     در این مطالعه324 دختر (1/73%) و 119 پسر (9/26%) با میانگین وزنی4/10±3/30 کیلوگرم مورد بررسی قرارگرفتند. نتایج مطالعه نشان داد که نمایه توده بدنی کودکان دبستانی با وزن هنگام تولد، نحوه تغذیه نوزاد از بدو تولد تا 6 ماهگی و مبتلا بودن مادر به بیماری زمینه ای ارتباط معکوس معنی داری را دارد (5/0›p). نمایه توده بدنی با رتبه تولد، سن هنگام تولد، مراقبت های بهداشت دوران بارداری و بارداری مجدد در دوران شیردهی با نمایه توده بدنی رابطه معنی داری را نشان نداد (05/0‹p).

    نتیجه گیری:

     بر اساس یافته های مطالعه تغذیه با شیر مادر اثرمحافظتی بر روی شاخص توده بدنی طبیعی در دوران کودکی دارد. آموزش بیشتر و دقیق تر می تواند در بهبود تغذیه انحصاری با شیر مادر به والدین به ویژه مادران و نیز مراقبان سلامت به پیشگیری از اضافه وزن و چاقی کودکان در آینده کمک کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: تغذیه، شیر مادر، نمایه توده بدنی
  • شیرین سیاح فر، غلامرضا بیاضیان*، احسان طورچی صفحات 25-36
    زمینه و هدف

    بیوفیلم، اجتماع سازمان یافته ای از باکتری ها درون یک ماتریکس خارج سلولی غنی از پلی ساکارید، اسید نوکلییک و پروتیین است. در این مطالعه قصد داریم تا ارتباط کشت بافتی آدنویید و میکروارگانیسم های موجود در آن را در کنار درجه بیوفیلم در کودکان مبتلا به انسداد راه هوایی فوقانی، بررسی کنیم.

    روش کار

      این مطالعه مقطعی در فاصله زمانی پاییز 93 تا پاییز 94، روی کودکان کاندیدای عمل جراحی آدنوییدکتومی با علایم انسداد مجاری هوایی فوقانی انجام شد. اطلاعات دموگرافیک هر بیمار در پرسشنامه وارد شد. پس از آدنوییدکتومی، نمونه آدنوییدکتومی شده جهت انجام کشت و بررسی میکروسکوپ الکترونی ارسال گردید. بررسی های آماری با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS انجام گرفت.

    یافته ها:

     51 کودک با متوسط سنی 31/7 سال در این مطالعه وارد شدند.  متوسط تعداد عفونت راه هوایی فوقانی در طول یکسال گذشته ، 58/9 بار بود. ساختار بیوفیلم، خرخر شبانه و تنفس با دهان باز در 100% افراد دیده شد. سایز آدنویید برای 30 بیمار Grade IV، گزارش شد. 26 مورد از کشت بافتی نمونه آدنویید بیماران، آلفا همولیتیک استرپتوکوکوس ویریدانس، و 1 مورد با کشت منفی بوده است. بین گرید آدنویید و گروه های مختلف کشت، اختلاف معنی دار آماری مشاهده شد (003/0=p).

    نتیجه گیری: 

    در این مطالعه افزایش گرید سطح پوشیده شده از بیوفیلم آدنویید، بطور معناداری با تعداد دفعات عفونت راه هوایی فوقانی مرتبط بود. بنابراین، حضور بیوفیلم در آدنویید به عنوان یک مخزن عفونت، موجب ازمان التهاب بوده و می تواند توجیه کننده اثر بخشی آدنوییدکتومی به عنوان یک راهکار درمانی شناخته شده در کودکان مبتلا به عفونت های مکرر راه هوایی فوقانی باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: بیوفیلم، آدنوئید، انسداد راه هوایی فوقانی، عفونت مجاری تنفسی فوقانی کودکان
  • نسرین مجیدی قره ناز، منصوره موحدین*، زهره مظاهری صفحات 37-48
    زمینه و هدف

    ایجاد اسپرماتوژنز آزمایشگاهی با استفاده از سلول های اسپرماتوگونی نیازمند بستر مناسب برای رشد و تکثیر سلول ها می باشد. ماتریکس خارج سلولی بیضه ای به عنوان یک داربست بیولوژیکی می تواند برای چسبندگی، تکثیر، مهاجرت و تمایز سلولی عمل کند. هدف مطالعه ما سلول زدایی بافت بیضه به صورت کامل برای تهیه داربست و بررسی چسبندگی سلول های اسپرماتوگونی پس از تزریق به درون داربست می باشد.

    روش کار

    به منظور تهیه داربست، از بیضه های موش و غلظت های مختلف دترجنت ها استفاده گردید. کارایی فرآیند سلول زدایی با استفاده از رنگ آمیزی هماتوکسیلین- ایوزین و اندازه گیری محتویات DNA بررسی گردید. برای ارزیابی حفظ اجزاء ماتریکس خارج سلولی از رنگ آمیزی تری کروم ماسون، آلشین بلو و ایمونوهیستوشیمی و کیت استفاده گردید. سپس سلول های اسپرماتوگونی جدا شده از بیضه نوزاد از طریق مجرای وابران به داربست ها تزریق شد و سپس به مدت دو هفته بر روی ژل آگارز کشت داده شد. بررسی های بافت شناسی درپایان کشت انجام گردید.

    یافته ها:

     استفاده از سدیم دودسیل سولفات دودسیل سولفات 5/0 درصد و تریتون 5/0 درصد منجر به حذف کامل سلول ها از بافت گردید. رنگ آمیزی اختصاصی و ایمونوهیستوشیمی حفظ کلاژن، فیبرونکین و لامینین و گلیکوزآمینوگلیکان ها در داربست بیضه ای را تایید کرد. تست MTT نشان داد که داربست ها زیست سازگار بوده و تاثیر منفی بر بقای سلول های فیبروبلاست جنین موشی ندارند. نتایج ارزیابی بافت شناسی نشان داد که که سلول ها در داربست بیضه ای نشست کرده اند. 

    نتیجه گیری:

     روش سلول زدایی ما، پروتیین های مهم ماتریکس خارج سلولی را در داربست های بیضه ای حفظ نمود. داربست ها، زیست سازگار بوده و تاثیر منفی بر بقای سلول های فیبروبلاست جنین موشی و اسپرماتوگونی نداشتند.

    کلیدواژگان: داربست، بیضه، ماتریکس خارج سلولی، سلول بنیادی اسپرماتوگونی
  • بابک بی نیاز، هاجر عباس زاده*، پروین فرزانگی صفحات 49-59
    زمینه و هدف

    استیوآرتریت در نتیجه نقص در یک مفصل متحرک پوشیده از غشای سینوویال بوده و با تخریب غضروف هیالین مشخص می شود.  پژوهش حاضر به منظور بررسی اثر سلول های بنیادی و گلوکز آمین بر بیان ژن BSPII و سطوح  CPII در بافت غضروف موش های آرتروزی در معرض تمرین تحمل وزن انجام شد.

    روش کار

    پژوهش حاضر از نوع تجربی بود. بدین منظور، تعداد 70  سر موش نر ویستار 8 هفته ای به طور تصادفی به 10 گروه؛ کنترل-سالم، کنترل-بیمار، تمرین-بیمار، سلول-بیمار، گلوکزآمین-بیمار، سلول-گلوکزآمین-بیمار، تمرین-گلوکزآمین-بیمار، سلول-تمرین-بیمار، سالین-بیمار، سلول-گلوکزآمین-تمرین-بیمار تقسیم شدند. استیوآرتریت با آسیب به مینیسک ها و غضروف به موش های نر القاء شد. برنامه تمرینی شامل 30 دقیقه دویدن روی ترمیل بدون شیب با سرعت 16 متر در دقیقه بود. سلول های بنیادی مشتق از استخوان نیز به تعداد 1000000 سلول بر کیلوگرم به موش ها تزریق شد. گلوکز آمین به طور خوراکی به میزان 250 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم در روز به موش ها داده شد. بیان ژن BSPII به روش  Real time PCR و سطوح  CPII بافت غضروف به روش الایزا اندازه گیری شدند.

    یافته ها: 

    نتایج آزمون ANOVA تفاوت معنی داری را در بیان ژن BSPII و سطوح  CPII بافت غضروف بین گروه های پژوهش نشان داد (0001/0<p). گروه تمرین+گلوکزآمین+سلول بیشترین کاهش و نزدیک ترین مقادیر به سطح گروه کنترل-سالم را در بیان ژن BSPII و سطوح  CPII بافت غضروف داشته است (0001/0<p).

    نتیجه گیری: 

    به طور کلی، یافته ها نشان داد که استیوآرتریت موجب افزایش بیان ژن BSPII و سطوح  CPII بافت غضروف شده و ترکیبی از سلول+گلوکزآمین+تمرین موثرتر از تمرین، سلول و گلوکزآمین به تنهایی برای کاهش این شاخص ها و بهبود استیوآرتریت زانو در موش ها بود.

    کلیدواژگان: تمرین، گلوکزآمین، سلول بنیادی، استئوآرتریت
  • نورالله علیزاده نوروزبولاغی، یعقوب پوراسد* صفحات 60-73
    زمینه و هدف

    سرطان پستان مهم ترین و رایج ترین بیماری در بین زنان است که دومین میزان مرگ و میر را بعد از سرطان ریه به خود اختصاص داده است. ماموگرافی دیجیتال تصویر گرفته شده با استفاده از اشعه x برای تجزیه و تحلیل، تفسیر و تشخیص می باشد. تشخیص خودکار سرطان پستان در تصاویر ماموگرافی یک وظیفه چالش برانگیز در بین سیستم های تشخیص به کمک کامپیوتر(CAD) می باشد.

    روش کار

    در این مقاله یک راهکار برای تشخیص اتوماتیک سرطان پستان ارایه شده است. راهکار ارایه شده شامل 3 مرحله اصلی استخراج ناحیه پستان، حذف عضله پکتورال و طبقه بندی ویژگی های استخراج شده به دو دسته سرطانی و غیر سرطانی می باشد.

    یافته ها

    برای قطعه بندی از روش آستانه گذاری اتسو و سپس حذف عضله پکتورال با استفاده از انتخاب پیکسل دانه و الگوریتم رشد ناحیه میسر شده است. در مرحله بعدی ماتریس هم وقوعی خاکستری تصویر (GLCM)که توصیف کننده بافت تصویر است ایجاد شده و 16 ویژگی از آن استخراج می شود. در نهایت طبقه بندی های مختلفی برای تفکیک ناحیه پستان به بافت های نرمال و سرطانی، آموزش داده می شوند. در نتایج به دست آمده نرخ تشخیص صحیح 100 درصد برای شبکه عصبی و3/96 درصد برای طبقه بندهای درخت تصمیم گیری (C5.0,CHAID) بدست آمده است.

    نتیجه گیری:

     اعتبار سنجی راهکار ارایه شده در این مقاله با استفاده از داده های پایگاه mini-MIAS انجام شده است و نتایج با کار های قبلی انجام شده مقایسه شده است که نشان می دهد راهکار ارایه شده می تواند با اطمینان برای تشخیص سرطان پستان اعمال شود.

    کلیدواژگان: سیتم CAD، سرطان پستان، قطعه بندی، استخراج ویژگی، شبکه عصبی مصنوعی، درخت تصمیم گیری
  • عاطفه کاظمی، شهرام علم*، زهرا هژبرنیا صفحات 74-87
    زمینه و هدف

    سبک زندگی فعال یکی از عوامل اصلی در ارتقای سلامت می باشد. هدف پژوهش حاضر مدل سازی عوامل موثر بر توسعه ورزش به عنوان عامل مهم سلامت بانوان جمهوری اسلامی ایران بود.

