فهرست مطالب

Archives Of Occupational Health - Volume:4 Issue: 4, Oct 2020
  • Volume:4 Issue: 4, Oct 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/09/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • حیدر محمدی، حمیدرضا حیدری، شهرام ارسنگ جنگ، احمد سلطان زاده* صفحات 842-848
    مقدمه

    محاسبه شاخص های ایمنی واکنشی و کنشی در صنایع شیمیایی می تواند به ارایه اقدامات پیشگیرانه و کنترلی در این صنایع کمک نماید. این مطالعه با هدف ارزیابی ارتباط شاخص های واکنشی و کنشی ایمنی در صنایع شیمیایی شناسایی طراحی و به اجرا درآمده است.

    روش

    این مطالعه مقطعی در 12 صنعت شیمیایی و در سال 1397 انجام شده است. داده های مطالعه مربوط به بازه زمانی 5 ساله (1396-1392) بود. تجزیه وتحلیل داده های مطالعه بر اساس تحلیل عاملی انجام شده است. برای این مطالعه از نرم افزار تحلیلی IBM SPSS AMOS v. 22.0 استفاده شده است. نیکویی برازش مدل در این مطالعه با شاخص های χ2/df، RMSEA، CFI، NFI و NNFA(TLI) ارزیابی شدند.

    یافته ها

    میانگین شاخص های واکنشی ضریب تکرار و شدت حادثه در این مطالعه به ترتیب 32/18±15/14 و 50/112±10/182 روز بود. نتایج تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی نشان داد که 16 متغیر نشانگر جمع آوری شده در 4 گروه شاخص کنشی شامل آموزش ایمنی، مدیریت ریسک، کنترل شرایط و اعمال ناایمن طبقه بندی شدند. یافته های تحلیل عاملی تاییدی نیز نشان داد که ارتباط دو گروه شاخص کنشی و واکنشی در این مطالعه معنی دار بوده (05/0>p)، نیکویی برازش این مدل نیز مناسب ارزیابی شد (055/0=RMSEA).

    نتیجه گیری

    یافته های این مطالعه تایید نمود که میزان بروز و شدت حوادث به عنوان شاخص های واکنشی ایمنی در صنایع شیمیایی تحت تاثیر شاخص های کنشی می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: صنعت شیمیایی، حادثه، شاخص واکنشی، شاخص کنشی، تحلیل عاملی
  • فاطمه ایمانی، امید زادی آخوله*، احسان معمارباشی، ابراهیم نصیری صفحات 856-862
    پیش زمینه و هدف

    دربخش اتاق عمل به دلیل ماهیت حساس و انجام پروسیجرهای تهاجمی متعدد ، ارتباط بین خستگی پرسنل با ارتکاب خطا و ایمنی بیمار بسیار حایز اهمیت است. لذا این مطالعه با هدف تعیین ارتباط خستگی با میزان بروز خطاهای پزشکی در تکنولوژیست های جراحی انجام شده است.

    مواد و روش ها

    این یک مطالعه ی توصیفی_ تحلیلی از نوع مقطعی بود که روی 141 نفر از تکنولوژیست های جراحی شاغل در بخش های اتاق عمل بیمارستان های آموزشی ساری و به صورت نمونه گیری در دسترس در سال 1398 انجام گرفت. جهت جمع آوری داده ها از پرسشنامه سنجش چندبعدی خستگی(Mfi)و پرسشنامه خطای پرستاری در اتاق عمل استفاده شد.

    یافته ها

    حدود2/82 درصد از تکنولوژیست های جراحی خستگی متوسط روبه شدید داشتند. عدم رعایت تکنیک استریل با میزان رخداد % 6/49  دارای بیشترین فراوانی بود. ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد که بین میزان بروز خطاهای پزشکی در تکنولوژیست های جراحی با بعد خستگی ذهنی (r=0.160, P=0.04) و کاهش انگیزه(r=0.185, P=0.02) همبستگی مثبت و معنی داری وجود داشت.

