فهرست مطالب

نشریه جامعه شناسی فرهنگ و هنر
سال یکم شماره 1 (زمستان 1398)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • غلامرضا غفاری، حسن بخشی زاده* صفحات 1-19

    اینترنت با کمک فناوری های جدید انتشار اطلاعات را تسهیل کرده و سبب مشارکت افراد، در فرایندهای تکاملی جامعه می شود. بنابراین گسترش ICTتوان و پتانسیل بالقوه زیادی را برای رسیدن به اهداف حکومتی مناسب در کشورهای در حال توسعه فراهم می نماید و از اینرو این قابلیت را دارد که به توسعه به مثابه آزادی کمک نماید. براین اساس اکثر کشورهای دنیا تمایل به استفاده حداکثر از منافع توسعه ICT جهت کاهش فقر و توانمندسازی روستاها دارند. از اینرو هدف این مقاله، بررسی ICT روستایی و توسعه فرهنگی در توسعه قابلیتی دهستان سردابه در شهرستان اردبیل است. روش تحقیق مورد استفاده روش کیفی مطالعه موردی (استفاده از مصاحبه و مشاهده) است که در این زمینه سعی گردیده با مشارکت اهالی دهستان سردابه (نمونه 20 نفر با دستیابی به اشباع نظری) به موضوعات و مسایل مرتبط با ICT روستایی پرداخته شود. بطور کلی این مطالعه به این یافته رسیده که، توسعه ICT در راستای توسعه قابلیتی روستایی در دهستان سردابه شهرستان اردبیل بدون تعامل و هم افزایی حاصل از حمایت و مشارکت روستاییان و دولت امکانپذیر نیست. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که ICT باید بر پایه مشارکت سازمان های محلی، کنترل محلی، متناسب با خصوصیات و ویژگی های محلی و بومی ایجاد گردد، در غیر اینصورت توسعه قابلیتی در روستاها شکل نخواهد گرفت.

    کلیدواژگان: روستا، توسعه روستایی، توسعه فرهنگی، توسعه قابلیتی، ICT روستایی
  • اعظم راودراد*، فرزاد غلامی، زهره علی خانی صفحات 20-47

    بر اساس مطالعات جریان های خبری افریقا همواره از مناطق مورد توجه اخبار بوده است. با توجه به قدرت تصاویر در ژانر خبر، و نیز با در نظر گرفتن هدف سازمانی شبکه تلویزیونی پرس تی وی، در این تحقیق به بررسی تصاویر مربوط به قاره افریقا در وبسایت پرس تی وی با استفاده از رویکرد مطالعات پساا ستعماری پرداخته شده است. مطالعات پسا استعماری به دنبال فهم وضعیت کنونی کشور های موسوم به جهان سوم از طریق تبیین انتقادی شرایط تاریخی اجتماعی است. برای این تحلیل از روش کیفی استفاده شده است. شیوه تحلیل در این مقاله تحلیل ایدیولوژیک برگر با رویکرد «اول متن»ب ه تصویر بوده است، و بنابراین مواد تحلیل ایدیولوژیک نیز از طریق توصیف آیکونوگرافیک تهیه شده است. تحلیل یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که تروریسم، جنگ و خشونت، فقر، اسطوره سفید، ناتوانی در ایجاد دموکراسی مولفه های مهم در تصاویر این وبسایت بوده است. این مولفه ها با مفاهیم شرق شناسانه درباره قاره افریقا عجین بوده و دو دسته کلی از کلیشه ها یعنی کلیت منفی و دیگری ناجی در این تصاویر وجود دارد. بنابراین می توان گفت که تصویر ارایه شده از افریقا عمدتا با آن چه مطالعات پساا ستعماری هشدار می دهد، همخوانی دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: آفریقا، پرس تی وی، تحلیل ایدئولوژی، شمایل شناسی، مطالعات پسااستعماری
  • صادق صالحی، لقمان امامقلی* صفحات 48-71