    روش کار

    در این پژوهش توصیفی- همبستگی که با رویکرد مدل معادلات ساختاری به روش میدانی انجام گرفت، تعداد 409 نفر به روش نمونه گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند. ابزار این پژوهش شامل پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود که روایی آن به روش تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و تاییدی و پایایی آن به روش ثبات درونی تایید شد. داده های جمع آوری شده به روش تی تک نمونه ای، آزمون فریدمن و مدل معادله ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزارهای SPSS-20 و AMOS20 مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت.

    یافته ها

    نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که هر یک از عوامل سازمانی، محیطی و رفتاری بر توسعه ورزش بانوان جمهوری اسلامی ایران به عنوان عامل مهم سلامت تاثیر معنی داری دارد (05/0>p). همچنین مدل فرضی تحقیق بر توسعه ورزش بانوان جمهوری اسلامی ایران به عنوان عامل مهم سلامت دارای برازش مطلوب است. اما بین عوامل سازمانی، محیطی و رفتاری بر توسعه ورزش بانوان جمهوری اسلامی ایران به عنوان عامل مهم سلامت تفاوت معنی داری وجود ندارد (05/0> p).

    نتیجه گیری

    نتایج تحقیق نشان دهنده اهمیت مولفه های سازمانی، رفتاری و محیطی بر توسعه ورزش بانوان جمهوری اسلامی ایران و تامین زیرساخت های لازم برای توسعه ورزش برای ارتقای سطح سلامت بانوان و نقش مسیولان را در به کارگیری این مولفه ها در توسعه سلامت و ورزش بانوان می طلبد.

    کلیدواژگان: سلامت، ورزش بانوان، توسعه
  • احمد شکرالهی اردکانی، حسین عابد نطنزی*، ماندانا غلامی، نادر شاکری صفحات 88-95
    زمینه و هدف

    افزایش رهاسازی گلوکز کبدی به دلیل اختلال در عملکرد آنزیم های موثر در فرآیند گلوکونیوژنز کبدی از مشخصه های اصلی دیابت نوع 2 است. هدف از انجام تحقیق حاضر تعیین تاثیر 12 هفته تمرین مقاومتی بر بیان گلوکز 6 فسفاتاز (G6Pase) در سلول های کبدی و همچنین سطوح گلوکز و عملکرد سلول های بتا در رت های دیابتی نوع 2 انجام بود.

    روش کار

    در این مطالعه تجربی، 16 رت نر نژاد ویستار با میانگین وزنی 20±220 گرم به طور تصادفی در دو گروه تمرین مقاومتی (8 = n) و گروه کنترل (8 = n) قرار گرفتند. رت ها با تزریق نیکوتین آمید به مقدار 95 میلی گرم به ازای هر کیلوگرم وزن بدن و بعد از 15 دقیقه تزریق STZ به مقدار 55 میلی گرم به ازای هر کیلوگرم وزن بدن به صورت درون صفاقی دیابتی شدند. گروه تمرین مقاومتی 12 هفته، 5 جلسه در هفته در قالب 3 دوره 6 تکراری در هر جلسه تمرینات خود را انجام دادند. 48 ساعت پس از آخرین جلسه تمرین، متغیرهای تحقیق اندازه گیری شدند. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل استنباطی داده ها از آزمون تی مستقل استفاده شد.

    یافته ها: 

    در مقایسه با گروه کنترل، تمرینات مقاومتی به کاهش معنی دار گلوکز ، عملکرد سلول های بتا و کاهش بیان G6Pase در سلول های کبدی منجر شد.

    بحث و نتیجه گیری: 

    به نظر می رسد نتایج حاصل از تحقیق حاضر تایید کننده نقش تمرین مقاومتی در بهبود تغییرات سطح گلوکز و عملکرد سلول های بتا و همچنین بیان ژن های گلوکونیوژنیک کبدی نسبت می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: تمرین مقاومتی، عملکرد سلول های بتا، گلوکو 6 فسفاتاز، فسفوانول پیروات کربوکسیاز، دیابت نوع 2
  • زهرا سلیمی*، نسترن زمانی، رضا حیدری، وحید نجاتی، آزاده اسکندری صفحات 91-105
    زمینه و هدف

    دیابت قندی یک بیماری متابولیکی است که منجر به آسیب و عوارض جانبی در بافت های بدن از جمله بافت بیضه می شود. با توجه به اهمیت گیاهان دارویی، در این تحقیق اثر عصاره آبی میوه سماق بر آسیب های بافت بیضه بررسی شد.

    روش کار

    در این تحقیق از 30 موش نر بالغ به وزن 180 تا 230 گرم استفاده شد. موش ها به 5 گروه تفسیم شدند. به موش های گروه کنترل هم حجم ماده تزریقی سرم فیزیولوژی تزریق شد. موش های گروه دوم، با تزریق داخل صفاقی آلوکسان با دوز  120 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن،دیابتی شدند. به موش _های گروه سوم، چهارم و پنجم علاوه بر تیمار مشابه گروه دوم، عصاره با دوزهای  50، 100 و 250 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن به مدت 4 هفته گاواژ گردید. در پایان دوره تیمار، بافت بیضه جدا شد و برای بررسی های هیستولوژی آماده شد.

     یافته ها

    وزن بدن در گروه دیابتی در مقایسه با گروه کنترل کاهش معنی دار (05/0>p) نشان داد. در حالی که تیمار با عصاره منجر به افزایش معنی دار وزن بدن نسبت به گروه دیابتی شد (05/0>p). وزن بافت بیضه در گروه دیابتی کاهش و در گروه های تحت تیمار با عصاره نسبت به گروه دیابتی افزایش نشان داد، اما تغییرات از نظر آماری معنی دار نبود. آزمایش های  بافت شناسی نشان داد که عصاره)250 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم وزن بدن) موجب بهبود عوارض جانبی ناشی از دیابت در بافت بیضه موش های دیابتی می شود.

    نتیجه گیری

    نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد که سماق در کاهش عوارض ناشی از بیماری دیابت موثر است.

    کلیدواژگان: سماق، دیابت قندی، آنتی اکسیدان، هیستوپاتولوژی
  • هانیه قهوچی خلیق، یعقوب پوراسد*، سرلی مقدس قولیان صفحات 106-123
    زمینه و هدف

    از آنجایی که تشخیص غدد سرطانی و بدخیم ریه با استفاده از روش های عکس برداری نظیر CT -Scan و بدون نیاز به نمونه برداری باعث کاهش ریسک پخش شدن ندول سرطانی می شود، بنابراین توسعه یک سیستم تشخیصی کامپیوتری جهت پردازش تصاویر و غدد ریوی و سپس طبقه بندی آن ها به دو دسته خوش خیم و بدخیم، در تشخیص زودهنگام سرطان ریه و نجات جان بیماران نقش بسزایی ایفا می کند. هدف از این پژوهش، دستیابی به دقت طبقه بندی بالاتر و در نتیجه دقت تشخیص بالاتر غده های بدخیم و خوش خیم می باشد.

    روش کار

    در این پژوهش الگوریتم هایی که پیش از این برای طبقه بندی غدد ریوی استفاده شده، معرفی می شود و در نهایت الگوریتم پیشنهادی ارایه می شود. در الگوریتم پیشنهادی ابتدا تصاویر سی تی اسکن ریه پیش پردازش شده و سپس به وسیله کانتور فعال چن-وسه، ناحیه ندول استخراج می شود. از ناحیه قطعه بندی شده، ویژگی های هیستوگرام، بافت و هندسی استخراج می شود. سپس این ویژگی ها با استفاده از دو طبقه بند SVM و KNN، ندول های ریوی را به دو دسته خوش خیم و بدخیم طبقه بندی می کنند.

    یافته ها:

     نتایج حاصل از پیش پردازش های اعمالی بررسی می گردد. سپس تصاویر پیش پردازش شده توسط الگوریتم چن-وسه قطعه بندی شده و ناحیه استخراج شده و تحت الگوریتم های استخراج ویژگی قرار گرفته و 25 ویژگی مختلف بافتی و هندسی برای هر غده از این نواحی استخراج می گردد. در مرحله آخر، توسط داده های استخراج شده، طبقه بند های SVM و KNN اقدام به طبقه بندی غدد می کنند. معیارهای دقت، حساسیت و میزان اختصاصی بودن در طبقه بند برتر % 8/90، % 100 و 89% بدست می آید.

    نتیجه گیری:

     این روش علاوه بر دقت بالا در تشخیص، روشی کم هزینه و کم خطر نیز می باشد. روش پیشنهادی بخاطر دارا بودن حساسیت بسیار بالا و همچنین دارا بودن مقادیر مطلوب دو معیار دقت و میزان اختصاصی بودن و تعداد پایین ویژگی های مورد استفاده جهت طبقه بندی، بعنوان یک روش کارآمد و مناسب جهت طبقه بندی غدد ریوی پیشنهاد می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: پردازش تصویر، سرطان ریه، ندول، غده، تصاویر سی تی اسکن، طبقه بندی
  • مهدی انگوتی، حمید رجبی*، رضا قراخانلو، محمدرضا دهخدا صفحات 124-130
    زمینه و هدف

    دیابت و آسیب به بافت های مختلف از جمله بافت عصبی یکی از مشکلات جوامع مختلف می باشد. هدف از انجام این پژوهش تعیین تاثیر تمرین هوازی و مصرف ال کارنیتین بر آنزیم های میتوکندریایی Malonyl-CoA و CPT2  در هیپوکامپ رت های دیابتی بود.

    روش کار

    برای انجام تحقیق تجربی حاضر 45 سر رت نژاد ویستار 250 تا 300 گرمی، از مرکز انستیوتو پاستور تهران تهیه و به طور تصادفی به شش گروه تقسیم شدند. گروه های دیابتی با تزریق 55 میلی گرم به ازای هر کیلوگرم وزن بدن STZ به صورت زیر صفاقی دیابتی شدند. گروه های  مکمل نیز رت ها روزانه 100 میلی گرم ال کارنیتین به صورت خوراکی دریافت کردند. برنامه تمرین هوازی به مدت 6 هفته و 5 روز در هفته انجام شد که هفته اول با سرعت 10 متر بر دقیقه به مدت 20 دقیقه و شیب صفر درجه شروع و در انتهای هفته ششم به سرعت 20 متر بر دقیقه، مدت 40 دقیقه و شیب 5 درجه رسید. متغیرهای تحقیق 24 ساعت پس از آخرین جلسه تمرین به وسیله دستگاه الایزا و در بافت هیپوکمپ اندازه گیری شدند. از روش آماری تحلیل واریانس یک راهه و آزمون تعقیبی توکی جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها استفاده شد.

    یافته ها: 

    در تحقیق حاضر تاثیر افزایشی تمرین هوازی و مصرف ال کارنیتین بر میزان CPT2 میتوکندری بافت هیپوکمپ مشاهده شد (008/0=p). با این حال تفاوت معنی داری در میزان Malonyl-CoA میتوکندری بافت هیپوکمپ رت های دیابتی در نتیجه تمرین هوازی و مصرف ال کارنیتین مشاهده نشد (272/0=p).  