    نتیجه گیری

    میزان خستگی ذهنی و بی انگیزگی در تکنولوژیست های جراحی ارتباط مستقیمی با میزان بروز خطای پزشکی داشت. بنابراین اجرای برنامه های موثر به منظور تعدیل و کاهش خستگی ذهنی و بالابردن میزان انگیزه جهت ارتقاء عملکرد تکنولوژیست های جراحی پیشنهاد می گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: خستگی، خطای پزشکی، تکنولوژیست های جراحی، اتاق عمل
  • سید مهدی موسوی، علی کریمی، سید ابوالفضل ذاکریان، مهسا جهادی نائینی صفحات 863-869
    مقدمه

    سیستم مجوز کار یک مجموعه رسمی ، مکتوب ، به منظور کنترل عملیاتی می باشد که به طور بالقوه به عنوان فعالیت های خطرناک تعریف می گردند . هرسیستمی می بایستی به منظور اطلاع از نحوه عملکرد  و کارایی آن به طور دوره ای مورد پایش و ارزیابی قرار گیرد و سیستم مجوز کار نیز از این قاعده مستثنی نمی باشد . هدف مطالعه حاضر ارزیابی عملکرد سیستم مجوز کار  در یک پالایشگاه نفت می باشد .

    مواد و روش

    تعداد 125 نفر از کارشناسان شاغل درپالایشگاه نفت که وظیفه صدور مجوز کار را داشتند با استفاده از روش سرشماری انتخاب و وارد مطالعه شدند . داده ها توسط پرسشنامه ارزیابی عملکرد مجوز کار محقق ساخته جمع آوری وتجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات با استفاده از نرم افزار SEPPTW  انجام شد .  

    نتایج

    نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد سیستم مجوز کار  در پالایشگاه مورد مطالعه  در مجموع  در سطح متوسط (نمره 41)  می باشد . همچنین عملکرد سیستم مجوز کار در حیطه شناسایی خطرات و ارزیابی ریسک ضعیف و  عملکرد آن در حیطه مسئولیت پذیری در سطخ خوب ارزیابی گردید.

    نتیجه گیری

    شناسایی نقاط ضعف و علل نقص سیستم مجوز کار می تواند منجر به افزایش سطح عملکرد سیستم مجوز کار و در نتیجه کاهش حوادث ناشی از کار مرتبط با سیستم مجوز کار در صنایع فرآیندی شود.

    کلیدواژگان: سیستم مجوز کار، ارزیابی عملکرد، پالایشگاه نفت
  • پروین سپهر*، عادل سپهر، راضیه رضایی صفحات 870-875
    مقدمه

    فرهنگ ایمنی تعدادی  زیادی از صنایع از جمله انرژی هسته ای ، صنعت نفت و گاز ، ریلی را تحت تاثیر قرار داده است. مهندسی رزیلینس نیز یک حوزه  جدید در دانش ایمنی می باشد .در این مطالعه به بررسی ابعاد تاثیر گذار بر روی فرهنگ ایمنی و رزیلینس و ارتباط آن در یک صنعت پتروشیمی پرداخته شده است .

    مواد و روش ها

    مطالعه حاضر از نوع توصیفی تحلیلی می باشد. در این مطالعه ابتدا سطح فرهنگ ایمنی افراد در ابعاد دوازده گانه با پرسشنامه مرتبط بررسی گردید سپس به همراه آن از پرسشنامه شش شاخصه مهندسی رزیلینس استفاده گردیده است و داده ها با استفاده از آزمونهای آماری مانند همبستگی و نرم افزارهای SPSS 19 و EXCEL مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است.

    نتایج

    میانگین نمره فرهنگ ایمنی 2/43  ± 290  براورد گردید. کمترین  نمره مربوط به شاخص آموزش و گزارش حوادث و شبه حوادث بوده است. میانگین  نمره شاخص رزیلینس±25 5/201 بدست آمد. همچنین پایین ترین  نمره مربوط به شاخص فرهنگ یادگیری و گزارش دهی بوده است. همبستگی معنی داری بین نمره فرهنگ ایمنی و نمره مهندسی رزیلینس وجود داشته است(003/0 P=) .همچنین نتایج نشان داد با افزایش سن و تجربه نمره فرهنگ ایمنی  و رزیلینس افزایش یافته است.

