فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:23 Issue: 1, Jan 2021
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/12/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Payman Tavakoli, Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani *, Asghar Aliyari Page 1
    Background

     Induction of Th1 responses against tumor antigens may be a useful strategy to control malignancy. In this respect, previous studies have shown that beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists can promote cellular immune responses.

    Objectives

     This survey was done to evaluate the beneficiary of a new immunotherapy method against breast cancer made by mixing heated 4T1 cells and propranolol, as an adjuvant.

    Methods

     Subcutaneously injected live 4T1 cells (1 × 104) were used to induce breast cancer in six to eight-week-old female Balb/c mice. when all mice had a palpable tumor, immunotherapy was dawned. Mice in the treatment groups were vaccinated, twice at a one-week interval, with the extract of heated 4T1(1 × 105) either alone or in combination with propranolol (6 mg/kg). Negative control mice received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as the same schedule. One-half of the mice were euthanized one week after the last vaccination to investigate the immune response profile. Other animals were kept until death occurred spontaneously.

    Results

     Combined immunotherapy with propranolol and extract of heated 4T1 had synergistic effects, causing a more desirable survival curve and slower tumor growth when compared to other tumor-bearing mice receiving only heated 4T1 or PBS. Furthermore, combined immunotherapy significantly augmented the production of IFN-γ nitric oxide production, respiratory burst, and cytotoxicity of natural killer cells in the splenocyte culture of tumor-bearing mice. Conversely, combined immunotherapy significantly regressed the production of TGF-β and IL-10 in the splenocyte population compared to cytokine production by splenocytes from other groups.

    Conclusions

     Combined heated 4T1 cells with propranolol promote beneficial outcomes in the animal model of breast cancer.

    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Propranolol, Adjuvant, 4T1 Cell Line, Combined Immunotherapy
  • Mansour Karajibani *, Farzaneh Montazerifar, Razieh Hosseini, Fatemeh Suni, AliReza Dashipour, Mahshid Fadaaeimokhtarkanlo Page 2
    Background

     Malnutrition causes nutritional, metabolism, and biochemical disorders and finally leads to mortality. Several studies have highlighted that serum liver enzymes are increased in patients with malnutrition.

    Objectives

     This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between malnutrition and liver enzymes in hospitalized children in Zahedan.

    Methods

     This case-control study was conducted among 145 hospitalized children under six years old, including 74 cases and 71 controls. The case group was diagnosed with malnutrition according to weight for age indices (Z-Score < -2SD), and controls were determined based on the following indices (Z-Score > -2SD) of classification of WHO 2006 growth standards. Serum was isolated after taking blood from the samples. Then liver enzymes, including AST, ALP, and ALT, were measured by spectrophotometric method.

    Results

     A total of 145 subjects were enrolled that consisted of 74 cases and 71 controls. No significant difference was observed in serum liver markers, including AST, ALT, and ALP between the two groups, However, the level of AST, ALT, and ALP was higher than the standard level. There was a significant correlation between AST with ALT (r = 0.74, P < 0.001), and ALP (r = 0.27, P = 0.03).

    Conclusions

     The findings indicated that there was no significant alteration in enzyme markers in the two groups. However, AST and ALT levels increased, and ALP levels decreased compared with the control. Different degrees of malnutrition, including mild, moderate, and severe, can probably change the levels of hepatic enzymes in under-nourished children. Alteration of these liver enzymes could be due to the metabolic modification, which can be the result of protein deficiency.
     

    Keywords: Malnutrition, Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Alanine Aminotransferase, Enzymes
  • Gholamreza Sepehri *, Mahnaz Amiri, Ali Hosseininasab Page 3
    Background

     Inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotics in children is common in most parts of the world.

    Objectives

     This study was performed to evaluate antibiotic prescription patterns and the rational use of antibiotics in hospitalized children in a tertiary referral hospital in Kerman, Iran.

    Methods

     This prospective cross-sectional study evaluated prescription patterns of antibiotics for hospitalized children under 12 years old for six months from October 1, 2017, to March 31, 2018. Demographic information, including age, sex, most commonly-prescribed drug classes, name of antibiotic, duration and route of administration, diagnosis, and results of microbial culture and duration of hospitalization were recorded.