    نتیجه گیری:

    با توجه تاثیر تمرین هوازی و مکمل ال کارنتیتن به تنهایی و در تعامل با هم، استفاده از آن ها با مشورت پزشک به افراد دیابتی توصیه می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: تمرین هوازی، ال کارنتین، Malonyl-CoA، CPT2، دیابت، هیپوکامپ
  • محمد حسنی، ناصر بهپور*، محمد کریمی، فرامرز دارابی صفحات 131-143
    زمینه و هدف

    فعالیت ورزشی شدید باعث تولید رادیکال های آزاد و آسیب های ناشی از استرس اکسایشی می شود. مکمل های آنتی اکسیدانی می تواند یکی از راه های مناسب برای محافظت در برابر این پدیده باشد. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی و مقایسه اثر آلیوم ساتیوم همراه با چهار هفته تمرین فزاینده بر پاسخ برخی عوامل اکسیداتیو به یک جلسه تمرین حاد در کشتی گیران خوب تمرین کرده بود.

    روش کار

    تعداد 20 نفر از کشی گیران خوب تمرین کرده، پس از اخذ رضایتنامه کتبی بصورت تصادفی به دو گروه همگن، تمرین با مکمل آلیوم ساتیوم، تمرین با دارونما» تقسیم شدند. مصرف مکمل آلیوم ساتیوم (هر روز سه عدد) در طول چهارهفته همراه با تمرینات فزاینده بود. خونگیری طی چهار مرحله (در پیش آزمون و پس آزمون در قبل و بلافاصله بعد از یک جلسه تمرین) انجام شد. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، از آزمون t زوجی استفاده شد.

    یافته ها

    مقایسه اختلاف میانگین های تغییرات شاخص سوپراکسیددیسموتاز و مالون دی آلدیید در پاسخ به یک جلسه تمرین حاد، قبل و پس از دوره مکمل گیری، به ترتیب افزایش (05/0≤p) و کاهش معناداری (05/0≤p) را در هر دو گروه مکمل و شبه دارو و تغییرات آنتی اکسیدان تام کاهش معناداری (05/0≤p) را فقط در گروه شبه دارو نشان داد. همچنین در مقایسه بین گروهی تغییرات شاخص سوپراکسیددیسموتاز و مالون دی آلدیید در مرحله پس از دوره مکمل گیری، تفاوت معناداری بین دو گروه مشاهده شد(05/0≤p). ولی تغییرات در شاخص آنتی اکسیدان تام تفاوت معناداری بین دو گروه مشاهده نشد (05/0≥p).

    نتیجه گیری

    بنابراین می توان نتیجه گرفت که مصرف مکمل آلیوم ساتیوم در ورزش های فزاینده سبب کاهش شاخص های اکسیدانت و افزایش شاخص های آنتی اکسیدانت می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: آنتی اکسیدان، اکسیدان، آلیوم ساتیوم، تمرین فزاینده
|
  • Davood Nazarpour, Ahmad Heydarnia, Seyed Mostafa Pouryahya, Reza Davarniya* Pages 3-14
    Background

    Marriage is one of the most important needs which affects all the life aspects of human beings for almost half a century. The Marriage background is as old as history and since human beings put their feet on the earth, love and affection, marriage and marital conflict have existed, as well. In fact, mental health of humans is greatly dependent on a good and successful marriage. The evolution and development of the human’s personality relies on the quality of his/her relationships, and intimate relationships, in fact, act like therapeutic relationships which can be supportive platforms and human’s shelter against difficulties of life. Studying the relationships of couples helps to clarify the structural frameworks in which the couple relationships form. The imago relationship approach is a theory and therapeutic approach on dating, marriage and the process of marital conflicts formation. The main hypothesis of the imago relationship approach is the fact that relationship is our essence and nature; For we always are in relation to others. We are born in relationship, are harmed in relationship, and are healed in relationship. The imago relationship approach in marital relationship is a tool for attaining a conscious relationship which facilitates the conscious and mutual treatment of the childhood traumas between couples. Based on a theoretical principle, it is believed that we choose our couples according to an unconscious image of an individual who can complete us which is called imago or childhood ideal. The unconscious selection of spouse creates an opportunity to, by increasing empathy, mutual understanding, and relationship with the adult romantic partner, soothe and cure the relationship that we have lost in childhood. In the imago relationship approach, the goal is to align the conscious mind of the individual with his/her unconscious mind, and this method helps individuals to develop and enhance conscious, committed and intimate relationships. The present study was conducted by the aim of investigating the effect of group couple therapy based on imago relationship therapy on improving marital relationship quality.

    Methods

    The present research was a semi-experimental study which used a pretest-posttest with control group design. The statistical population of the present study included all the couples referring to the Rastin counseling and psychological services center in Gorgan city, Iran, in the second half of 2017. The sample of the present study included 16 couples who were selected by available sampling method and were assigned into two experiment and control groups (8 couples per group) by ransom assignment method. The inclusion criteria of the research included: having at least two years history of marital life, having at an education level of at least middle school, not being a divorce applicant, and receiving no individual counseling services outside the therapy sessions. The exclusion criteria of the research included: using psychiatric and psychotropic drugs, history of hospitalization in psychiatric hospitals, and using any type of sedative drugs, alcohol, and norcotics. The data gathering tool was Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital State. The group couple therapy based on imago relationship therapy was conducted in eight 120-minute sessions for the couples of the experiment group while the control group received no intervention. The data were analyzed by univariate analysis of covariance in SPSSv24.

    Results

    The mean and standard deviation of age was 43.44 ± 6.74 for the experiment group and 41.38 ± 5.37 for the control group. The mean and standard deviation of marriage deviation was 22 ± 7.89 for the experiment group and 20.25 ± 7.21 for the control group. Investigating the information on the education level of the subjects indicated that in the experiment group, four subjects had middle school degree that included 25% of the subjects of the experiment group. 7 subjects had diploma that by composing 43.8% of the subjects, included the highest number of subjects in this group, and finally, 5 subjects had undergraduate education including 31.2% of the subjects in the experiment group. In the control group, subjects with diploma, with 9 individuals, had the greatest frequency of subjects in the control group. After that, we had 4 subjects with undergraduate degrees and 3 subjects with middle school degree. According to the results of the univariate analysis of covariance, the significance of F value for quality of marital relationships (F = 72.65 and p < 0.01) suggests that the effect of couple therapy based on imago relationship therapy is significant, that is, after calculating the pretest’s effect, the difference created in scores of both groups in the level of quality of marital relationships is significant. Moreover, according to the mean of scores of quality of marital relationships in the experiment group in pretest (41.81) and posttest (33), it is determined that the mean scores of quality of marital relationships in the couples of the experiment group have reduced in the posttest stage, and since in the quality of marital relationships questionnaire, the lower the obtained score is, the higher the quality of marital relationships will be, therefore, this indicates the effect of the therapeutic approach on improving the quality of marital relationships. The chi eta shows that 71% of the variance is caused by the effect of couple therapy based on imago relationship therapy.

    Conclusion

    IRT is a process in which the couples are given information and awareness, and most importantly, they are offered trainings regarding the unconscious aspects of their relationship and a fundamental examination of the origin of their conflicts, and which helps individuals intervene on their problems instead of trying to solve them on the surface. Succeeding in this issue leads to improvement, growth, and affective security towards each other. According to the results of present research, counselors and family therapists are recommended to use this therapeutic model for solving marital conflicts and improving relationships in families.

    Keywords: Couple Therapy, Imago Relationship Therapy, Marital Relationship Quality, Conflict, Couple
  • Mohammad Khammarnia, Zinat Mortazavi, Mahbube Oudi, Mahbube Dahmarde, Aziz Kasani, Mostafa Peyvand* Pages 15-24
    Background

    Maintaining and promoting childrenchr('39')s health in all physical, mental, social and spiritual dimensions requires proper nutrition. According to World Health Organization (WHO) reports, exclusive breastfeeding is the most effective way of feeding infants until 6 months of age. Breastfeeding is the ideal food for infants. It is safe, clean and contains antibodies which help protect against many common childhood illnesses. Breastfeeding provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life, and it continues to provide up to half or more of a child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life. Moreovre, appropriate nutrition could prevent obesity in adulthood. Breastfed perform better on intelligence tests, are less likely to be overweight or obese and less prone to diabetes later in life. Women who breastfeed also have a reduced risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Considering the protective effect of breastfeeding on children, which can prevent obesity in adulthood, and also considering the dangerous role of obesity in children, which is one of the most important causes of the spread of underlying diseases in adulthood, so the present study was conducted to determine the relationship between breastfeeding and body mass index (BMI) of 6-12 year old primary school children in Zahedan.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Zahedan in 2017. Zahedan is the capital of Sistan and Baluchestan province as a developing region in the souetheast of Iran. The study population were all students of zahedan those who were studying in schools in the same year among them, 443 children at primary school aged 6-12 years old that were chosen randomly using cluster sampling method. Data were collected by a standard questionnaire about the factors related to the exclusive breastfeeding nutrition. the standard questionnaire included two sections: Demographic questions (including gender, age, birth rate, age at birth, weight at birth), Factors affecting the exclusive nutrition related to the mother (start time) postpartum breastfeeding, the duration of the childchr('39')s exclusive feeding, the baby from birth to 6 months, the age of onset of complementary feeding, re-pregnancy during lactation, maternal education on the benefits of breastfeeding. In this study, in order to evaluate the validity of the questionnaire, the tools made were presented to 8 related experts, after announcing the opinion and applying the validity changes of the questionnaire, it was approved. Also, to measure the reliability of the instrument, a questionnaire was distributed among 30 samples and after analysis, it was confirmed using Cronbachchr('39')s alpha test and a reliability coefficient of 0.89. After approving study plan by Ethic commite of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZAUMS), the researches refer to Education Organization of Sistan and Baluchestan province and obtaining an agreement to conduct research, first among the schools of the two education districts of Zahedan (District 1 and 2) based on the sampling method and the entry criterion (children in primary school with an age range of 6 to 12 years, without underlying disease and the desire of their parents) and by inviting the parents of students, first to parents about the goals of the project, considerations Ethics, including confidentiality of information, voluntary participation, and the right to withdraw from research at any time possible, were explained. Ethical consideration: this study was approved by the ethic commite of ZAUMS (code; IR. ZAUMS.REC1396, 198(. After completing the informed consent form, the questions were asked to the parents in the form of an individual interview that lasted an average of 15 to 20 minutes, and were entered into the questionnaires by the researchers. To measure height, the German SECA meter was used with non-elastic properties and an accuracy of 0/1 cm. selected students without shoes and hats or scarves on their heads and standing upright with a straight forward view so that the five parts of the body including the the head, the front part of the back (shoulder), the buttocks, the back of the back the heel are all tangible. It was checked for height. The German Nova digital scale weighing 0.05 kg was also used to measure weight.Studentschr('39') weights with the least amount of clothing (without coats, tents, coats, or jackets, and without shoes) were recorded as upright and stationary (without vibration) on the scales. In order to ensure the reliability of the scale, after placing the scale in a suitable place and before starting the weighing, the accuracy of its work with control weight of 2 kg control was repeated and this was repeated after every 5 measurements. For BMI collection use of the below for more formula (weight in kilograms) divided by (height to meter square) in SPSS software into four groups of thin (below 5 percent), normal (between 5 percent and 85 percent). Overweight (between 85% and 95%) and obese (above 95%) were calculated. After collecting the data, it was manually entered into the SPSS-v21 software and use of descriptive statistics and analytical test such as chi-square test.

