فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 1, Winter and Spring 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/11/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Hassan Feridonzadeh *, Fahimeh Yari Pages 1-11

    With the advent of the industrialized and modern architectural technologies in rural areas, the existing vernacular architect has been diminished eventually. Using the modern and nonecological materials and technologies have caused the native human impact and a lot of damages to the rural environments. Using the vernacular and traditional principles is a great solution to reduce those negative human impact. Hence analyzing and extracting the sustainable vernacular principles is the key to achieve environmentally sustainable architecture.Thevernacular architecture of Iran in different regionshas diversity according to the various kinds of climate, culture, and age. These characteristics are unique in different regions. For example,architecture inthe central area of Iran is made of adobe, in the north of Iran wood is applied as the main material for architecture and in west of Iran due to the mountainous area, stone architecture has priority over other materials. In this paper, residential architecture of the western part of Iran especially mountainous villages has been studied. There are simple but wonderfulcontexts in Oramanat region(between Kurdistan and Kermanshah) in which different vernacular architectural indicatorscan be identified and recognized.These indicators embody the hidden identity of the stone architecture of Oramanat and now it is time to recognize them. In this paper, stone architecture of west Zagros will be identified.Research method in this paper is case study with a combinatory tactics. Differenttypes of rural housing with interpretive-analytic tactics will be studied and categorized. Then characteristic of each type will be represented. Finally the effect of livelihood, culture, climate, structure, material and nature on the design of housing is going to be described.

    Keywords: Rural Housing, Oramanat, environment, Sustainability, Formative Norms
  • Behnoush Khoshmanesh *, Rasoul Ghadami, Ali Akbar Ghafourinejad Pages 12-23

    This study aims to evaluate efficiency of saponin, a bio-surfactant, in removal of heavy metals like nickel and vanadium from the soils which are smeared by crude oil and it was conducted according to properties of soils locating within Shahid Chamran oil Pump Station in 2016. For this purpose, after conducting primary studies and in order to determine pilot conditions of test, soil properties were initially studied in this zone and then 5 sampling stations were selected. Parameters of nickel and vanadium were measured along with the TPHs and pH. The studied phases included three variables of temperatures within ranges of (15, 25, 35°C), pH range (6, 7, 8) and concentration of oil compounds within ranges of 10000 and 30000ppm. The findings from assessment on efficiency of removal of heavy metals showed that the conditions with variables of temperature (35°C) and pH (about 9) included the best efficiency of removal of nickel and vanadium. Under concentration 10000ppm, the efficiency for removal of nickel shows rate of 42.98% at constrained mode for removal of nickel and 32.46% to efficiency for removal vanadium. In concentration 30000ppm, rate of efficiency for removal of nickel was 44.34% and also yield of 35.24% for removal of vanadium. This indicates by rising of concentration in oil compounds, the rate of efficiency increased in efficiency of soil washing.

    Keywords: Soil contamination, Oil compounds, Soil-washing, Saponin, fuzzy logic
  • Manijheh Ganjalinejhad *, Farhad Dabiri, Sahar Zarei, Seyed Ali Salehpour Pages 24-37
    In the current world, various types of pollution are the result of the adverse effects of human activities. One of these types of contaminations is air pollution, originated from dust. Over the years, governments and international organizations both governmental and non-governmental have made great efforts to manage and reduce the destructive effects of sand and dust storms. However, the fact is that there is a serious gap in relation to the legal documents related to management and the reduction of destructive effects of sand and dust storms. In other words, countries that are somehow involved with this phenomenon have not implemented effective measures for the compilation and approval of binding documents for the reduction of sand and dust storms. This failure is rooted in many issues, including political, economic, social, and cultural concerns. It is also worth mentioning that among the few documents on managing and reducing the destructive effects of dust, many of them at the regional level are between just two or more countries directly affected by this phenomenon. The present article, applying an analytical-descriptive method, seeks to examine the Iranian national laws and regulations as well as international legal documents on sand and dust storms; it also outlines the existing legal vacuum and provides related practical solutions. Studies show that so far, a law that directly and specifically deals with the issue of sand and dust storms has not been approved and the international community has not succeeded in drafting and ratifying a specific document in this regard.
    Keywords: air pollution, dust, Domestic law, international documents, Legal vacuum
  • Hossein Mostafavi *, Azad Teimori Pages 38-47