    رسانه ها در دنیای امروز نقش بی بدیلی در شکل دهی و هدایت افکار عمومی و جریان سازی رویدهای محیط زیستی دارند. درک عمومی از مسایل محیط زیستی وابسته به میزان توجه رسانه های جمعی و میزان تاثیرپذیری مخاطبان است. هدف مقاله حاضر بررسی تاثیر مصرف رسانه ای بر رفتارهای محیط زیست است. پرسش اصلی مقاله این است که "آیا مصرف رسانه ای می تواند تغییری در فرهنگ محیط زیستی (نگرش، ارزش، دغدغه، آگاهی) و رفتار محیط زیستی ایجاد کند؟". برای پاسخگویی به این سوال، ابتدا نظریه های مرتبط، مطرح و سپس "نظریه کاشت" در جامعه شناسی ارتباطات، به عنوان چارچوب نظری انتخاب گردید. روش تحقیق در این مطالعه پیمایش و جامعه آماری آن شهروندان شهر سنندج در سال 1398 است. حجم نمونه برابر با 437 نفر بوده و نمونه های مورد مطالعه با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای چند مرحله ای انتخاب گردیدند. داده های تحقیق با استفاده از پرسشنامه و با روایی و پایایی مطلوب جمع آوری شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که میزان مصرف رسانه ای بر نگرش، ارزش و رفتار محیط زیستی تاثیر دارد. با این اوصاف، مصرف رسانه ای بر دغدغه ها و آگاهی محیط زیستی تاثیری ندارد. به نظر می رسد صدا و سیما با کمبود کارشناسان و متخصصانی روبرو است که بتوانند مشکلات محیط زیستی را به "گونه ای دیگر" عرضه کنند. به عبارت دیگر، به نظر می رسد برنامه ها نوعا، به صورت مستقیم و خام به مسایل محیط زیستی می پردازند و کمتر به جنبه های اجتماعی و فرهنگی آن می پردازند. این مشکل در جامعه شناسی محیط زیست تحت عنوان "حادثه_ محوری" شناسایی شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: مصرف رسانه ای، فرهنگ محیط زیستی، رفتار محیط زیستی، پیمایش
  • محسن نقابی*، علی شیخ مهدی صفحات 72-92