    Results

    In this study 324 girls (73.1%) and 119 boys (26.9%) with an average weight of 30.3±10.4 kg were considered. About 39% of children were the first child in the family. About 6.4% of infants have breastfed for less than 3 months. Most of the children were in 9-12 old age and 378 of child was born in 37 pregency week (275 child or 62%) also about 313 child has normality. 248 infants (56.0%) were breastfed during the first hour after birth. 327 children (73.8%) were exclusively breastfed from birth to 6 months of age. Fourteen children (3.2%) were also breastfed, and 267 mothers (60/3%) were trained on the benefits of breastfeeding.  BMI with birth weight, infant feeding from neonatal to 6 months of age, motherchr('39')s comorbidities in the first 6 months of life, showed a significant relationship (p<0.05). Birth rank, age at birth, mother’s healthcare during pregnancy and re-pregnancy during lactation did not show any significant relationship with BMI (p>0.05). The BMI with birth weight, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, how to feed the baby from birth to 6 months, mother-to-be with the underlying disease, showed a significant relationship (0.05<p). However, birth rate, age at birth, health care during pregnancy, age at the start of complementary feeding, re-pregnancy during lactation, and maternal education on the benefits of breastfeeding did not show a significant relationship with BMI (p>0.05).

    Conclusion

    Findings indicate that breastfeeding has a protective effect on the BMI in childhood. More precise education to parents specifically to mothers and also healthcare providers can help with optimization of exclusive breastfeeding nutrition leading to prevention of obese and overweighted children in the future. The results of this study indicate that breastfeeding has a significant relationship with BMI at school age. Also, exclusive breastfeeding from birth to twenty-four months (end of two years) is effective in childrenchr('39')s BMI. Based on this, it may be possible to help parents, especially mothers, and health care providers help prevent overweight and obesity in the future by providing more and more accurate exclusive breastfeeding. At the end of a study in several provinces with a larger sample size to more closely examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and BMI, taking into account the role of genetic factors, cultural factors, ethnicity and even climatic conditions in growth and development. Children and adolescents, along with other factors, are recommended to study the whole country simultaneously for a more detailed examination and generalization. The study, like other studies, faced limitations, including the non-cooperation of some schools for questioning, which was replaced by other schools in the same area of the city with the cooperation of the Education Organization, and the failure of some parents to fill out questionnaires students and other parents were selected. Another limitation of this study was the information collected based on the reminders of parents of children who may have made a mistake in recalling.

    Keywords: Nutrition, Breastfeeding, Body Mass Index
  • Shirin Sayyahfar, Gholamreza Bayazian*, Ehsan Tourchi Pages 25-36
    Background

    Biofilm, is an organized complex of bacteria that aggregates in an extracellular matrix enriched of polysacchrids, acid nucleic and proteins. Due to this evolved structure, the bacteria in the biofilm becomes highly resistant to the hostchr('39')s defense system and can adhere to the mucosal surface, leading to defects in the hostchr('39')s immune response. At first, bacteria with or without movement, reversibly adhere to the surfaces and then with the multiplication of glycocalyx by bacteria, this connection becomes irreversible. Biofilm growth progresses with the proliferation of baseless bacteria and gradually increases with the addition of other bacteria in the environment. These accumulations act as a chronic bacterial reservoir resistant to common antibiotics, and its debridement appears to justify the patientchr('39')s clinical symptoms.Biofilm formations have been observed and reported on the surface of adenoids and tonsils, especially in children with recurrent infections. The adenoid contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria and is more commonly known as a source of bacteria in children with rhinosinusitis than as a cause of mechanical obstruction. Studies have shown that culture of the sample prepared with swab and adenoidectomy is closely related with aerobic and anaerobic flora have been observed in both samples. Most aerobic strains were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and most anaerobes were Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium.Our sudy aims to evaluate the association between adenoid tissue cultures and microorganisms with biofilms grades in children with upper airway obstruction.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted among the children referred to the ENT clinics of Ali Asghar Children hospital. We included patients with symptoms of nasal obstruction who were candidates for adenoidectomy. Indication of adenoidectomy in this study (inclusion criteria) was existence of confirmed adenoid hypertrophy on examination and lateral neck X-ray (Adenoid view) with symptoms of chronic upper airway obstruction including obstruction sleep apnea, snoring, open mouth breathing, adenoid face, speech disorders and restlessness during sleep (if accompanied by night snoring). Exclusion criteria also included cystic fibrosis, immunodeficiency, respiratory disorders including asthma, and the use of antibiotics during the two weeks prior to surgery. Demografic data of patients were gathered on questionnaire. At this stage, according to the patient history accuracy based on the number of upper airway infections in the past year, patients were divided into five groups less than 5 infections, between 5-8, between 8-12, between 12-15 infections and more than 15 infections per year. After removing the adenoid tissue of the patients by the ENT surgeon in the operating room, a sample was sent to laboratory for culture in normal saline solution and the rest of the sample was cut from several places with a knife after washing with normal saline solution and placed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution for fixation. Samples were dried in vacuo, then, after coating the surface of the samples with a layer of gold with a thickness of 30-50 nm (voltage 800v, ​​100 mA), the samples were classified according to the presence and size of biofilm using Philips XL30 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). Based on the degree of bacterial biofilm in the electron microscope samples , the amount less than 20%  was named as Grade I, 20-40% as Grade II, 40-60% as Grade III, 60-80% as Grade IV and we considered more than 80% as Grade V. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS.

    Results

    Fifty-one children with a mean age of 7.31 years were enrolled in the study. The average rate of upper airway infection during last year was 9.58. In terms of accompanying symptoms, noctornal snoring and open mouth breathing were seen in all cases. The mean duration of symptoms from onset was 2.5 years (ranging from 2 months to 7.5 years). 30 patients had Grade IV adenoid size in their graphy and noone were graded as grade 1. Biofilm structures in 100% of samples were observed.According to the achived data, the highest frequency of the organisms was in the biofilm with the grade of 60-80%. Also, biofilm grade above 60% had the highest number of positive cultures. Alpha hemolytic Streptococcus viridans was resulted for 26 samples of adenoid tissue culture and just one sample did not show any bacterial growth. The mean number of infections in different culture groups did not differ significantly (p=0.985, Krusskal Wallis). The mean duration of symptoms did not differ significantly in different culture groups (p=0.159, Krusskal Wallis). There was no statistically significant difference between the gender and different culture groups (p=0.701, Chi2). There was a statistically significant difference between adenoid grade and various groups of bacterial culture (p=0.003, Chi2), the larger the size of the adenoids, the more likely the culture to be positive. As other studies have only examined the most common microorganisms, this study is in fact the first study to evaluate both types of organisms and its comparison with the degree of biofilm. Streptococcus alpha is a hemolytic microorganism that oxidizes RBC hemoglobin to cause a green color in the culture medium. Streptococcus alpha hemolytic viridans is the oral type of this organism, which is a type of normal flora. Studies have shown that the same microorganism can cause pathogenicity.Disagreement for surgery by parents of some patients was one of the our study limitations. Another limitation of our current study was the difficulty of accurate history of the number of upper airway infections in the past year due to the lack of a recorded medical registry system.

    Conclusion

    In this study, as presented before, there was a significant relationship between the increase in the surface grade of adenoid biofilm and the number of upper airway infections. Also, the highest frequency of the organisms was observed in biofilms with higher grades, and biofilms above 60% had the highest amount of positive culture. Therefore, this study also confirms that the presence of biofilm in the adenoid as a reservoir of infection causes inflammation and can justify the effectiveness of adenoidectomy as an acceptable therapeutic approch for children with recurrent upper airway infections.

    Keywords: Adenoid, Biofilms, Pediatric Upper Airway Infection, Upper Airway Obstruction
  • Nasrin Majidi Gharenaz, Mansoureh Movahedin*, Zohreh Mazaheri Pages 37-48
    Background

    Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue before chemo/ radiotherapy is the only option to preserve fertility of cancer-affected prepubertal boys. To avoid reintroduction of malignant cell, induction of in vitro spermatogenesis could be considered. Induction of in vitro spermatogenesis using spermatogonial cells requires a suitable platform for cell growth and proliferation. The extracellular matrix of the testis could be used for adhesion, proliferation, migration and differentiation of spermatogonial cells. The extracellular matrix of the testis consists of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), fibronectin, collagen and laminin. It can mimic specific microenvironment of testis. The extracellular matrix as a biological scaffold provided an appropriate platform for proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial cells. Biological scaffolds were developed using decellularization of tissues and organs.  Decellularization is a process that removes the cells, their nuclei and debris from tissues and organs without sever damage to structure and biochemical component of the tissues. The aim of our study was decellularization of whole testis for preparation of scaffold and evaluation of spermatogonia cells homing after injection into the scaffold

    Methods

    In order to prepare the scaffolds, adult mouse testes and different concentrations of detergents were used.  Initially, the adult mice were scarified using chloroform and their testes were removed and washed with PBS, then decellularization was performed using different concentrations of detergents according following protocols. Protocol 1: The testes were immersed in 0.1% SDS solution for 24 hours Protocol 2:  The testes were immersed in 0.5% SDS solution for 24 hours. Protocol 3: The testes were immersed in 1% SDS solution for 24 hours. Protocol 4: The testes were immersed in 0.5% SDS solution for 18 hours, then washed with PBS and immersed in 0.5% Triton solution for 18 hours. In order to remove detergents, scaffolds were washed using PBS and disinfected by 70% ethanol. All protocols of decellularization and washing were done at room temperature on orbital shaker with 50 rpm speed. The efficiency of the decellularization process was determined by hematoxylin-eosin staining and DNA quantification. To evaluate the preservation of collagen and GAGs, Massonchr('39')s trichrome staining and alcian blue staining were done respectively. Confirmation of fibronectin, collagen 4 and laminin presence in decellularized scaffolds was done using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The quantity of totlal collagen and GAGs in scaffolds was evaluated using Sicrol assay kit and Blyscan assy kit respectively. The biocompatibility of testicular scaffolds was evaluated using MTT test.  Initially, mouse embryonic fibroblast cells were cultured on testicular scaffold for 24 hours and 72 hours. Then, the culture medium was removed and 200 μl of MTT reagent with a concentration of 0.5 mg / ml was added to the cells and incubated at 37 ° C for 4 h. Finally, 200 micrometers of DMSO was added and the samples were transferred to the 96 well plates and located in ELISA reader. In order to evaluation of spermatogonial cells support by scaffolds, the isolated cells from neonatal testes were injected to scaffolds via efferent ductile and then cultured on agarose gel for two weeks. Histological studies were carried out at the end of culture.

    Results

    The results of hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that immersion testis in 0.1% SDS solution and 0.5% SDS solution couldn’t   decellularize the testes.  On the other hand, immersion testis in 1% SDS solution led to destruction of seminiferous base membrane. Immersion testis in 0.5% SDS and 0.5% Triton resulted in complete decellularization of the testes without severe damage to seminiferous base membrane. In order to further evaluation of methods efficiency, the amount of DNA residue in the scaffolds was extracted using kit and examined by nanodrop.Spectrophotometric analysis showed 50%  and 70% of DNA were removed  in first and second  methods respectively, while more than 98% of DNA was removed  in  third and  forth  methods. The first and second methods were discarded due to inefficiency in DNA removal from the testes and third method due to destruction of the basement membrane of the tubes. So, the scaffolds that prepared by forth method were selected for further evaluation. The result of alcian blue staining indicated the good preservation of the GAGs in decellularized testes scaffolds .The result of thrichrom staining confirmed the preservation of collagen decellularized testes scaffolds. Presence of blue fibers in the scaffold (representing collagen fibers) and the lack of red dots (representing the cell nuclei) indicate that the prepared scaffolds are cell-free and Collagen strands are well preserved. Examination of fluorescent microscopic images showed that extracellular testicular matrix proteins including fibronectin, collagen type 4 and laminin were expressed in testicular scaffolds, indicating preservation of these proteins in scaffolds. Quantified evaluation of GAGs and collagen content of decellularized scaffolds showed that there was no significant reduction in GAGs and collagen level in scaffolds compared to testes. In order to evaluation of the cytotoxicity of testicular scaffolds, MTT test was done. The results of the MTT test showed that the survival rate of mouse embryo fibroblastic cells didn’t show significant difference after 24 and 72 hours of culture in the presence of testicular scaffolds compared to culture without scaffolds, so the scaffolds were biocompatible and did not negative effect on cell survival. Mouse embryo fibroblastic cells could metabolize MTT in the presence of scaffolds, so mitochondria of the cells were active in the presence of scaffolds and led to the survival and proliferation of cells.  Examination of hematoxylin-eosin images showed that the injected cells were located on basement membrane of seminiferous tubules and in the interstitial space and created colonies that resemble organoid structures. The tubes were completely collapsed in control group, and no cells were seen in the scaffolds.