    بحث و نتیجه گیری

    فرهنگ ایمنی  و  رزیلینس، همبستگی و  ارتباط مستقیمی داشته اند لذا می توان با افزایش سطح فرهنگ ایمنی،  افراد و سازمان را تاب آور نمود.

    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ ایمنی، رزیلینس، پتروشیمی
  • حمیدرضا مهری، فائزه سپاهی زوارم، فاطمه مجیدپور، زهرا عنبری، رضا جعفری ندوشن* صفحات 876-883
  • دانیال محمدی، محمدجواد زارع سخویدی صفحات 884-890

    ددددد

    کلیدواژگان: تغییرات اقلیمی
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  • Heidar Mohammadi, Hamidreza Heidari, Shahram Arsang Jang, Mona Ghafourian, Ahmad Soltanzadeh* Pages 842-848
    Background

    Investigating the influence of various proactive factors on reactive indices in the chemical industries can result in providing preventive and control measures in these industries. This study was designed and conducted to measure the relationship between reactive and proactive safety indices in the chemical industry.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 in 12 chemical industries. The study data were associated with a period of 5 years (2013-2017). Study data has been analyzed based on factor analysis using analytical software IBM SPSS AMOS v. 22.0. χ2 / df, RMSEA, CFI, NFI, and NNFA (TLI) indices were used to evaluate the modelchr('39')s goodness fit in this study.

    Results

    The mean reactive indices of recurrence coefficient and accident severity in this study was 14.15(18.32) and 182.112(10.50) days, respectively. The exploratory factor analysis results determined that 16 indicator variables were categorized into 4 groups of proactive indices, including safety training, risk management, control of unsafe situations, and unsafe acts. Analyzing the confirmatory factor additionally confirmed that there is a significant relationship between the two groups of reactive and proactive indices in this study(P <0.05), and the goodness of model fit was also recognized appropriate (RMSEA = 0.055).

    Conclusion

    This studychr('39')s findings approved that the proactive indices affect the incidence and severity of accidents as safety reactive indices in the chemical industries. Also, the risk management proactive index and insecurity conditions were more effective than other indices.

    Keywords: Chemical industry, Accident, Reactive index, Proactive index, Factor analysis
  • Milad Abbasi, Mojtaba Zokaie, Mohsen Falahati*, Azam Biabani Pages 849-855
    Background

    Analysis of accident data based on social and economic factors can be useful in determining injury patterns and establishing operational policies to improve safety and health. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of socio-economic factors in accidents.

    Methods

    This descriptive-analytical study was conducted based on information obtained from the Labor Inspection Office of Qom Province in 2017. In this study, the required information was extracted from recorded accident forms of 1048 accident cases occurred among victims who were over 18 years old. In this study, the dependent variables include the outcome of accidents divided into two groups of accidents leading to death and injury. Data were analyzed using Stata Software version 23 (Stat Crop. USA).

    Results

    Based on the results, the presence of a safety officer in the industry reduced the risk of accidents leading to injury (AOR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-0.91, P<0.05), people who had received safety training were 0.0009 times less likely to experience accidents leading to injury compared to the other group (AOR = 0.009, 95% CI: 0.0-0.16. P<0.05), and people with undergraduate education were 1.98 times more likely to experience accidents leading to injury (AOR = 0.009, 95% CI: 1.25-2.2. P<0.05). It was further found that people who have experienced the accident beforehand are less likely to have accidents leading to injury than the other group (AOR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.005-0.72. P<0.05).

    Conclusions

    Therefore, as indicated, many factors have domino effects on different social damages and problems. Accordingly, to lower accidents and modify workforce cul ture, multi-faceted strategies should be applied properly.