    در تعداد قابل توجهی از فیلم های داستانی تاریخ سینمای ایران شخصیتی وجود دارد که غالبا از او به عنوان «جاهل» یاد می شود، شخصیتی که می توان گفت پیش از انقلاب همواره محبوب بوده است. این شخصیت از اواسط دهه سی به فیلم های ایرانی راه پیدا می کند. ما در این پژوهش در بستر کلی تاریخی- اجتماعی و با توجه به وضعیت سینما و فیلم سازی در دوره  مورد بحث پدیدار شدن این شخصیت در سینمای ایران را مورد کنکاش قرار داده ایم. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد که آنچه باعث عطف نظر و محبوبیت جاهل شده است، ناامیدی و اکراه از مظاهر تمدن غرب و در نتیجه آن سیطره جستجو برای راه حل های بومی  چه در میان توده ها و چه در میان روشنفکران بوده است. چنین ناامیدی برآیند اشغال کشور در جنگ جهانی دوم و همچنین تلاش حکومت در شبه غربی سازی ایران در آن سال ها بوده است. از سوی دیگر فیلم سازان ایرانی که توان رقابت تکنیکال با فیلم های خارجی توزیع شده در سینماها را نداشتند، مجبور بودند در مضامین، شخصیت پردازی و دیالوگ نویسی به فرهنگ و زبان کوچه و خیابان نزدیک شوند. بدین ترتیب شخصیت جاهل که با داستان« اسمال در نیویورک»  به محبوبیت رسیده بود مورد توجه سینماگران و اقبال از سوی مخاطبان قرار می گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: بومی گرایی، جاهل، سینمای ایران، کلاه مخملی، فرهنگ عامه
  • رسول محسن زاده*، ناصر فکوهی صفحات 93-121
    بیش از نود درصد از منابع آب کشور در بخش کشاورزی به مصرف می‎رسد. این در حالی است که محصولات زراعی تولیدی عمدتا مصرف داخلی دارند. این‎گونه به نظر می‎رسد روی دیگر بحران آب حاصل شده از کشاورزی در ایران، تقاضا و رژیم‎غذایی مصرف‏ کنندگان است. رژیم‎غذایی شهروندان اکنون به سرعت در حال چرب، پرپیمان و کالریک شدن است و از این جهت تغذیه به شکلی غیرمستقیم حجم بالایی از منابع آبی را به خود اختصاص می‏دهد. با اشراف بر بحرانی شدن وضعیت آب کشور در نیم قرن اخیر، ما در این پژوهش در پی پاسخگویی به این پرسش‏ ایم که چه عادات غذایی و سبکی از زندگی‏ در تاریخ ایران، مانع از خشکی کشور و دست‎اندازی به نظم طبیعی می‎گشته است؟ برای پاسخگویی به این پرسش، ضمن بررسی کتب و سفرنامه‏های تاریخی، از خلال مصاحبه‎های کیفی با سالمندان و عشایر، صحت این نوشته‏ها مورد واکاوی و مداقه قرار گرفته است. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می‏دهد که سازگاری ایرانیان با طبیعت، مرهون عواملی چون جمعیت 10 میلیونی و کمتر، تحرک و پویایی شدید جمعیتی، رژیم غذایی منطقه‏ای، کم‏تنوع و محدود، استقامت بالا و تقدیرگرایی است. بدیهی است که ادامه حیات پایدار در ایران، منوط به ترویج رژیم‎های غذایی سازگار با اقلیم خشک کشور می‎باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: بحران آب، قحطی، سفره، غذا، فقر
  • محمد اسکندری نسب*، حمیدرضا جلایی پور صفحات 122-147

    در جامعه سیاسی ایران اسلامی دو جبهه اصلاح طلب و اصولگرا شکل گرفته است. در جریان مبارزات انتخاباتی هرکدام از جبهه ها قصد دارند علاوه بر معرفی خود، «دیگری» را نیز به گونه ای بازنمایی کند تا مناسبات قدرت را به نفع «خود»، تداوم بخشند. در انتخابات سال 92، پس از پیروزی حسن روحانی، اصلاح طلبان فرصتی دوباره برای ورود به مناسبات قدرت یافتند؛ از سویی جبهه اصولگرایان برای اینکه بتواند مناصب قدرت را در قوه مقننه حفظ کند، در سال 1394 وارد مبارزات انتخاباتی اصلاح طلبان شدند؛ در این میان روزنامه کیهان، یکی از موثرترین و قدرتمند ترین روزنامه های این جبهه بوده که به اعتقاد محقق، با رویکردی سوگیرانه، در خلال انتخابات 1394، در قالب مقالاتی به پوشش اخبار مربوط به اصلاح طلبان پرداخت. از این رو مقاله حاضر با استفاده از رویکرد تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی قصد دارد تا شیوه بازنمایی اصلاح طلبان در روزنامه کیهان را با بررسی مقالات منتشره در یک ماه منتهی به انتخابات اسفند 1394، و سوگیری های این مقالات را آشکار گرداند. در این راستا با نمونه گیری نظری و هدفمند، شش مقاله به عنوان مراجعی جهت استناد انتخاب گردید. نتایج تحلیل نشان می دهد که کیهان، اصلاح طلبان را با خصوصیاتی همچون «دروغ گو»، «مدعی گر»، «فاقد تخصص»، «اهل طرب»، «جریان بد»، «لیبرال های غیرمسلمان» توصیف کرده است؛ از طرفی آنها را «اهل مسامحه و مدارا» دانسته که به دلیل عدم تغییر رویه تاریخی خود و درگیری با بحران هویت، از طریق «یارگیری» و استفاده از یاران به اصطلاح «قرضی»، وارد میدان رقابت شده اند. درنهایت اینکه آنها به وسیله ارتباط عوامل خارجی و تحت سلطه روحانی و حزب کارگزاران، بر آن شده اند تا با هتاکی و «دید ابزاری به مردم»، با کاربست استراتژی هایی همچون «سیاسی بازی»، «سیاه نمایی»، «مظلوم نمایی» و «حاشیه سازی» در عرصه انتخابات حضور یابند.