    Conclusion

    Immersion of adult mouse testes in 0.5% SDS solution and 0.5% triton solution was an effective method for decellularization of whole testes without severs damage to seminiferous tubules. Our decellularization method could preserve important proteins of extra cellular matrix including fibronectin, collagen type 4 and laminin in testicular scaffolds. Decellularized testicular scaffolds were biocompatible and did not have a harmful effect on MEF and spermatogonial cells viability. Also prepared scaffolds could support the proliferation of spermatogonial cells during two weeks culture

    Keywords: Scaffold, Testis, Extracellular Matrix, Spermatogonial Stem Cells
  • Babak Biniaz, Hajar Abbaszadeh*, Parvin Farzanegi Pages 49-59
    Background

    Osteoarthritis is the result of a defect in a movable joint covered by a synovial membrane and is characterized by degeneration of cartilage cartilage (1). Concentrations of specific molecules in cartilage and bone that reflect tissue regeneration in the group of patients with osteoarthritis are considered as prognostic factors for joint destruction (2). Among these, proteins such as BSP can be one of these factors. This bone protein stimulates the formation of hydroxyapatite in vitro. BSP binds to hydroxyapatite and contains an RGD integrin binding sequence. It may therefore serve as an adhesive molecule in the cell that allows cells to attach to the extracellular matrix. Another important protein is propeptide C of collagen type (CPII) II. The rate of type II collagen synthesis is directly proportional to the content of CPII in cartilage (3). The present study was performed to investigate the effect of stem cells and glucosamine on BSPII gene expression and CPII levels in cartilage tissue of arthritic rats exposed to weight bearing training.

    Methods

    This was an experimental study. For this purpose, the number of 70 male wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: Control-healthy, control-patient, exercise-patient, cell-patient, glucosamine-patient, cell-glucosamine-patient, exercise-glucosamine-patient, cell-exercise-patient, saline-patient, and cell-glucosamine-exercise-patient. Osteoarthritis was induced in male mice with damage to the menisci and cartilage. The training program consisted of 30 minutes of running on a sloping trampoline at a speed of 16 meters per minute. Bone-derived stem cells were also injected into mice at the rate of 1,000,000 cells per kilogram. Glucamine was given orally to mice at a dose of 250 mg / kg / day. After opening the abdominal cavity, samples of cartilage tissue were taken and frozen at -80 ° C for chemical analysis. CPII tissue levels were assessed by ELISA according to the manufacturerchr('39')s instructions (IBEX Montreal, Quebec, Canada). To measure the expression of BSPII gene in cartilage tissue, cartilage samples were homogenized in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 4° C with a homogenizer. Total RNAs were extracted from the cartilage tissue of all mice using the RNX-Plus kit (SinaClon; RN7713C). The ND-1000 Nanodrop spectrophotometer (Thermo Sci., Newington NH) was used to estimate the quantity and quality of the extracted RNAs. The expression of BSPII gene was performed by Real-Time PCR method and the mRNA levels were normalized to the amount of GAPDH mRNA as the reference gene.The amount of ∆Ct was calculated using the formula [∆Ct = CTBSPII-CTGAPDH]. Then, the gene of expression values were analyzed using the 2-∆Ct formula.To evaluate the significant changes in each of the research variables, between the different groups, one-way analysis of variance and if a statistically significant difference is observed from Tukey post hoc test was used to determine the location of intergroup differences, significance level was considered for all calculations p<0.05, all statistical operations were performed using GraghPadprism 8 software.

    Results

    The results of analysis of variance for expression of BSPII gene and CPII tissue levels of different groups are shown in Table 1. The calculated F value (60.20, 85.15, respectively) and its significance at the level of p<0.0001, indicate a significant difference between BSPII gene expression and CPII tissue levels between different research groups (Table 1). The highest decrease in BSPII gene expression and CPII tissue levels was observed in the exercise-glucosamine-cell-patient group and the highest increase was observed in the control-patient group (Figs 1 and 2).v Fig. 1. Comparison of mean BSP gene expression in different research groups.Normal: Control-healthy, Patient: Control-patient, saline: Saline-patient, Exe: Exercise-patient, MSc: Cell-patient, Glu: Glucosamine-patient, MSc.Glu: Cell-glucosamine-patient, Glu.Exe: Patient-Glucosamine-Exercise, Exe.MSc: Patient-Exercise-Cell, Exe.MSc.Glu: Glucosamine-Exercise-Patient.a: Significance relative to healthy control, b: Significance relative to patient, c: Mean Glucamamine, d: significant relative to cell group, e: significant relative to exercise group.Fig. 2. Comparison of mean CPII levels in different research groups.Normal: Control-healthy, Patient: Control-patient, saline: Saline-patient, Exe: Exercise-patient, MSc: Cell-patient, Glu: Glucosamine-patient, MSc.Glu: Cell-glucosamine-patient, Glu.Exe: Patient-Glucosamine-Exercise, Exe.MSc: Patient-Exercise-Cell, Exe.MSc.Glu: Glucosamine-Exercise-Patient.a: Significance relative to healthy control, b: Significance relative to patient, c: Mean You have relative to glucosamine, d: significant relative to cell group.

    Conclusion

    The results of the present study showed that the expression of BSPII gene and CPII levels of cartilage tissue in the model of osteoarthritis mice increased abnormally. BSP is a bone-specific protein produced by osteoblasts. BSP is specifically enriched between the cartilage-bone phases (3). Propeptide C of type II collagen (CPII) also acts as procollagen by the activity of a proteinase C and is released to form fibrils. The peptide is released from the cartilage and enters the bloodstream. Therefore, its presence in body fluids is one of the indicators of collagen synthesis in cartilage (3). In the present study, CPII levels and BSPII gene expression were assessed at 8 weeks using a osteoarthritis model and the protective effect of exercise, glucosamine and stem cells. The results of our study showed that glucosamine consumption, stem cell injection, exercise or a combination of them effectively control cartilage depletion in a model of osteoarthritis mice. CPII levels and BSPII gene expression were reduced to normal by combined exercise + cell + glucosamine intervention. These values had the most significant decrease in the combined group compared to the osteoarthritis group. These results suggest that the use of exercise in combination with glucosamine intake and cell injection has a synergistic effect on cartilage protection. In the mouse osteoarthritis model, glucosamine inhibits type II collagen degradation by preserving proteoglycans and enhances type II collagen synthesis in articular cartilage. In addition, glucosamine in the early stages of experimental osteoarthritis has a positive effect on the regeneration, structure and mineralization of bone under cartilage and can increase the production of hyaluronic acid in synovial tissue (16). Overall, the findings showed that osteoarthritis increased the expression of BSPII gene and CPII levels in cartilage tissue and a combination of cell + glucosamine + exercise was more effective than exercise, cell and glucosamine alone to reduce these markers.

    Keywords: Exercise, Glucosamine, Stem cell, Osteoarthritis
  • Norollah Alizadeh, Yaghoub Pourasad* Pages 60-73
    Background

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among American women. In Iran, the rate of breast cancer is lower than in industrialized and western countries, but with the growing trend, it is predicted that breast cancer will become one of the most common cancers in the country in the future. Mammography is currently one of the most effective and popular methods for screening and diagnosing breast cancer. Breast cancer is the primary and most common disease found in women which causes second highest rate of death after lung cancer. The digital mammogram is the X-ray of breast captured for the analysis, interpretation, and diagnosis. Automatic detection of breast cancer in mammograms is a challenging task in Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) techniques. This article aims to provide an automated computer diagnostic system to help diagnose early breast cancer. First, breast cancer and the survival statistics of patients with it, breast imaging techniques, and the presence of symptoms that are present in the images are signs of the disease. In the following, by introducing important and efficient methods in designing automatic diagnostic systems and its structure in order to distinguish cancerous images from non-cancerous breasts, the results obtained from this research and validations have been presented.

    Methods

    Breast cancer, one of the most common cancers in women, has a high mortality rate. Providing a medical assistance system for early detection of abnormalities associated with this cancer will greatly assist pathologists in identifying the causes of the disease and increase performance and accuracy in diagnosis. Studying the background of research in this field to better understand the problem and how to design this system in different ways gives us a more accurate view of this issue and also defines the design challenges of such a system. The results obtained by the methods presented in this paper are abbreviated as BMD_ML. A total of 64 mammograms, 23 cancer images containing benign and malignant masses, and 41 non-cancerous images were used to evaluate the methods used in this paper, and the results were obtained from the inputs of these images. A combination of digital image processing methods, random statistics and machine learning methods is used to perform the pre-processing, segmentation and extraction of ROI, feature extraction and classification at the lowest error rate. CAD is used in mammography screening. Mammography screening is used to detect early breast cancer. The CAD system helps diagnose lesions and classify benign and malignant tumors. This system is mostly used in the United States and the Netherlands. The first CAD system for mammography was developed during a research project at the University of Chicago. CAD systems, despite their high sensitivity, have very few features; This makes the benefits of using CAD unclear. In this report we present a methodology for breast cancer detection in digital mammograms. Proposed methodology consists of three major steps like segmentation of breast region, removal of pectoral muscle and classification of breast muscle into cancerous and normal tissues.

    Results

    This article aims to provide an automated computer diagnostic system to help diagnose early breast cancer. First, breast cancer and the survival statistics of patients with it, breast imaging techniques, and the presence of symptoms that are present in the images are signs of the disease. Then, important and efficient methods in designing automatic diagnostic systems and its structure are introduced and the work done in the past is examined by researchers active in this field. Finally, the techniques used in this paper are presented in order to distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous breast cancer images. Segmentation of breast muscle was performed by employing Otsus segmentation technique, afterwards removal of pectoral muscle is carried out by seed selection and region growing technique. In next step, Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) was created form which several features were extracted. At the end, several classifiers were trained to classify breast region into normal and cancerous tissues. The proposed classifier reports classification accuracy of 100 % for ANN and 96.3 % for decision tree algorithms (C5.0 and CHAID). Proposed methodology was validated on Mini-MIAS database and results were compared with previously proposed techniques, which shows that proposed technique can be reliably apply for breast cancer detection. Classification includes the final stage of designing such a system. Machine learning techniques have good performance for classifying tissue features obtained from mammograms. Machine learning is generally divided into two categories, supervised and uncontrolled. Learning without supervision requires a large amount of data to train the network. The classification methods used in this dissertation are one of the supervised methods, so that when creating a feature vector matrix, a column is assigned to whether the data is cancerous or non-cancerous. This method both speeds up learning and compares classified data with the predetermined target value when testing them. In this paper, several machine learning methods will be used to classify methods for classifying and comparing diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, classifications are performed in SPSS modeler software.