    Keywords: Accident, Injury, Socio-economic factors, Occupational death
  • Fatemeh Imani, Omid Zadi Akhule*, Ehsan Memarbashi, Ebrahim Nasiri Pages 856-862
    Background

    Regarding the operating roomchr('39')s sensitivity and performing various invasive procedures, it is important to investigate the relationship between occupational fatigue and the occurrence of medical errors. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between occupational fatigue and medical errors among surgical technologists.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in operating rooms of hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2019. The research population included 141 surgical technologists selected via stratified random sampling. Data were collected using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and nursing errors in the operating room questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS16 software.

    Results

    82.2% of surgical technologists had moderate to severe fatigue. Non-compliance with the sterile technique with a 49.6% incidence rate was the most frequent error among participants. The findings showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the incidence of medical errors among surgical technologists with mental fatigue (r =0.160, P=0.04) and reduced motivation (r =0.185, P=0.02).

    Conclusion

    The level of mental fatigue and reduced motivation among surgical technologists was directly related to the level of the incidence of medical errors. Therefore, it is recommended to implement effective programs to adjust and decrease mental fatigue and increase motivation to improve surgical technologistschr('39') performance.

    Keywords: Fatigue, Medical error, Surgical technologists, Operating room
  • Seyed Mahdi Mousavi, Ali Karimi*, Seyed Abolfazl Zakerian, Mahsa Jahadi Naeini Pages 863-869
    Background

    Permit to Work system is a documented system to control activities that are inherently hazardous and may cause incidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate performance of Permit to Work (PTW) system in an oil refinery.

    Methods

    The Study was a cross-sectional study that was done during 2019 in one of the oil refineries in southern Iran. A total number of 125 participants who were experts that were working in an oil refinery and were in charge of Permit to work (PTW) issuing, were selected based on census method and were entered into the study. The instrument of this study was a questionnaire about evaluating performance of Permit to work system, which was completed by the participants after explaining the aim of the study and training them how to complete it. In order to data analysis SEPPTW software was applied.

    Results

    The results showed that the performance of Permit to work system in the studied refinery is generally in the moderate level (41.2 score). Also, in the field of hazard identification and risk assessment, the performance of Permit to work system was poor, but its performance in the field of coordination and informing was at a good level.

    Conclusion

    Identifying the weak points and causes of defect in Permit to work system can result in increased levels of Permit to work system, and then reduced incidents from work related to permit to work in process industries.

    Keywords: Permit to work system, Performance evaluation, Oil refinery
  • Parvin Sepehr*, Adel Sepehr, Razieh Rezaee, Kazem Samimi Pages 870-875
    Background

    Safety has affected the productivity of many industries, including the nuclear power, oil and gas, and railway industry. Resilience engineering is a new field in safety science. This study investigated the dimensions that contribute to safety culture and resilience and their relevance in petrochemical industry.

    Methods

    This is a descriptive-analytical study. At first, a questionnaire was used to assess the level of safety culture in twelve dimensions. Then, a six-factor resilience engineering questionnaire was administered. Data were analyzed in SPSS 19 and EXCEL software programs using statistical tests such as the correlation coefficient.

    Results

    The mean safety culture score was 290(43.2). The lowest score was related to the training indicator and incident and near-miss reports. The mean score of the resilience index was 201.5(25). The lowest score was related to the learning and reporting culture index. There was a significant correlation between the safety culture score and resilience engineering score (P=0.003). The results also showed that the score of safety culture and resilience increased with age and experience.

    Conclusion

    Safety culture and resilience are correlated directly, implying that individuals and organizations can become more resilient by increasing levels of safety culture.

    Keywords: Safety culture, Resilience, Petrochemical industry
  • Hamidreza Mehri, Faeze Sepahi Zoeram, Fatemeh Magidpour, Zainab Anbari Nogyni, Reza Jafari Nodoushan* Pages 876-883
    Background

    Although early warning system processes follow precise models and scenarios, the human part is not fully understood. Most people before and during crises, act according to their interpretive plans, sometimes when the situation may not be dangerous, but can lead to dangerous reactions. The purpose of this study was to provide an indicator that can be used to assess peoplechr('39')s understanding of early warning systems.