    کلیدواژگان: بازنمایی و تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی، اصلاح طلبان، انتخابات اسفند 94، لیست امید، روزنامه کیهان
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  • Gholamreza Ghaffari, Hasan Bakhshizade * Pages 1-19
    Introduction

    The Internet facilitates the dissemination of information with the help of new technologies and enables people to participate in the evolutionary processes of society. Therefore, the expansion of ICT offers great potential and potential for achieving good governance goals in developing countries and hence has the potential to contribute to development as a freedom. Accordingly, most countries in the world tend to make the most of the benefits of ICT development to alleviate poverty and empower rural areas. Statement of the problem: The development of information and communication technology (ICT) has reached all aspects of human life and the development of ICT has had many positive and negative economic, social, cultural, political and environmental impacts on villages. Accordingly, most countries tend to use the maximum benefits of ICT development to achieve their goals in the countryside and try to pave the way for the development of all rural groups. The villagers are always faced with educational problems such as lack or lack of educational space, distance and commuting. Through these technologies, many of the educational needs of the rural community have been met, and this will help reduce the educational gap and ultimately reduce the information gap. "Communication technologies lead to a change in social organization thinking and leisure activity patterns (Hanson, 1994: 28)". Cultural development can be achieved through rural ICT applications both in the form of mandatory public services (public and private education; increasing literacy and other cultural information) and in line with other national and local plans (weather information for Farmers; training in seasonal and profitable businesses; training in planting, optimal harvesting; high-quality animal training, etc.). Given the high number of mobile access in 1398, given that many villagers have access to mobile, they are easily connected to the Internet through this tool, but content and contentious disputes remain. Someone produces content and has power. The question now is: Under what conditions does ICT lead to an increase in the culture, well-being and well-being of poor communities? This question can be answered according to the framework of Search Results Amrita Sien (2010) Capability Approach and put into place a chain of mechanisms such as access, meaningful and useful use. Theoretical framework There have been various definitions of ICTs and related concepts. For Castells, technology is the application of science to applied techniques and skills and transforms natural resources, capital, and human resources into goods and services. He also sees the peculiarity of the current technological revolution not as the focus of knowledge and information but as the application of this knowledge and information in the production of knowledge and the means of processing, transferring information in an increasing feedback loop between innovation and innovation applications (Castells, 2001: 59-61). ).Amrita Sien (2010) emphasizes the intrinsic capabilities of individuals in the development debate. Instead of trying to produce more, he believes, the human capacities should be discussed. In summary, the role of ICTs in the development and creation of capabilities is undeniable, and this has been addressed by many theorists. Research

    method

    The research method used in this study is the qualitative case study method. Sardabeh (located in Ardebil city which according to the Iranian Census data (2016) has 41 populations, with a population of about 5591 households and 19396 population - 10121 males and 9275 females) has been studied as a case study. Interviews and observations have been used and in some cases group discussions have been used to gather data regarding the readiness and facilities of the villages in the two villages of Imche and Sardabeh. The case interviews and group discussions are semi-structured and further questions are asked to explain the main question according to the research questions. In this study, 20 villagers from Imche and Sardabeh villages (interviewer information is the backing of the article) have actively participated in guided interviews since the announcement at the village level and with this number of theoretical saturation of the findings New increased non-compliance and duplication of previous findings was achieved. The method of selecting the participants has also been made by coincidence after the announcement at the village level with the cooperation of respected villagers.