    Results

     Most antibiotics were administered by parenteral route. The major infections for which antibiotics were prescribed were febrile seizures (34.4%), upper respiratory infections (25.5%), pyrexia with unknown origin (17.6%), and urinary tract infections (14.8%). Ceftriaxone, clindamycin, and vancomycin were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics. The selection of 84% of antibiotics was on an empirical basis. Ampicillin (83.9%) and clindamycin (81.0%) showed the highest resistance rate, followed by ceftriaxone (33.0%) and vancomycin (32.0%).

    Conclusions

     Our results showed inappropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalized children. A relatively high resistance rate to prescribed antibiotics for children indicates that the selection of high-cost antibiotics, including ceftriaxone, vancomycin, and meropenem should be based on antimicrobial sensitivity tests.
     

    Keywords: Pediatrics, Antibiotic, Iran, Hospitalized Children, Prescription
  • Foroogh Eshaghi, Haniyeh Bashizadeh Fakhar *, Masood Ghane, Javad Shokry Page 4
    Objective

     Different types of Streptococcus gallolyticus are associated with malignant colorectal cancer. This study aimed at scrutinizing the S. gallolyticus screening using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Methods

     A descriptive study was conducted to detect S. gallolyticus in 55 patients with colon diseases referring to hospitals in Babol and Chalus, Iran. PCR and culture techniques were performed. Detection of S. gallolyticus after DNA extraction from designed primers (PCO3 and PCO4) was done for SODA gene. Fisher's exact test was used for the analysis of PCR results. A P < 0.05 was considered significant.

    Results

     Of 55 biopsy samples of patients with colon diseases, 3 samples (5.5%) with 95% confidence interval and 52 samples (94.5%) were reported negative in terms of DNA of S. gallolyticus. In the analysis of PCR gels, the remaining 406 bp band after performing PCR showed that all samples were in good condition considering DNA quality.

    Conclusion

     Specific probes have been designed from S. gallolyticus l6S rD. PCR techniques now allow for rapid identification of S. gallolyticus strains for clinical and other scientific investigations in colon disease.

    Keywords: PCR, Streptococcus gallolyticus, Colon Diseases
  • Abdolmajid Fata, Behzad Kiani, Amene Raouf Rahmati, Maryam Tayefi, Faezaeh Moradinejad, Elham Moghaddas * Page 5
    Background

     Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the important endemic parasitic infections in Iran. Khorasan-e-Razavi province has the highest prevalence rate of the disease in the northeast of Iran.

    Objectives

     This study aimed to obtain the latest status of CL in Mashhad city, the capital of Khorasan-e-Razavi province, Iran.

    Methods

     A retrospective study was conducted on 5,241 patients who were referred to Mashhad health centers during 2015 - 2018. The prevalence, number, and site of wounds on the body besides demographical data including, age, sex, nationality, and place of residence were recorded and analyzed by SPSS.

    Results

     The highest and the lowest prevalence rates were 27.6% and 21.3% in the years 2015 and 2018, respectively. The prevalence of CL was higher in the southwest of Mashhad than in the rest of the area. The disease was slightly more common in females (50.1% for women versus 49.9% for men), which was not statistically significant (P = 0.2). The highest incidence rate was observed in the age group of 1 - 9 (21%). The majority of the patients (n = 4971, 94.8%) were Iranian, followed by Afghan (n = 265, 5.05%).

    Conclusion

     The frequency of CL during the past four years in Mashhad was decreasing, but it is still a threat to health. The southwest of Mashhad city had the highest prevalence of CL, so it seems we need more prevention programs in this area. Most CL lesions were seen on hands and faces, which is compatible with the anthroponotic form of CL.

    Keywords: Prevalence, Human, Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Mashhad
  • Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani *, Asghar Zamani, Ardeshir Abbasi Page 6
    Background

     Anticancer effects of Aloe vera and copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) have been separately determined. Hence, we investigated whether combining the hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera and green CuO NPs produced by eco-friendly and walnut shells could provide synergistic cytotoxicity against K562 cell lines.