    Conclusion

    Numerous methods for extracting features were provided in the Overview of Features Extraction section. The solution presented in this article is to use a GLCM matrix. The matrix of gray surfaces always gives rise to different combinations of the brightness of the pixels in the image. CAD systems, despite their high sensitivity, have very few features; This makes the benefits of using CAD unclear. It can concluded that CAD could not have a significant effect on cancer detection rates, but it would inadvertently increase the recall rate (ie, the FP rate); However, various studies have shown significant inconsistencies in recall effects. In the design of the CAD system, the partitioning and extraction of the feature are of special importance. It should be noted to what extent the extraction characteristics describe the segmented area. In the future, in order to increase the accuracy of classifications and commercialization of this system, flexible features can be extracted from the image, which in addition to the lack of overlap between the features can be very compatible with machine learning methods. It is also possible to classify between types of anomalies, and after diagnosing whether the image is cancerous or non-cancerous, the type of anomaly associated with it can be identified.

    Keywords: CAD system, Breast cancer, Segmentation, Feature extraction, ANN, Decision tree classifiers
  • Atefeh Kazemi, Shahram Alam*, Zahra Hozhabrnya Pages 74-87
    Background

    All over the world, health is a prerequisite for sustainable development in which peoplechr('39')s health plays a key role. In this regard, womenchr('39')s health is of particular importance because they make up half of the worldchr('39')s population and play a key role in family health and community development. Researchers believe that it is impossible to achieve global health promotion without womenchr('39')s health. Health and fair distribution among different sections of society have been a major issue for the World Health Organization and many other international agencies and researchers over the past two decades. As a result, womenchr('39')s health and its effective role in achieving the goals of reducing maternal mortality, gender equality and womenchr('39')s empowerment have attracted the attention of the United Nations and its member states. Womenchr('39')s health is one of the most important activities and goals of health systems in societies. It is also considered as a measure of the progress of countries. However, according to reports released by the United Nations, womenchr('39')s health is vulnerable and needs to be reconsidered by policymakers. According to the World Health Organization, chronic diseases account for 70% of all deaths in Iran. In Iran, the most common diseases are non-communicable diseases. These diseases account for 45% of diseases for both sexes (i.e 33% for men and 33% for women). Obesity and overweight, arterial hypertension, insufficient physical activity, hypercholesterolemia and addiction are among the five primary risk factors that account for the largest share of the disease. Osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and stroke causes one-third of all deaths in the world. Cardiovascular disease accounts for half of all deaths in women over the age of 50 in developed countries. 70 million women around the world have diabetes and are projected to double by 2025.  In 2007, The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that additional statement that countries should be presented with general goals and strategies for controlling and preventing non-communicable diseases, one of which was: It is important to note that more global efforts are needed to increase physical activity and a healthy lifestyle. Many diseases and conditions that cause premature death or disability in women can be prevented with mobility. Despite the importance and necessity of womenchr('39')s sports participation as a global rule, womenchr('39')s participation in sports activities is limited. More over the lack of gender equality in the provision of facilities that reduce the chances of participating in sports and serious physical injuries. Therefore, it seems that in order to achieve the development of womenchr('39')s sports, it is necessary to identify the main factors of womenchr('39')s development in the form of a native model to provide the grounds for its development as an important factor in health.

    Methods

    In this descriptive-correlational study, which was conducted with a structural equation model approach, 409 people including the Minister, Deputy Minister, Chief of Staff, Deputy Chief of Staff, General Director of the province, Deputy Minister of Womenchr('39')s Affairs in the Physical Education Organization, heads of federations Sports, vice presidents of federations, technical and sports deputies in the provinces, the head of the provincechr('39')s womenchr('39')s sports development, heads of sports boards of provinces across the country and sports management experts of the Islamic Republic of Iran were selected as the sample. The tools of this research included a researcher-made questionnaire, which used three methods to assess the psychometry of the questionnaire: question analysis, validation, reliability, and in order to determine the validity of the questionnaire, formal and content validity and factor structural validity were used. Two methods of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to determine the validity of the factor structure. To investigate the validity of the researcher-made questionnaire, the structural validity method (factor analysis) was used in the first stage. In the following, confirmatory factor analysis has been used to confirm the exploratory factor analysis. First, model fitness indicators were used to determine the confirmatory factor analysis and whether the data were appropriate for this pattern or model. Generally, the fit indices of the model represent the fit of the data with the model, so the factor analysis factor model of the present study was confirmed. To measure the internal stability of the questionnaire, Cronbachchr('39')s alpha method was used at the level (p≤.05). Cronbachchr('39')s alpha obtained as follows: coefficient for the whole questionnaire 0.931, for each component 0.907, for the environmental component 0.920, for the Organizational component and 0.804 for the behavioral component. After data collection, frequency, frequency percentage, mean and standard deviation were used as descriptive statistics to describe the research data. The tilt and elongation test were used to check the naturalness of the data.  The T-test was used to measure the effectiveness of each of the variables on the factors affecting the development of womenchr('39')s sports, the Friedman test used to evaluate the ranking of these factors and the measurement model used to examine each of the factors affecting the development of womenchr('39')s sports for health, as an inferential statistic. Using SPSS 20 and AMOS 20 software, all analyzes were performed at 95% confidence level.

    Results

    The results of the present study showed that each of the organizational, environmental and behavioral factors have a significant effect on the development of womenchr('39')s sports in the Islamic Republic of Iran as an important health factor (p<0.05). Additionally, the hypothetical research model on the development of womenchr('39')s sports in the Islamic Republic of Iran as an important factor of health has a favorable fit. More over, the coefficients of the measurement model related to the relationship between effective factors in the development of womenchr('39')s sports showed that: There is a two-way path between organizational factors and environmental factors, and this path is significant. There is a two-way path between environmental factors and behavioral factors, and this path is meaningful. There is a two-way path between organizational factors and behavioral factors, and this path is meaningful. The results also showed that there is no significant difference between the factors affecting the development of womenchr('39')s sports in the Islamic Republic of Iran as an important health factor and each of the factors has a relatively similar value for the development of womenchr('39')s sports in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Conclusion

    Generally, the results of the present study showed that each of the environmental organizational and behavioral factors, as an important factor in health, have a significant impact on the development of womenchr('39')s sports in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that in order to prevent and control non-communicable diseases in women, promote self-care culture, move to improve lifestyle and provide the necessary infrastructure for health development, officials demand attention to these factors in health and development of womenchr('39')s sports. One of the limitations of the present study is the distribution of positional positions of the respondents to the questions of the questionnaire, which therefore it is suggested that in future research, participants answer the questions of the questionnaire with the same organizational positions. But other limitations include the uncertainty of classifying responses in the Likert spectrum. Due to the uncertainty in the existing questionnaires, it is necessary to implement these factors according to the fuzzy sets.

    Keywords: Health, Women sport, Development
  • Ahmad Shokrolahi Ardakani, Hossein Abednatanzi*, Mandana Gholami, Nader Shakeri Pages 88-95
    Background

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 weeks resistance training on G6Pase And PEPCK Gene Expression in Liver Hepatocytes, Glucose Levels And Beta- cells function in Type 2 Diabetic Rats. Type 2 diabetes is the most common endemic disease due to non-glucose intolerance, which affects the balance between reserves and insulin requirements. Several factors play a role in the development of this disease.Obesity increases the risk of developing the disease by increasing insulin resistance and increasing blood glucose levels. Also, other factors such as hormonal, genetic, metabolic and enzymatic disorders can also be effective in the development of type 2 diabetes.  In this regard, most studies have sought to understand how hormonal or metabolic factors affect insulin function and synthesize or release it from beta cells. But less attention has been paid to glucose production processes by some body tissues (such as liver) that especially in diabetic patients, lead to hyperglycemia .In fact, an increase in glucose, which is mainly due to increased glucose release, is a major feature of type 2 diabetes. The liver is one of the key mechanisms for maintaining and stabilizing the systemic glucose hemostasis in the body that is able to produce glucose by some pathways such as breaking glycogen (glycogenolysis) and the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors such as pyruvate, glycerol, lactate and alanine (gluconeogenesis). The rate of gluconeogenesis is controlled and regulated by the activity of some enzymes such as phosphoanol pyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK), fructose 1 and 6 diphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase). This indicates the key role of these enzymes in the regulation of glucose hemostasis and thus diabetes . Also, the genetic coding of these proteins is strongly controlled by the transcription of certain key hormones, particularly insulin, glucagon, adrenaline (epinephrine), and glucocorticoids. Given the negative impact of diabetes on individual and social life, researchers are always looking for ways to minimize, prevent and treat diabetes. In this regard, various methods such as medication and various sports exercises have been used and contradictory conclusions have been obtained.

    Methods

    In this experimental study, 16 rats of the Wistar breed with a mean weight of 20 20 220 g were randomly divided into two groups of resistance training (n = 8) and control group (n = 8). The rats were injected with nicotinamide 95 mg / kg body weight and after 15 minutes STZ injection 55 mg / kg intraperitoneally. The training program used in this study included resistance training. In the resistance training group, 8 male Wistar 10-week-old diabetic rats participated in the training sessions for 12 weeks in 5 sessions per week in 3 courses with 6 repetitions per period. The Rest intervals between the courses was 3 minutes and the Rest intervals between repetitions in each period was 45 seconds.
    The training program was as follows:- In the first week, repetitions were performed with 10% of body weight.
    - In the second and third weeks, repetitions were performed with 20% of body weight.
    - In the fourth and fifth weeks, repetitions were performed with 40% of body weight.
    - In the sixth and seventh weeks, repetitions were performed with 60% of body weight.
    -In the eighth and ninth weeks, repetitions were performed with 80% of body weight.
    - From the tenth to the twelfth week, repetitions were performed with 100% body weight. The control group also consisted of 8 male 10 week old male Wistar rats who were diabetic intraperitoneally injected and were not involved in any training program Finally,48 hours after the last exercise session, G6Pase And PEPCK gene expression in liver cells, glucose levels and beta- cells function were measured in both groups. Independent T-test was used for inferential analysis of the data.

    Results

    Findings in relation to gene expression showed that resistance training resulted in a significant reduction of expression of the G6Pase enzyme, glucose levels and increase Beta- cells function in the liver cells of the resistance group compared to the control group. These results are presented in Table 1.Table 1. Relative expression of G6Pase, PEPCK expression, glucose levels and Beta- cells function in resistance and control groups.

    Conclusion

    The results of the present study showed that resistance training to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats did not have a significant effect. The mechanism of action of different types of exercise on glucose homeostasis is similar. Resistance training increases muscle mass and strength, thereby improving insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Also, resistance training increases glucose uptake by active muscles and stimulates GLUT-4 and its transfer to the cell membrane, and rapid glucose uptake increases active skeletal muscle by protein carriers (34).
    In the present study, resistance training seems to stimulate glucose metabolism and thus lead to changes in blood glucose levels. Because blood sugar is affected by hepatic glycogenolysis (due to the presence of the enzyme glucose phosphatase), it can be said that the intensity and duration of the resistance training program in the present study may have caused changes in the glycogenolysis process. However, the changes do not appear to be significant enough to lead to a significant change in insulin resistance, perhaps the duration of training should be changed to see a significant change in insulin resistance. Of course, these are speculations that need further research.