    Results

    To discover and understand the facts, there must be an interactive relationship between the researcher and the community under study. Therefore, one of the main factors in creating and sustaining the participation and cooperation of the villagers is the sharing of interests and decision-making in the research process to enable active participation. Hence, the research findings present the findings of the research. From the villagers' point of view, most responsibility for the development of rural ICT rests with relevant agencies such as the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, the Ministry of Housing, the Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization and the Ministry of Interior, which should be involved in developing and delivering programs and Sites needed by the villagers to act. To keep this rural ICT on the right track, the villagers propose to form a working group consisting of the villagers and key informants themselves, to take appropriate action and to oversee the production of information and other related parts.

    Conclusion

    Although most participants respond positively to the development of rural ICT, most of them also express frustration with the unplanned development. In spite of all these problems, people are fully prepared to develop culturally relevant programs, as long as they all benefit from them. Cultural work in the preparation and implementation of any program needs to be taken into account. According to the above, it can be said that the following table, which is the result of the research by Gigler (2011), also confirms the result of our work in this area. Doing cultural work and providing information and awareness to the people and preserving the customs and culture of the villagers are the first and most important steps in the development of rural ICT (ICT Multiple Impacts). The lack of ability to organize rural ICT programs and issues and the lack of a social organization to take on the issues of rural ICT development problems in the area (eg, ICT use). Given the purpose of the research, "The Role of Rural ICT in Rural Capacity Development (Case Study of Sarabad Village)", it was confirmed that the villagers themselves have ideas on how to participate in Rural ICT development (levels of ICT use) that need to be adjusted. Policies or plans for development, government or trustee organizations to incorporate rural plans and ideas (enhancing human and information capabilities).

    Keywords: Rural, Rural Development, Cultural Development, Capacity Development, Rural ICT
  • Azam Ravadrad *, Farzad Gholami, Zohreh Alikhani Pages 20-47
    Introduction

    Visual representations are always political, whether they are deliberately manipulated images or they have common discourses and codes that shape the meaning of our social institutions (Spencer, 2017:33). In spite of the apparent objectivity of the images, they act in many ways from a cultural perspective, based on a colonialist dominance that is active throughout much of the world and these images may be seen in a way that legitimize ideas based on superiority(spencer,2017:65). As Michael (quoted by Spencer, 2017: 66) points out, to reach to a better understanding of this situation we need to conduct critical studies of images, in other words, the global critique of visual culture today is inevitable in understanding the present situation. Statement of the problem: According to studies, African news streams have always been one of the areas of interest in the news. The image presented of Africa was largely in line with what post-colonial studies shows. Post-colonial studies seek to understand the present state of the so-called Third World Countries by critically explaining their historical social conditions, of course, these studies are not merely theoretical, and seek to find a solution to change the situation. The purpose of post-colonial criticism is to unravel the truth and uproot the claims of Eurocentric discourses. As Homi k. Bhabha believes, the responsibility that post-colonial critique assumes is "to intervene in the Western discourse of modernity and to break it down."(Perry, 2010: 177). Press TV, as a television channel and its other social networks, started their work with the idea of "news from a different perspective" to challenge these prospects. The question is that in the globalized space, news images reproduced on the basis of numerous post-colonial studies of Orientalist views of Africa, how does the media in a Third World country, with a third perspective on news and image production look at Africa. So the main question of this study is” how is the representation of the continent of Africa in Press TV news photos? Is Africa's representation in the form of orientalist discourse?” Theoretical framework The theoretical framework of this research is postcolonial studies which are rooted in Edward W. Said's thoughts and his book, Orientalism. According to R.Boyne & A.Rattansi (2001) Orientalism is one of the most important works based on Foucault's views which stands against the challenge of solidification and sterilization of east and easterners in the form of “the other” lacking time, history and culture; That is, against a paradigm in which all its homogenous features are merely to highlight the differences and superiorities of the West in cultural, political, moral and economic matters. Post-colonial studies can be analyzed through working with subjects such as cultural diversity, ethnic, racial, cultural differences, and power relations (Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffin, 2019: 21). Postcolonial studies have many applications in areas such as: criticizing the generalizing forms of western historicism, a new conception of class, as a name for the state of indigenous passion in post-independence national groupings, as a cultural index for the non-settlement of less developed countries’ scholars who work in western universities, as an area for the study of commonwealth countries literature and as a form of comparative review (Sloman, 2019: 128-127). Postcolonial studies not only theorize about colonial conditions, but also explain why these conditions are so and how they can be eliminated or changed. In post-colonialism there is also a tendency toward the "actuality". That is how to deal with real socio-political issues. It is not enough for the sources of this thought to be independent and indigenous; rather, it must be dynamic and alive and useful for the "present", reliable to resolve real issues and can provide the least conditions for human life in the Contemporary world (Moi’ni, 2007:42). Criticism of the West is not enough; post-colonialism needs to deeply criticize the historical past, through which it can reaches to its own critique. Thus, if we take self-criticism as one of the axes of colonial studies, the representation of the East (the discourse east rather than the geographical East) by the East itself, defined as another West, is as important as Western representations of the East. Since Orientalist discourses have acted in such a way that the East itself represents Easterners in the context of Orientalist criticism of post-colonial studies. On this basis, it can be said that the methods of selecting news about the Third World countries, even in the less developed countries (so-called Third World countries) are also based on the factors that the West has identified. Research

