فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, Autumn 2020
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/01/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Vahid Delshad, Negar Pourvakhshoori, Elham Rajabi, Jafar Bazyar, HamidReza Khankeh* Pages 1-8
    Background

    At the end of the 19th century, international communities have realized the necessity of global planning and cooperation. Accordingly, worldwide meetings have been organized for several years. This study aims to assess the achievement of predetermined objectives by international conferences in the field of risk management.

    Materials and Methods

    The search for articles and documents was done using several keywords of "international meetings", "Sendai", "Hyogo", and "Yokohama" in Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Google Scholar databases. Also, the risk management domain websites such as FEMA, UNISDR, and EM-Date were searched.

    Results

    Three Disaster World Conferences have been organized, hosted by Japan: Yokohama 1994, Kobe 2005, and Sendai 2015. They proposed strategies and prioritized actions for managing disaster risk, reducing the risk of disasters, and coping with disasters. In the second and third conferences, as requested by the United Nations (UN General Assembly), the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) helped as the coordinating body. 

    Conclusion

    Reducing the risks of disasters is a global issue, which needs international cooperation. Therefore, all countries should take steps to achieve disaster risk reduction goals. Since declaraions, documents, resolutions, and conferences do not impose an obligation on countries in this regard, the success rate of the programs is dependent on voluntary international cooperation. Moreover, while we do not expect that outcomes of these international agreements related to disaster risk reduction be achieved at the scheduled time plan, strengthening the international cooperation of the countries to facilitate the improvement of actions and programs would be effective.

    Keywords: International conference, Sendai, Hyogo, Yokohama, Risk management, Emergencies, Disasters
  • HamidReza Khankeh*, Shokoufeh Ahmadi, Robab Sahaf, Asghar Dalvandi, Seyed Ali Hosseini Pages 9-16
    Background

    The growth of the elderly population, on the one hand, and the increase in exposure to accidents and disasters, on the other hand, have highlighted the attention on the issues of the older adults in disasters. This study aimed to investigate the changes in the lives of the elderly after the earthquake.

    Materials and Methods

    The present qualitative study was conducted using the content analysis method. The study data were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews. In total, 26 participants were interviewed in this study, including 4 specialists (an accident and disaster specialist, an elderly specialist, a psychologist, a social worker), 18 older adults, and 4 caregivers of the older adults. The data collection and data analysis process were performed simultaneously, and the Granheim and Lundman approach was used in this regard.

    Results

    In this study, two main categories were found about changes in the lives of the elderly after the earthquake: re-victimization and post-accident growth. Re-victimization category consisted of the subcategories of “increased dependency”, “declining physical and mental health”, “poverty and deprivation”, and “avoidance of work and family activities”, and post-accident growth included the subcategories of “individual growth”, “self-regulatory behaviors”, and “reinforcing the houses”.

    Conclusion

    Clarifying the nature and life changes of the elderly after the earthquake can enhance the knowledge of service providers. This information helps them make the necessary plans to prevent and reduce the problems that the elderly face after the earthquake.

    Keywords: Accidents, Disasters, Elderly, Earthquake, Qualitative study
  • Ali Mohajervatan*, AhmadReza Raeisi, Golrokh Atighechian, Nahid Tavakoli, Hossein Muosavi Pages 17-21
    Background

    All parents of a child know that keeping their child at home is difficult enough, but when the child goes to school, there are new challenges and very dangerous situation. Preparing children for such situations is one of the tasks of the education system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of operational first aid training course in preschool children.

    Methods

    This study is a baseline of single-group experiences. The sample size included 150 children who were randomly selected from kindergarten. They underwent a course of first aid training and the results were evaluated 3 weeks after training.

    Results

    Both quantitative and qualitative improvements were observed in the childrenchr('39')s efficacy in giving first aid. For example, the assessment of consciousness status increased from 51.3% before training to 64% after training or nasal bleeding control increased from 34% before training to 89.3% after training.