    Water security problems are becoming more and more challenging in Iran for several reasons such as population growth, urbanization, land-use change, unsustainable water use and climate change. All the mentioned reasons result in an increase in the human exploitation of water resources and consequently increasing anthropogenic impacts on rivers, flood plains, and fresh groundwater. Therefore, assessment of the human pressures on rivers is particularly important to find areas where water resources are threatened and subjected to rapidly increasing anthropogenic effects. By this integrated approach, a successful Integrated Water Resources Management will be achieved to guide policy makers for best protection, restoration and management. In this regard, Southern Caspian Sea Basin Rivers (including Kura-South Caspian and Caspian Highland ecoregions) were studied in terms of human pressure types. Human pressures were analyzed at different spatial scales, and finally seven main pressure types (i.e. Land use, Hydrology, Morphology, Connectivity, Water quality, Biology) were defined in which the abundance and distributions of each pressure type was different. According to this study, most areas were impacted by land use pressure type followed by water quality. Moreover, most areas were threatened by multiple pressures.

    Keywords: Freshwater, Human pressure types, Spatial scale, Southern Caspian Sea Basin, Iran
  • Mehdi Nezhadnaderi * Pages 48-58

    As result of density difference between seawater and fresh water in coastal aquifers, a transition zone between two fluids is formed. A wedge of saltwater can be entered in coastal areas to the aquifer. Seawater intrusion rate and extent of transition zone depends on several factors including: changes in sea level, aquifer characteristics, hydrologic conditions of upstream, discharging from the aquifer, tidal and seasonal fluctuations of sea water. In this paper height of interface between seawater and freshwater in Mazandaran coastal aquifers is calculated by relationships that have been used in previous researches. Then Babol– Amol aquifer has reviewed by using of existing data in Water Company of Mazandaran and past researches. According to the available information, the development of exploitation of three zones (Alashroud to Haraz, Haraz to Babolroud and Babolroud to Talar river in Amol- Babol aquifer in south of Caspian Sea) for distances less than 2000 m to sea is possible in the Haraz to Alash river. The total amount of water from this study to can be discharged in the three regions is 505 million cubic meters, based on available data. According to statistics, 458 million cubic meters of these three areas are allowed to be discharged. Therefore, taking into account the withdrawal of unallowable wells, it can be assumed that the saltwater intrusion has more than 2000 meters to the coast. The results of this study are based on the hydrodynamic parameters of the aquifer for the past 9 years and seawater intrusion may be aggravated by climate change and hydrodynamic parameters change of in this aquifer. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully study hydrodynamic parameters of this aquifer.

    Keywords: : seawater intrusion, water resources management, Groundwater, Saline, interface line from sea level
  • Majid Saghi*, Mohammad Hosein Bigtan, Ali Arasteh Nodeh, Atena Nozari Pages 59-68

    Contamination of water resources by pesticide toxins is considered as one of environmental issues which is because of plant pest diversity and subsequently use of various toxicants. In previous decades all over the world, the usage of organophosphorus toxins in order to preservation of agriculture products expanded. In Gilan province (Iran) there are numerous agriculture lands and gardens which are sprayed intermittently and since drinking water of the region residents is rather supplied by underground waters, then penetration of toxicants into the wells is possible. For this reason pesticide toxicants use could be a treat for drinking water supplying resources of this state. In the paper, samples of water from ten wells were collected and for measuring the quantities of toxicants, experiments were carried out during 4 seasons of year. Toxicant residues in samples were analyzed according to Gas Chromatography–Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) method. Due to phosphorous toxicant analyze results; it is revealed that in some cases precipitation amount has a great effect on toxicant concentration inside well water because of leaching higher layers. Also it is indicated that clay presence in soil due to toxicant holding and rain or flood occurrence cause to decrease and increase toxicant leak into the underground water respectively. Finally in order to Hinosan toxicant removal from water resources, active carbon has been utilized. The results indicated that adsorption by active carbon was of Langmuir type and this adsorbent effective cause to eliminate Hinosan toxin from water resources.

    Keywords: Hinosan toxin, GC-ECD, Active carbon, Langmuir isotherm