    method

    The qualitative method was used for this analysis. The method of analysis in this article has been Burger's ideological analysis with the "first text" approach to the picture, and therefore ideological analysis material has been provided through iconographic description. "What I call the text's first approach to visual culture can help us use the text to understand the conditions of society, not vice versa," says Howells (2003). In this research, the news photos of the African section of the Press TV website are taken into account. In the sampling process it should be noted that although targeted sampling is the general and predominant form of qualitative research, the sampling is very diverse. This diversity is due to the fact that each sample in the qualitative sampling is methodologically proportional to a specific qualitative method and to a particular subject (Mohammadpour, 2014: 235). In this study, in the first step, all photographs of this section have been extracted from the first (04/12/2019) until the 21th of June 2017, which included 152 photos. In the second step, all the photos were analyzed using the method described above.

    Results

    Analyzing photos in the African News section on Press TV Website shows that most of these photos (93 photos out of 152 photos) fall into a primary categorization of five key subjects: terrorism, poverty, war and violence, white myth and the inability to create democracy. These factors can be divided into two major theoretical categories that also have colonial functions. Features such as poverty, war and violence, inability to create democracy and terrorism make Africa as a colonial subject, a subject "inherently" weak and in need of care. Then comes the other half that defines itself using this dark eastern Other: a white myth and a savior.

    Conclusion

    If we consider the responsibility of postcolonial criticism to "interfere with and disrupt Western discourses of modernity" in this study, it has become clear that the production of continent of Africa’s images is subject to colonial, national, political geography and historical forces rather than to the media's determination to present news from a new perspective. As such, it should be noted that there is no 'innocent eye' (Gombrich, as quoted in Dumek et al., 2003). And what can make the media claim (to avoid contemporary epistemological and ontological stereotypes) true is the constant precision of media production, because subjective stereotypes, if not reproduced in verbal texts, can be revealed through images in other ways.