    Conclusion

    First aid training courses help children get immediate and adequate help in situations emergencies. The children can learn the basic aspects of first aid and these skills increasing self-care in children. So the first aid teaching program should include the transfer of knowledge and should also motivate children to perform first aid and develop their helping aptitude.

    Keywords: First aid, Preschool children, Training
  • MohammadReza Omidi*, Meysam Jafari Eskandari, Nabi Omidi Pages 23-28
    Background

    To achieve a safe and healthy environment for human beings and the dynamic industry as a critical factor in sustainable development, it is necessary to deal with accidents and eliminate their underlying causes radically. Safety climate shows the attitude and general perception of an organization and its management towards safety. This study aimed to investigate the effect of safety training on the safety climate of employees working in Kermanshah Province (Iran) Oil Refining Company.

    Materials and Methods

    The present study was quasi-experimental interventional research conducted in 2019 in Kermanshah Province, Iran Oil Refining Company, with a pre-test, post-test design. The study population included all employees working in different departments of Kermanshah Oil Refining Company. Sampling was done randomly with 240 people. The questionnaire used in the present study had the demographic information questionnaire. To assess the workers’ climate safety, the safety climate questionnaire of the British Safety Organization was used. The level of reliability was 0.84. Information coding was performed in SPSS v. 23, and the Mean±SD of demographic information and atmosphere scores were determined. To investigate the effect of interventions on the safety climate before and one month after educational and technical interventions, a pairwise comparison was used.

    Results

    The comparison of the mean scores of the safety climate components before the intervention was equal to 2.61 and after the educational intervention reached 3.72. All components of the safety climate increased after the intervention. The highest mean increase was related to the component of “safety communications” with 1.74 units. The lowest increase was associated with the component of “employee intervention in safety” with 0.68 units. Before and after the intervention, “safety enhancement” had the highest score among the safety climate components. Before the intervention, the lowest mean score was related to the “safety violations” component, which after the intervention, the “licensing system” had the lowest mean score.

    Conclusion

    The educational intervention improved the safety climate in Kermanshah Oil Refining Company. Therefore, safety training plays an essential role in increasing the oil and gas industry’s safety climate.

    Keywords: Safety, Employee health, Accidents
  • MohammadMehdi Khabiri*, Zohrah Ghaforifard Pages 29-37
    Background

    The rescue operation is dangerous during floods when the street surface is wet and the rescue vehicles moving fast. Rural roads are known with a high percentage of run-off-the-road crashes and accidents, mostly affected by the unsuitable and inappropriate speed of the car and failure to keep a safe side distance from the highway alignment. Determining the length of the vertical curve and the stopping distance depends on the speed parameter in the geometric design. This parameter depends on the traffic flow and the vehicle driver. 

    Materials and Methods

    The calculation of distance visibility, especially in the vertical and horizontal curves, has a significant role in the geometric design of roads and the safety of roads and drivers. This study investigates changes in two critical parameters of friction surface of pavement and vehicles’ speed on the probability of accidents. In the present study, by changing the speed parameter, namely, increasing speed and decreasing friction, and reducing the distance of vision, the required vertical curve is calculated and compared with the existing curve length. Thus, when the curve length does not match the required arch length, the accident’s probability increases. 

    Results

    One of the study’s findings indicates that with a 5% decrease in the friction coefficient of the vertical curve, the probability of accident increases by about 20%. The results show that an approximately 10% increase in speed can raise the likelihood of a crash by 25% on average.

    Conclusion

    The use of accident reduction-related strategies for rescue vehicles and ambulances will help the victims affected by natural disasters. The results showed that choosing the right speed is very important in flooded wet streets. Driving fast to speed up the relief operation not only increases the risk of traffic accidents but also slows down the relief of natural disasters. The results indicate the proper performance of the model created by the probabilistic method. Besides, this model’s use has the advantage of correctly identifying the factors affecting the increase in risk. Also, it helps to take the right measures to increase safety in the relief of natural disasters, especially floods.