    Keywords: Resistance Exercise, Beta Cell Function, Gluco 6 Phosphatase, Phosphanol Pyruvate Carboxyase, Type 2 Diabetes
  • Zahra Salimi*, Nastaran Zamani, Reza Headari, Vahid Nejati, Azadeh Eskandary Pages 91-105
    Background

    Diabetes mellitus as a metabolic disorder leads to chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins (1, 2). The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs in the body, especially the eyes, liver, kidneys, nervous system, heart, testis and blood vessels (3). During of diabetes mellitus, alternation in metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins increases lipid peroxides and /or oxidative stress that leads to increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other word, complication in diabetes mellitus are associated with free radicals and oxidative stress. Oxygen derived free radicals and ROS interact with lipid bilayer of cell membrane and resulting in lipid peroxidation (4). Furthermore, ROS can trigger functional damage through the modification of macromolecules of the cell including fatty acid, DNA, protein, etc (4). The testis tissue is especially sensitive to ROS, because it has plentiful lipid content. Stress oxidative due to ROS accumulation can involve in reproductive dysfunction. Some reports indicated that diabetes leads to reproductive dysfunction including decreasing of in density, fertility and motility of sperm (10, 11). Antioxidant defense mechanisms including antioxidant enzyme-systems are important for the protection of the cells and tissues against oxidative damage. Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.), belonging to the Anacardiaceae family, is a small tree or shrub. Many studies reported the antioxidant effect of sumac and its derivatives, such as the extract. Some evidences reported that the fruits of Rhus coriaria L. contain flavonols, phenolic acid, hydrolysable tannin, anthocyans and organic acid (19, 20). According to the importance of medicine plant and the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Rhus coriaria L, we investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Rhus coriaria L. on testis damage induced by alloxan in diabetic rats.

    Methods

    Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 180-230 g, were used in this study. They were housed under standard laboratory conditions of light, temperature and humidity. All animals were treated in accordance to the Principles of Laboratory Animal Care. The experimental protocol was approved by the Animal Ethical Committee in accordance with the guide for the care and use of laboratory animals prepared by Urmia University. All Rats were fed a standard diet and water. The rats randomly divided into 5. Control rats were injected with physiological serum the same volume of injection material. Group II rats (Diabetic), were diabetic by injecting 120 mg/kgbw dose in intraperitoneal alloxan monohydrate (5). The rats of third (D+S1), fourth (D+S2), and fifth group (D+S3), in addition to the same treatment, were fed 50, 100 and 250 mg/kgbw of aqueous extract of Rhus coriaria L, respectively for 4 weeks. In the 28th day, (at the end of the treatment period), the rats were killed with diethyl ether. The testis tissues of each animal were removed. The histological changes in the rat testis of experimental groups were assessed by light microscopy. Oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey statistical test were used to compare these parameters in the study group. The results were expressed as mean±S.E.M (standard error of means). P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.

    Results

    The results obtained from the present study revealed that the body weight was significantly decreased in diabetic group in comparison with control group (P<0.05). Diabetic rats that treated with extract of sumac showed a significant increase in body weight compared to diabetic rat (p<0.05). Furthermore, testis weight decreased in diabetic group and increased in diabetic rats treated with extract, which was not significant. H&E stained section of the testis of control group is showed in Photomicrograph 1. Normal histological structure of seminiferous tubules and complete series of spermatogenesis were revealed. Also, normal width of the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules and integrated interstitial Leydig cells were observed. The histological changes in the diabetic rat testis was demonstrated in Photomicrograph 2. Testicular section of alloxan treated groups showed remarkable degenerative changes. Testicular section of diabetic rats that received aqueous extract of Rhus coriaria L. (250 mg/kgbw) is represented by photomicrographs 3. The aqueous extract-treated group, compared to the diabetic one, showed a significant recovery in the tissue parameter.

    Conclusion

    The results of the present study showed that induced diabetes by alloxan caused histological abnormality in the testis tissue. Treatment with aqueous extract of Rhus coriaria L. lead to improvement in side effect of diabetes mellitus on testis tissue in male rats. Alloxan-induced diabetes in animal’s mimics and the mechanism involving in this disease is by production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, diabetes induced changes in testicular tissue by several mechanisms such as neuronal cell death and apoptosis (22, 23). Additionally, many studies have showed that complication in diabetes mellitus are associated with oxidative stress due to increase production of ROS (29). Oxidative stress is occurs when the presence of ROS is excess of the available antioxidant buffering capacity. These ROS can damage proteins, lipids and DNA and finally leads to alternation structure and function of organism. Oxidation of lipids in plasma lipoprotein and cellular membranes is associated with the development of vascular disease in diabetes. Some evidences declare that testis tissue can be a main target of ROS, because it has plentiful lipid content (30, 31). Flavonoids are products of plant metabolism that have free radical scavenging properties and can be used as an effective antioxidants. This utility capable herbal plants to protect tissues against free oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation. Previous studies have suggested that extract of Rhus coriaria L. fruits may be a source of natural antioxidants. The fractionated extract was an uncompetitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and scavenger of superoxide radical (35-37). Overall the results of this study show that the sumac could be effective in decreasing diabetic complication and it can used an antioxidant and food supplement in diabetic patients.

    Keywords: Rhus coriaria L, Diabetes mellitus, Testis, Histopathology
  • Haniyeh Ghahvechi Khaligh, Yaghoub Pourasad*, Serly Moghadas Gholian Pages 106-123
    Background

    Since the diagnosis of cancerous and malignant lung glands using imaging techniques such as CT-Scan without the need for sampling reduces the risk of spreading cancerous nodules, the development of a computerized diagnostic system for processing images and pulmonary glands and then class Their classification into two categories, benign and malignant, plays an important role in the early diagnosis of lung cancer and the survival of patients. Access to a database with a uniform statistical population of malignant and benign glands is one of the most fundamental steps in the implementation and evaluation of computerized diagnostic systems for cancer patients. In the present study, the image database consortium image collection of lung images has been used. This database includes images of CT scans of lung cancer, along with the diagnostic opinion of a specialist doctor and the identified areas of the glands. This database has been compiled by the National Cancer Organization of America, the National Health Organization and the Food and Drug Administration made available to the public. In this database, the CT images of each patient are stored in DICOM format, which is the standard for storing and suitable for processing medical images. The average incision of each scan for each patient is 254 incisions, the distance between each incision is 9 to 9 mm. The aim of this study is to achieve higher classification accuracy and therefore higher diagnostic accuracy of malignant and benign glands.

    Methods

    In this study, the algorithms that have been used to classify the pulmonary glands are introduced and finally the proposed algorithm is presented. In the proposed algorithm, the CT scan images of the lungs are pre-processed and then extracted from the nodule area by the active Chen-Wess contour. From the fragmented area, the histogram, texture and geometric features are extracted. These features then classify the pulmonary nodules into two categories, benign and malignant, using two classes, SVM and KNN. After extracting the features from the fragmented areas and normalizing them, with a large amount of data (feature) we are faced with using this data to make the final decision and classification about whether the glands are benign or malignant due to the large number. It is necessary to choose the best and most valuable features for the correct classification. There are different ways to select the feature, but due to the time consuming nature of this process, in the present study, this step is eliminated and first all the features are classified. Then, by trying and making a mistake, the best features are selected for each class. Therefore, by doing this, the feature and classification are selected at the same time and the computational load and processing time are reduced. In this research, the extracted features is given to the two well-known classifiers of the support vector machine and the nearest neighbor parameter. This database has three Excel files, the first / adjacent file contains 6 information such as the number of nodules in each patient along with the size of each nodule, the main source of the nodule and the final diagnosis of the radiologist and the treatment for each patient. The second file contains general information such as the date of each scan, the name of the company that made the CT device, the device model, the software version, and the image ID. In the third Excel file, the number of nodules larger than 9 mm and smaller than 9 mm for each patient is given.

    Results

    Each scan was examined separately by four radiologists, and scans identified by all four radiologists were added to the database. Experts have divided each nodule into one of four unknown categories: benign, benign, primary malignant, and metastatic malignancy. In this study, for each patient, the incision in which the nodule appears is selected. Also, since the nodules are classified into 4 categories, in this study, we have classified the unknown and benign category as benign and the primary malignant and malignant metastatic categories as malignant. In this study, lung images of 65 cancer patients from the mentioned database were classified, of which 49 patients had malignant nodules and 25 patients had benign nodules. In the proposed algorithm, a semi-automatic method is used to segment the pulmonary nodule area. Using an automatic classification algorithm that does not require the selection of two border points of the gland, it can increase the rate of fragmentation. Of course, the advantage of the semi-automatic segmentation method is its high classification accuracy, which is much lower in automatic segmentation. Therefore, proposing and implementing an automated segmentation algorithm that is both highly accurate is at the top of the projectchr('39')s future plans. In this study, the lung glands were classified into two categories: benign and malignant. The results of the proposed actions are examined. The pre-processed images are then aligned by the Chen-and-Three algorithm and the area is extracted and subjected to feature extraction algorithms, and 25 different tissue and geometric features are extracted for each gland from these areas. Finally, by extracted data, the SVM and KNN classifications classify the glands. Criteria for accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in the top class are obtained by 90.8%, 100% and 89%.

    Conclusion

    In addition to high accuracy in diagnosis, this method is also a low cost and low risk method. By comparing the results of the proposed method with the previous methods, the proposed method received the most sensitivity, and in many studies, the highest classification accuracy. Given that the criterion of sensitivity means the ability of classification in the correct diagnosis of the disease in a person and the criterion of specificity means the ability of classification in the correct diagnosis of the absence of the disease in the person, so it can be concluded that the criterion Sensitivity is very important in research related to glandular diagnosis in medical imaging. This is because correctly diagnosing the presence of a disease or cancer is much more important and vital than diagnosing its absence in a candidate. Therefore, the proposed method is recommended as an efficient and suitable method for classification of the pulmonary glands due to its very high sensitivity and also having the desired values of two criteria of accuracy and specificity and low number of features used for classification.

    Keywords: Image processing, Lung cancer, Nodules, Glands, CT scans, Classification
  • Mahdi Angouti, Hamid Rajabi*, Reza Gharakhanlou, Mohammadreza Dehkhoda Pages 124-130
    Background