    Keywords: Africa, Press TV. ideological analysis, Iconology, post-colonial studies
  • Sadegh Salhi, Loghman Emamgholi * Pages 48-71

    In today's world indispensable role of the media in shaping and guiding public opinion and current events of the environment is obvious. Public understanding of environmental issues is related to the impact of the mass media and audience attention. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of media on environmental variables and seek to answer the question of whether the media can change the environmental culture (attitudes, values, concerns and awareness) and environmental behavior or not? Based on related theories in this regard was made planting as a conceptual framework was selected. This study was a survey and statistical sample are Citizens of Sanandaj in 2019. The sample size is 437 subjects were selected using random sampling. Research tool, the questionnaire has been validated and its reliability was confirmed. The results of this study show that environmental attitudes, environmental values and environmental behavior are affected by media use. In contrast, the media does not influence the environmental awareness of environmental concerns. One of the major problems facing Iran's broadcasting is the lack of experts and specialists who can address environmental problems to "other species". In fact, most programs seem to address environmental issues directly and not address social and cultural aspects. This problem has been identified in environmental sociology as the "Event-orientation". Introduction We live in a world full of environmental hazards that has been the subject of mass media attention. Typically, no problem goes into public discourse or part of the political process without media coverage. For example, without media coverage, many ordinary people would not be aware of the mad cow disease or the dangers of genetically modified foods. In today's world indispensable role of the media in shaping and guiding public opinion and current events of the environment is obvious. Public understanding of environmental issues is related to the impact of the mass media and audience attention. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of media on environmental variables and seek to answer the question of whether the media can change the environmental culture (attitudes, values, concerns and awareness) and environmental behavior or not? Theoretical Framework In the study of the historical process, the impact of mass media on individuals has been identified in three or more distinct steps. (Absolute Impact, Limited Impact and Emphasis) Each of these steps has been emphasized by the impact of a mass communication. For example, an absolute impact approach focuses on message; the limited impact approach on the audience and the theory of emphasis although the viewer is dynamic, the message is directed towards the opinions of their audience and, finally, the theory of planting between the amounts of media consumption they create a balance between the audience and the message. Mass media, an important factor in socializing individuals, shape our attitudes, values, behaviors and perceptions of the real world. Based on this theory, it can be assumed that media consumption can influence individuals' environmental culture (attitudes, values, concerns, and environmental awareness) and ultimately lead to environmental behavior. Therefore, the planting theory (George Grabner) can better help explain the relationship between media consumption, environmental culture (attitude, value, concern, and environmental awareness) and environmental behavior. Research Methodology This study was a survey research methods and statistical sample of people over 18 years living in sanandaj in 2019. The sample size is 437subjects were selected using random sampling. Research tool, the questionnaire has been validated and its reliability was confirmed. Discussion and Results The results of the present study showed that media consumption (TV) is 23% of the audience and the person surveyed is high and very high. Based on this, one can expect the reader to have a far lower understanding of environmental issues and problems. This issue became more evident in the environmental awareness debate, so that the audience's awareness was not at the optimum level. The results of this study show that environmental attitude, environmental values and environmental behavior are affected by media use. In contrast, the media does not influence the environmental awareness of environmental concerns. Conclusion Based on the theoretical and empirical background of research, the media in today's world play an important role in shaping and guiding public opinion and the development of environmental behaviors. Also, the media are trying to put a certain message of the state of the environment in the public domain. In other words, the media intends to extend the transfer of concepts, thoughts and environmental meanings to the general public. In contrast, audiences try to understand the meanings, concepts, thoughts and meanings of the environment through the media. In other words, audiences with media influences try to convey the meaning of the world around them and, based on this, shape their attitude, consciousness, value, concern, and behavior. Therefore, the success of media in environmental topics depends on the ability of the media to enter these debates. In the subject under discussion in this study, it seems that the success rate of the media is not at the optimal level in entering the environmental debate. Also, based on the theory of planting, mass media, which is an important factor in socializing individuals, create attitudes, values, and responsible environmental behaviors, but in creating awareness and environmental concerns that, based on the results obtained, have the greatest impact on environmental behavior they are not biologically successful. As a result, mass media have not been able to properly plant the knowledge and environmental concerns in the minds of the subjects (planting means internalizing awareness and environmental concerns by the mass media and accepting by audiences and viewers), and effecting Leave the contact. Finally, the mass media are promising and informing audiences to reach the latest scientific and cultural events and resources for community excellence. Regarding the broadness of the media audience as well as the results of the present study, the media can have a better impact on environmental awareness, attitudes, concerns, values, and behaviors. Accordingly, it is recommended that public authorities (including media program) review and review their environmental approaches and programs and with the assistance of environmental experts in both the technical and social areas of programs and policies. Take actions that help create environmental concerns and raise environmental awareness. This helps the audience to develop environmentally responsible behaviors, and ultimately, the media can respond to one of the most serious challenges in today's world, environmental challenges and crises by affecting its audience.

