فهرست مطالب

Water Productivity Journal - Volume:1 Issue: 2, Autumn 2020
  • Volume:1 Issue: 2, Autumn 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/11/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
  • Adebayo Eludoyin * Pages 1-10

    Water is an important part of the human life. Sustainable management of water is a major component of the Sustainable Delopment Goal 6, United Nations. Many residents of the middle and low economic countries are not adequately supplied with this important commodity, however, but information is scanty about the specifics of the state of drinking water in many relatively small urban areas. This paper is focused on one of the countries within the sub-Saharan Africa such that the selected locations are four important states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun and Ekiti) in the southwest region of Nigeria. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the water supply for drinking purposes and assess the quality of samples from sources of household drinking water in the region. The results showed the comparable differences in water accessibility due to socio-economic structure of the selected areas. Also, there is an extensively poor household drinking water quality in the region, and a support from the public facilities is either inadequate or non-existent. The study recommends the improved and sustainable household water schemes across the region to meet a higher water productivity.

    Keywords: Drinking Water Resources, Water accessibility, Water Quality, Socio-economic status, Water productivity
  • Darshan Mehta *, Varun Yennam Pages 11-20
    Water productivity may carry different meanings to different people, and may differ between but also within groups of water users. The term water productivity is used exclusively to denote the amount of the product over the volume of water diverted. This research paper presents one-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a steady flow analysis on the Purna river of the Navsari region, India. ArcGIS and HEC-RAS software were used to find out water level at different cross-section in 62 km stretch of river reach. Carto DEM of 1-arc second resolution was pre-processed in ArcGIS v10.5 to extract the cross-sections for hydraulic modeling. Hydrologic Engineering Centre’s- River Analysis System (HEC-RAS v5.0.7) software was used to carry out the analysis of hydraulic parameters for past flood data. Total 246 cross-sections were analyzed to check the carrying capacity of the 62 km stretch of the river for the peak flood discharge of the years 2004 and 2005. The results show that around 40% of the total cross-sections were not having the capacity to safely pass the flood discharge. So, construction of retaining walls, embankments, stone-pitching, and detention ponds were suggested to prevent the flood inundation of the surrounding region. The study presented in this paper would be helpful in the infrastructure planning for decision-makers to prevent the loss due to floods in low-lying areas.
    Keywords: ArcGIS, flood, Flood delineation, HEC-RAS, One-dimensional model, Water Productivity Enhancement
  • Mojgan Ahmadi * Pages 21-32

    Remote sensing (RS) technology can be effective in many agricultural activities due to the associated valuable features such as the ability to take multi-time and multi-spectral images, the ability to distinguish between time and radiometry, and a wide and integrated view of the area. The RS technology also could help to estimate the actual evapotranspiration and to investigate the crop water productivity. In this study, the effect of precipitation, temperature and potential evapotranspiration of the GLDAS model on the outputs of Aqua Crop model in Qazvin synoptic station for two wheat and maize products from 1979 to 2013 have been investigated. Also, the parameters of GLDAS model, the precipitation during 1979-2015 and the evapotranspiration during 1979-2013 were examined. The Penman Monteith method was used to compute the potential evapotranspiration of Qazvin station. The results of the GLDAS model, the precipitation model data and station data, R2 = 0.97 and NRMSE = 0.38 show that there is a high determination coefficient between these two data sets. The statistical results show R2 = 0.99 and NRMSE = 0.10 between the evapotranspiration data obtained from the GLDAS model and station data. The results of the statistical evaluation of the outputs of Aqua Crop model, Qazvin station data and the GLDAS model for maize and wheat products showed that the model is more accurate in biomass and yield according to the RMSE and NRMSE indices.

    Keywords: AquaCrop model, evapotranspiration, GLDAS model, Precipitation, Water productivity
  • João Santos *, José Caeiro, João Martins, Patrícia Palma Pages 33-46

    The paper presents a study of Internet of Things (IoT) systems used on physical and chemical water quality and resources sensing. The United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030, declaring a commitment to “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all", is taken as a reference for the ensuing analysis of the literature. The IoT is changing the landscape of environmental resources monitoring and the case of water quality and quantity is no exception. A comparison among IoT based sensing systems is presented. It is focused on: the sensors; data communication hardware and the software protocols and processing devices. The most measured parameters are selected according to a scientific literature sample encompassing the last few years and including over 30 papers. The sample consists of the most relevant papers on the subject. . A general architecture for the collection and processing of water quality data is discussed. This data assists to water productivity investigations. The architecture integrates the sensing of physical and chemical parameters, data communication and processing.