    Diabetes is known as one of the diseases that has imposed many health, social and economic problems on human societies and has spread widely in recent decades (1). Glucose metabolism and related disorders for the central nervous system (CNS) and astrocytes, which are the most important glial cells of the central nervous system; It is important. Therefore, disorders of the hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and hippocampus, vascular disorders of the brain, etc. are among the complications of diabetes on the central nervous system (3). Among the brain regions, the hippocampus is one of the most sensitive areas that is vulnerable to harmful factors such as ischemia, stress and especially diabetes, during which it undergoes neurophysiological, structural and molecular changes such as decreased neurogenesis 3 and atrophy. Hippocampus (4), which leads to one of the significant changes caused by diabetes, namely neuronal death in the hippocampus (5).Due to the fact that insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased plasma FFA levels, decreased fat oxidation ability and fat accumulation in body cells (6). And this increase in fat content has a high relationship with insulin resistance and the main cause of this accumulation of fat is mitochondrial dysfunction (7). Two mitochondrial enzymes that are important in the fat metabolism of cells in the body are Malonyl-CoA and CPT2. Malonyl-CoA, a coenzyme derived from malonic acid, plays an essential role in the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria and in their synthesis. Are fatty acids (8). Accordingly, some evidence suggests that reducing the amount of malonyl coenzyme A reduces insulin resistance (10).In this regard, carnitine palmitol transferase 2 is a mitochondrial protein that is attached to the inner part of the mitochondrial membrane and plays a key role in the transport of fatty acids into the cell for beta oxidation (11). The regulation of CPT-2 activity by Malonyl-CoA or other metabolic mediators is not directly or indirectly known (12). One of the supplements that has been shown to facilitate beta oxidation of long chain fatty acids and participate in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and fix cell membranes is L-carnitine (14). Due to the fact that L-carnitine is able to transport the acetate group from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, thereby reducing the ratio of acetyl coenzyme A to coenzyme A in the mitochondria, thereby increasing the activity of the enzyme pyruvate dihydrogenase and thus glucose catabolism. Give (15). Therefore, taking this supplement may be able to improve mitochondrial disorders caused by diabetes in various tissues, including nerve tissue.On the other hand, in addition to nutrition and various supplements, physical activity and exercise have been proposed as a way to control diabetes disorders (16). In confirmation of this, exercise activity in diabetic rats by reducing blood sugar levels, causes cell proliferation and increases the synaptic plasticity of neurons in the hippocampus of the brain (17). In fact, exercise creates endogenous neuroprotection by reducing endogenous neurons and protecting them against diabetic neuropathy, and ultimately reducing diabetic cognitive and motor disorders (18), thus increasing activity. Regular exercise can improve the malleability of the brain (19), the antioxidant system (20), and the upregulation of neurotrophins (21).Considering the above and considering the negative effects of diabetes on various body systems on the one hand and irreparable damage to society, researchers are always looking to discover the best way to prevent and treat this dangerous complication. Various studies have been performed on the effect of increased plasma L-carnitine on FFA intake or exercise endurance capacity following oral administration or intravenous injection; In this regard, some findings suggest that L-carnitine supplementation increases fat oxidation (25) decreases carbohydrate oxidation (26) improves exercise (27) and reduces recovery time following exercise (28) Leads. Given the above and differences in research results on the effect of aerobic exercise and L-carnitine on mitochondrial disorders on the one hand and the lack of research on the subject of research on the hippocampus on the other hand and discovering a way to minimize the negative effects of diabetes Specifically, the increase in cellular fat content in the hippocampus, the researcher seeks to answer the question of whether increased aerobic activity and consumption of L-carnitine have an effect on mitochondrial factors in the hippocampus of diabetic rats or not?

    Methods

    This research is of developmental type and its method is experimental. In which the ethical principles of working with laboratory animals, such as the availability of water and food, and proper storage conditions, and how to kill mice were observed.The statistical population of the present study consisted of male Wistar rats in the weight range of 250 to 300 g and 6 to 8 weeks of age that were bred at the Razi Serum Laboratory Animal Breeding Center. From the statistical population, 45 rats were randomly selected as a statistical sample and randomly divided into 6 groups. Groups include 1) sham injection group (5 rats), 2) healthy control (8 rats), 3) diabetic control group (8 rats), 4) diabetic group receiving L-carnitine (8 rats), 5) The diabetic group was aerobic exercise (8 rats) 6) The diabetic group was aerobic exercise and received L-carnitine (8 rats). In the diabetic group, animals became diabetic by injecting streptozotocin (STZ) at 55 mg / kg body weight. 48 hours after STZ injection, hyperglycemia was confirmed by glucose oxidase assay with biosystem kit. Thus, rats with serum glucose above 300 mg / dL were considered diabetic. In the diabetic and exercise groups, the animals ran on a treadmill for six weeks after induction of diabetes. Rats receiving L-carnitine received 100 mg of L-carnitine (29, 30) orally daily for 6 weeks. Aerobic exercise groups also performed a training program including aerobic exercise on a treadmill, 5 days a week, from 9 am to 11 am, for 6 weeks (31).

    Results

    In the present study, the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of L-carnitine on the mitochondrial CPT2 content of hippocampal tissue was observed (p= 0.008). However, there was no significant difference in the number of Malonyl-CoA mitochondria in the hippocampal tissue of diabetic rats as a result of aerobic exercise and L-carnitine administration (p= 0.227). The effect of aerobic exercise and alcarnitine consumption on Malonyl-CoA and CPT2 enzymes in the hippocampal tissue of diabetic rats was investigated. Based on the results of Tukey post hoc test, it was shown that diabetes is associated with a significant increase in Malonyl-CoA mitochondria of hippocampal tissue. Consistent with a study by Badiopada et al. (2006) that increased Malonyl-CoA levels and decreased fatty acid oxidation showed key abnormalities in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic specimens (32).In general, exercise can stimulate lipid oxidation and inhibit lipid synthesis in the liver, a process that is mediated by activation of the AMPK pathway (33). However, as the results of the present study show, the response of Malonyl-CoA to exercise is different in hippocampal tissue, so it is possible that Malonyl-CoA levels in different tissues respond differently to exercise. The lack of significant change in Malonyl-CoA levels in the hippocampal tissue of diabetic specimens and the aerobic exercise program with L-carnitine can be attributed to changes in tissue insulin sensitivity and tissue oxidation. In the present study, the interaction between aerobic exercise and L-carnitine consumption had no effect on Malonyl-CoA hippocampus in rats. Although there are several mechanisms involved in supporting the effects of exercise on diabetes, the type of exercise and the dose of L-carnitine supplementation can also affect the results. Therefore, further studies are needed to discover the mechanism of Malonyl-CoA changes in the hippocampus, especially in diabetic specimens following L-carnitine exercise and consumption.The present study showed that diabetes was associated with a significant decrease in hippocampal tissue CPT2 index and the results showed that aerobic exercise and L-carnitine consumption had no effect on rat hippocampal CPT2. But the interaction of aerobic exercise and supplementation significantly increased CPT2 in the rat hippocampus. The palmitoyl carnitine transferase (CPT) system contains two enzymes, CPT I and CPT II, and are involved in the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial compartment. The enzymes are CPT I in the outer membrane and CPT II in the inner membrane of the mitochondria (11). The results of Aminizadeh et al. (2017) on the regulation of cellular energy homeostasis in the skeletal muscle of male rats after four weeks of endurance training showed that the expression of carnitine palmityl transferase 1 beta gene in the endurance training group was significantly higher than the control group (34). However, the exact mechanisms of the effect of exercise on CPT II regulation in hippocampal tissue are not well understood. Also, the physiological significance of the natural inhibition of CPT II by malonyl coa has not been determined. However, due to the high sensitivity of CPT II to Malonyl-CoA, it can be stated that changes in CPT II level are dependent on the level of Malonyl-CoA (35).

    Conclusion

    Due to the effect of aerobic exercise and L-carnitine supplement alone and in interaction, using them in consultation with a physician is recommended for diabetics.

    Keywords: Aerobic Training, L-Carnitine, Diabet, Mitochondrial Enzymes, Hippocampus
  • Mohammad Hasani, Naser Behpour*, Mohammad Karimi, Faramarz Darabi Pages 131-143
    Background

    An imbalance between the production of free radicals and active oxygen species on the one hand and the bodychr('39')s antioxidant defense on the other leads to oxidative stress. This phenomenon plays a major role in the occurrence of various pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease and various cancers and also causes damage to many macromolecules at the cellular level. Also, an unbalanced production in the amount of active oxygen species during increased sports activities leads to disruption in the balance of oxidants and antioxidants and as a result, cell membrane destruction and reaction with genetic material can lead to decreased athletic performance and in the long run causes tissue damage and the occurrence of various diseases. High-intensity exercise increases the amount of neutrophils in skeletal muscle and causes oxidative stress. Serum neutrophil levels can rise immediately after exercise. in this condition, the antioxidant defense system including the s catalase enzyme (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxides, known as enzymatic antioxidants take action. In this regard extensive studies regarding the effect of different types of Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches in controlling or mitigating some indicators related to the phenomenon of oxidative stress, including SOD; As an antioxidant index and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidation index have been done. Although there are some conflicting reports; But not only aerobic exercise produces free radicals, also strenuous physical exercise produces free radicals in skeletal muscle and other body tissues. In general, it can be said that increasing exercise in the long run can lead to increasing oxidative stress and ultimately a decrease in athletic performance. In wrestling, wrestlers are exposed to oxidative stress due to intense long-term training. This can lead to decreasing athletic performance and occurrence of health problems. In recent years, one of the pharmacological interventions to deal with oxidative stress is the use of garlic supplements. Organic compounds in garlic including; Allicin, Alline and the enzyme alliinase have very strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. On the other hand, most studies in this field have examined the short-term effects of garlic supplementation and the longer-term effects of taking this supplement have not been studied. This research seeks to explore the question that whether concomitant use of garlic supplement in a four-week period of increasing wrestling training affect the response of some oxidative factors to an acute training session in well-trained wrestlers?

    Methods

    The study was performed in the form of two-group semi experimental projects (intervention and quasi-drug) with repeated measurements (four stages) in the form of double Blind. The statistical population of the present study was 20 wrestlers from Qom province who were selected as a statistical sample from 65 eligible volunteers. The training program for all participants (intervention and placebo groups) consisted of six training sessions per week and an average of 90 minutes per session during 4 weeks. And the intensity of training was 70 to 90% based on the percentage of maximum heart rate. Subjects took 3, 300 mg Garcin capsules daily for 4 weeks, each containing 1.1 g of Aluminum satium and 3, 300 mg starch capsules in the control group (placebo) after breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Each time 5 ml of blood sample, in four stages (two stages before and after training, before supplementation and two stages before and after training after supplementation) from the left forearm vein of the subjects was prepared. After that, samples serum was separated by a hermle z310 centrifuge made in Germany (3500 rpm for 10 minutes). For the next steps, the samples were placed at a temperature of minus 70 ° C. Superoxide dismutase was measured by spectrophotometer with ELISA kit, total antioxidant capacity was measured by colorimetric method using kit of German company Bioker and serum malondialdehyde based on reaction with thiobarbiotic acid and fluorimeter. In addition, all stages of the study in the standard conditions and also before blood sampling, the subjectschr('39') daily diets using a 24-hour feeding recall were controlled. Finally, for statistical analysis, first the normality of data distribution was investigated using Shapiro-Wilk test. Intragroup differences used dependent t and intergroup used independent t. All statistical operations and analyzes were performed at a significance level of less than 0.05 using SPSS statistical software version 24 and Excel 2016 program.

    Results

    Comparison of the mean difference of SOD changes in response to an acute training session, before and after the supplementation period, showed a significant increase in both supplement (p=0.001) and placebo (p=0.002) groups. In comparison between groups changes in SOD in the post-supplementation phase showed a significant difference between the two groups (p=0.0001). But there was no significant difference in TAC index between the two groups (p=0.124). And MDA changes showed a significant decrease in both supplement (p=0.0001) and placebo (p=0.007) groups. Also, in comparison between groups, these changes in the post-supplementation phase, a significant difference was observed between the two groups (p=0.0001).

    Conclusion

    The results of the present study show a comparison of the mean difference between the SOD and MDA index changes in response to an acute training session, before and after the supplementation period, increasing in the SOD index and decreasing in the MDA index in both complementary and placebo groups. However, the difference observed in the supplement group is not significant. Also, in the intergroup comparison of changes in SOD and MDA index in the post-supplementation period, a significant difference was observed between the two groups. But changes in TAC index did not show a significant difference between the two groups.Therefore, it can be concluded that taking aluminum-satium supplement in wrestlers reduces the MDA oxidant index and increases the SOD antioxidant index. However, according to the results, aluminum-satium supplementation has the greatest effect on reducing the MDA oxidant index because in the control group, this index has increased despite the decrease. It also has the least effect on TAC supplementation as it does not increase this index and only prevents it from decreasing. As a result, the use of this supplement can be recommended to wrestlers so that they can use it to improve recovery and prevent oxidant damage. In a general conclusion, according to the results obtained from the peroxidation and oxidation index, it can be said that the need for further research in this field, with different training protocols and the use of different doses of aluminum-satium supplement, in comparison between different sports is felt.

    Keywords: Antioxidant, Oxidant, Aluminum-Satium, Increasing Exercise