    Keywords: Media Consumption, Environmental Culture, environmental behavior, survey
  • Mohsen Neghabi *, Ali Sheikhmehdi Pages 72-92

    There is a character in a significant number of fictional films in Iranian cinema that are often referred to as "Jahel", a character that can be said to have been popular before the revolution. This character has been making his way to Iranian films since the mid-thirties. In this research, we have explored the emergence of this character in Iranian cinema in the overall socio-historical context with Due to the state of cinema and filmmaking during the period under discussion. The results of this study show that what hasbrought attention to "jahel", is the despair and reluctance of the manifestations of Western civilization and, as a result, the search for indigenous solutions both among the masses and among the intellectuals. This was the result of the occupation of the country in World War II and the government's attempt to sub-Westernize Iran during those years.On the other hand, Iranian filmmakers, who could not technically compete with foreign films distributed in cinemas, had to approach folk culture and language in themes, characters, and dialogues. so The Jahel character, who popularized by the story of "esmal in New York", is being drawn to the attention of filmmakers and audiences.

    Keywords: Jahel, Nativism, Popular Culture, Iranian cinema, Velvet Hat
  • Rasoul Mohsenzadeh *, Nasser Fackouhi Pages 93-121
    Over 90 percent of Iran’s water resources is used in agriculture, and this is despite the fact that the crops are mainly for domestic consumption. It seems that the other side of the water crisis caused by agriculture in Iran involves the demands and eating habits of the consumers. The diets are now becoming increasingly fatty, substantial and high-calorie, and, thus, a great amount of water usage depends indirectly on eating habits. Given the country’s water crisis in the last half century, this study seeks to answer the following question: what eating habits and lifestyles in the Iranian history prevented drought, and disrupting the balance of nature? To answer this question, historical books and travel writings were examined, and their validity was analyzed and investigated through in-depth interviews with elders and nomads. The results of this study suggest that the historical adaptability of the Iranians to nature was owing to factors such as a population of 10 million or less, high population mobility, regional, limited, undiverse diets, high endurance and fatalistic beliefs. For many reasons, the change in the dominant eating habits of the country has led to a greater vulnerability of the country’s environment.
    Keywords: Adaptability, eating habits, famine, population, poverty, Water crisis
  • Mohamad Eskandari-Nasab *, Hamid-Reza Jalaeipour Pages 122-147

    Since the beginning of the revolution, in political arena of the Islamic Republic of Iran, two Reformists and Principlists have been struggling to win power. This faction and struggling shows their appearance more campaigning in elections. During the campaign, each political faction in addition to introduce themselves intend to represent another in such a way as to maintain the power relations in self-interest. After the victory of Hassan Rouhani in the 2013 elections, the reformists came back to the country's executive power; On the other hand, the conservative’s faction entered the reformist campaign in 2013 to maintain power in the legislature, Reformists who had a diminished presence in the Islamic Consultative Assembly after the sixth parliament. Consequently, the Conservatives faction had been using their power in order to maintain the power relations. One of the most important kinds of these media is Keyhan newspaper, serious and Conservative-oriented media. In this regards during the 2016 elections, the Keyhan focused on the reformist representation and published several articles. Hence, the study was to evaluate and review the reformist manner represented in the Keyhan during the February 2016 elections.

    Keywords: Representation, Critical Discourse Analysis, Reformists, the February 2016 elections, List of Hope, Keyhan newspaper