    Methods

    This study is a descriptive-analytical study that was conducted in 2019 in a gas refinery in Iran. In the first step, the Perception Index questionnaire was translated into Persian with the help of English language experts. In the next step, the validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed. The questionnaires were distributed and completed among 168 refinery personnel. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 24, and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were determined by statistical tests.

    Results

    The content validity index was 0.8, and the content validity ratio was 0.66. The general index of perception of the rapid warning system in this industry was 71.74 percent. Pearson correlation test did not show a significant correlation between age and perception index (r = 0.060), and also this test showed a positive correlation between perception index and work experience (r = 0.691). Spearman test was used to examine the relationship between two variables of education level and perception index. The results showed that there was a strong correlation between these two variables (rho = 0.746).

    Conclusion

    The results showed that the perception index in this questionnaire has high validity and reliability and can be used in high-risk industries. The general perception index gained in this industry was in good condition, which means that people are more likely to be well aware at the time of an accident and will behave appropriately. However, it is suggested that the managers of the industry understudy hold training classes related to the early warning systems, hold emergency maneuvers, and familiarize the personnel with different scenarios.

    Keywords: Perception Index, Risk perception, Emergency, Questionnaire, Early warning
  • Danial Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi* Pages 884-890
    Background

    Climate change and global warming present a significant threat to outdoor workers. Climatic parameters change has increased the risk of outdoor workerschr('39') safety and health. The objective of this paper was to examine the hypothesis of an association between six years data of climatic parameters and outdoor workerschr('39') safety and health.

    Methods

    A variety of approaches have been produced to assess and measure workerschr('39') occupational heat exposure and the risk of heat-related disorders. In this study, maximum, mean, and minimum daily temperatures were used in the heat wave models to compare the sensitivity of predictions according to different climatic parameters in the case study of Sabzevar, settled in the north east of Iran, Khorasan Razavi Province. In this perusal, we used a 6-year data (from March 2011 to June 2017) on medical attendance because of outdoor workers disorders and also daily values of different climatically parameters to investigate the hypothesis of an association between heat indices and outdoor workers disorders.

    Results

    Mean temperature in the case study period was 18.95(0.21) °C. The minimum and maximum recorded temperature in the perusal period was -11.2 °C and 45.4 °C, respectively. The highest and lowest number of outdoor workers disorders was observed for the 11th (max daily air temperature > 35°C for ≥ 1 day) and 4th (mean daily air temperature > 99th percentile for ≥ 2 sequential days) definition of the heat wave in 16 definitions (17.75(4.80) and 0, respectively).

    Conclusion

    This study found that extreme temperature was associated with outdoor worker disorders in Sabzevar. Research into the future likelihood, existence and magnitude of safety and health consequences of global warming and climate change represent an important input to national policy debates.

    Keywords: Climate parameters, Global warming, Outdoor workers, Health
  • Fatemeh Kargar-Shouroki, Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri*, Abolfazle Barkhordari, Niloufar Halvani Pages 891-895
    Background

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are used as pigments in ceramic glazes.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was performed on 49 ceramic workers occupationally exposed to nickel and 55 office workers without a history of occupational exposure to nickel (reference group). Urine samples were collected from 49 workers at both pre- and post-shift (98 samples). The reference group was examined only once (55 samples). Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was used for sample preparation. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).Information about smoking habits, overtime work, work history, skin dermatitis, kind of job, using mask, ventilation system, age, weight, and height was collected through questionnaires. The lung function tests were performed on each reference and exposed group by vitalograph spirometer. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the data.

    Results

    The data demonstrated that Ni concentration in the exposed workers was significantly higher than that in the reference group. Parameters of pulmonary function in the exposed group were significantly lower than those of the reference group (P <0.001). Those using the mask also exhibited a significantly lower Ni concentration than those not using mask.

    Conclusion

    These findings indicate that exposure to Ni is associated with significant decrements in the pulmonary function parameters.

    Keywords: Ceramic workers, Nickel, Spirometry, Urine