    Methods

     The K562 cells and PBMCs (1 × 105 cells/100 μL/well) were treated with serial dilution of Aloe vera extract (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 160 and 320 mg/ mL) and green CuO NPs (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μM). After incubation for 24h, the viability of cells was determined by MTT assay. Cells were exposed to a mixture of Aloe vera extract and Green CuO NPs at the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) to assess the inhibitory effects.

    Results

     The extract of Aloe vera and green CuO NPs had cytotoxic effects against K562 (cell-line in a dose-dependent manner). Unlike Aloe vera, the marginal safety of green CuO NPs was low. There were no significant dissimilarities in the IC50 value of the green CuO NPs against K562 cells compared to the IC50 value of the Green CuO NPs against PBMCs (175 ± 9 μM vs. 186.89 ± 8.88 μM). Combined treatment with minimal cytotoxic doses provided synergistic benefits and caused more cytotoxicity in K562 cells toward their separated treatment. Meanwhile, this combined concentration enhanced the cell-survival, not the cytotoxicity in PBMC treated cells.

    Conclusions

     The combinative concentration of Aloe vera and green CuO may be considered alternative medicine later.

    Keywords: K562, Aloe vera, Green Synthesis, Walnut Shells, Copper Oxide Nanoparticl
  • Nahid Tajeddin, Ali Mohammad Ahadi *, Gholamreza Javadi, Hoda Ayat Page 7

    During pregnancy, the embryo implantation stage is a highly dynamic and molecularly controlled phenomenon. Several genes are involved in the implantation process, among which the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a marker of implantation. LIF is a multi-functional cytokine located on chromosome 22. The expression of this gene is increased in the middle of the secretion phase from the sexual cycle, and any defect in its expression will cause the implantation failure. LIF receptor or LIFR gene, as the LIF receptor, consists of two membrane proteins called LIFR and GP130. LIFR acts as a signal receptor for LIF in a low-affinity level. In this study, we focused on the screening of polymorphisms in the promoter region of the LIF and LIFR genes in the infertile women using the polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method. In this study, blood samples were collected from 100 women with primary and secondary infertility and 50 healthy women as a control group. Extraction of DNA was done by the phenol-chloroform method, and in the next step, using specific primers for upstream regions of the LIF and LIFR genes, target sequences were amplified and analyzed by the SSCP method. Finally, PCR products with different configurations were selected for sequencing analysis. The results showed two polymorphisms in the upstream region of LIF and LIFR genes of two women, but there were no genetic changes in the control group. The present study was the first in this field, and the results indicated the importance of examining such genes in infertility with an unknown cause.

    Keywords: Genetic Polymorphism, Woman Infertility, LIFR Gene, LIF Gene
  • Saeede Ghezi, Mitra Eftekhariyazdi, Forough Mortazavi Page 8
    Background

     Pregnancy anxiety that threatens maternal mental health has a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes and can develop even in a healthy pregnant woman with no depression or anxiety problems.

    Objectives

     The purpose of the present study was to investigate pregnancy anxiety and its related factors in pregnant women.

    Methods

     This cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was performed on 322 pregnant women who were registered at health centers from November 2018 to March 2018. A random sampling method was applied to select eight health centers in the city. Using the SIB system, 40 pregnant women were randomly selected in each center. Selected women who came to health centers to receive prenatal care filled out the revised version of the Farsi anxiety scale for pregnancy (F-ASP-R). Inclusion criteria were, having the ability to read and lack of psychological disorders requiring treatment. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 18 and student t-test, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analyses.

    Results

     The mean score of the F-ASP-R was 32.63 ± 8.9 out of 56, and 49.7% of the study participants scored below the average. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the F-ASP-R was 0.867. Multiple regression analyses showed that unwanted pregnancy (P = 0.008), a history of hospitalization in pregnancy (P = 0.044), lack of knowledge about analgesia during labor (P = 0.019), a history of dysmenorrhea (P < 0.001), poor spousal emotional support (P = 0.001), and perceived poor health (P < 0.001) were independent risk factors of pregnancy anxiety.

    Conclusions

     Intervention is necessary to reduce pregnancy anxiety in women with an unwanted pregnancy, a history of dysmenorrhea or hospitalization in pregnancy, poor spousal emotional support, and perceived poor health.

    Keywords: Pregnancy, Reliability, Risk Factor, Anxiety