    Keywords: Internet of Things, Sensing, System architectures, Water productivity, Water Quality
  • Mousa Maleki * Pages 47-58

    Nowadays water resources protection, by application of optimized, sustainable and economical approaches, for logical utilization of water has turned to one of the most vital and challenging issues worldwide. Additionally, water reuse, known as a strong factor in managing water crisis, is an appropriate alternative to handle this challenging crisis. This senior project discusses the design and construction of a solar water treatment system taking the advantage of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and a combination of natural processes. An UV wastewater treatment system is designed to demonstrate the wastewater treatment capability of the network. This system is specifically designed to eliminate bacterial contaminants and meet the needs of a community. Only sunlight is needed to power the treatment system. A solar panel collects energy from sunlight to be used for electrical consumptions such as pumping. Ultraviolet light disrupts bacteria and produces a source of drinking water. In fact, we try introducing an innovating idea of a decentralized solar wastewater treatment (DSWWT) machine, which is adaptable with environmental standards goals. In addition to being affordable and eco-friendly, it can be used in different kinds of communities (especially useful for remote communities).This machine will also be capable of being used in any residential, commercial or official building, which produces wastewater. Based on the assessments, manufacturing of this machine is easily reachable.

    Keywords: Crisis, Eco-friendly, sustainable development, Water resources
  • Samir Al-Gamal * Pages 59-70

    The water resources in Africa is very sensitive to climate changes and climate variability. Over 95 percent of Africa’s agriculture is rain-fed and rural populations depend on agriculture and other natural resources for their livelihoods, and their crops are sensitive to the small changes in temperature and rainfall regimes. Climate change is expected to alter not only the hydrological cycle, temperature balance, and the rainfall patterns across Africa but also has the potential to add to existing pressure on basin biodiversity, basin biological and water productivity. Africa has experienced at least one major drought each decade over the past 30 years. Climatologists have underlined the high year-to-year inconstancy of precipitation sums and the related dry season time frames and warmth waves. It is expected that worldwide there will be a 40 percent increase in demand for water by 2030. Major concerns for the water sector in Africa include the limited access to water, including groundwater, and limited governance capacity. Excessive pumping of shallow aquifers in Africa may bring about saltwater intrusion only as contamination of groundwater, lakes, and decrease in hydropower vitality as an immediate outcome to climatic changes and may prompts genuine water disputes. Water management is a pressing challenge, which, if not improved now, could see its problems greatly exacerbated in a future, warmer climate.

    Keywords: climate change, Conflict Mitigation, Negotiation, water disputes, Water productivity, Water Resources Management, water–stressed basins
  • Alessia Corami * Pages 71-81

    Phytoremediation is widely viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to the environmentally destructive physical and chemical remediation methods currently practiced. Soil and water pollution is due to many kind of contaminants from various anthropogenic origins such as agricultural, industrial, wastewater; activities which involve the addition of nutrients, pesticides and on the other hand, industry and urbanization pollute the water with solid wastes, heavy metals, solvents, and several other slow degrading organic and inorganic substances. Dispersion of these contaminants from the source can be through the atmosphere, via the waterbodies and water channels, and/or into the soil itself, and from there they enter the food chain and adversely affects the human life. Important progresses have been made in the last years developing native plants for phytoremediation and/or nano-phytoremediation of environmental contaminants. Generally it is a technology that utilizes plants and their associated rhizosphere microorganisms to remove and transform the toxic chemicals located in soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and even the atmosphere. Phytoremediation applied to wetlands is an effective, nonintrusive, and inexpensive means of remediating wastewater, industrial water and landfill leachate. It highly increases water productivity.

    Keywords: aquatic plants, contaminants, Phytoremediation, Waste water, Water Hyacinth, Water Productivity, Wetlands