    Keywords: Road safety, Injury, Health services, Car accidents, Emergency, Flooded pavement
  • Mandana Sahebzadeh, AbdolHossein Gherekhloo*, Golrokh Atighechian Pages 39-46
    Background

    Every year, numerous natural disasters occur around Iran, with many casualties and financial losses. In these crises, the demand for health care suddenly and uncontrollably increases. In such circumstances, the readiness of health centers and their staff is critical in reducing injuries and mortality. This study aimed to determine the effect of disaster preparedness intervention on the attitude, knowledge, and practice of health care providers in Shahreza City, Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    This one-group quasi-experimental study was conducted on 55 health care providers in Shahreza health centers selected by the census method. The participants completed a researcher-made questionnaire in two stages before and two months after attending a disaster preparedness workshop, a top-table maneuver, and an operational maneuver. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS v. 23 using descriptive statistics and paired t-test.

    Results

    Data analysis showed a significant difference between the mean scores of pretraining and posttraining regarding the rate of knowledge, attitude, and preparedness (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the mean scores of performance (P>0.05).

    Conclusion

    The intervention significantly improved awareness and developed a positive attitude about disaster preparedness. Although it slightly increased performance, it was not significant. Nonetheless, it appears that the continuation of training along with other operational methods can improve individual performance. It is recommended that disaster preparedness programs be considered as one of the topics of in-service education of health care providers and also as the subject of educational courses in different academic periods.

    Keywords: Preparedness, Natural disaster, Crisis, Health personnel, Education
  • Hassan Jafari, Mohammad Ranjbar, AliReza Mozaffari, Ahmad Sadeghi, Saeed Fallah Aliabadi* Pages 47-56
    Background

    Air emergency medical services provide advanced medical care to patients and critically injured as soon as possible to reduce injuries and casualties. In this study, the status of the Medical Emergency and Accident Management Center in Yazd Province in terms of the necessary standards for air emergencies was investigated and compared with existing standards. 

    Materials and Methods

    The present research was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Using a researcher-made checklist, the required data, such as human resource requirements, physical and environmental space, time, communication equipment, medical equipment, equipment for traffic detection and management, and equipment for technical and safety services, were collected by asking relevant officials and experts. Finally, data analysis was performed using tables and descriptive statistics. 

    Results

    The study findings showed that in total, 2 items in the field of human resource requirements, 7 items in physical space and environmental requirements, 2 items regarding time requirements, 4 items regarding communication equipment requirements, 43 items regarding equipment and medicine requirements, including patient cabin equipment, emergency resuscitation kit and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), medicine and jump bag equipment, delivery set, triage bag, dressing equipment and technical and safety service equipment requirements were in accordance with the existing standards. 

    Conclusion

    Based on the existing standards, the air emergency in Yazd Province in most areas was satisfactory. Because of the importance of the issue, authorities must take the necessary measures to address the deficiencies and limitations so that the emergency missions be carried out in the best conditions.

    Keywords: Air emergency, Air rescue service, Standard of care, Ambulance, Iran
  • Mahmood Nekoiemoghadam, Seyed Mobin Moradi*, HamidReza Khankeh, GholamReza Masoumi, Amir Nejati, Ali Mehrabi Tavana, MohammadHossein Yarmohammadian, Ahmad Jonidi Jafari Pages 57-62

    Accidents and disasters impose enormous costs on governments and nations each year, as well as causing great suffering to people affected by various disasters around the world. Today, accidents and disasters account for a large portion of government resources and programs. Iran is no exception to this rule. It is one of the ten most populated countries globally and the fourth most troubled country in Asia in terms of natural disasters. Therefore, understanding the risks as a basis for future planning is vital. Reducing disaster risk as a global priority requires the collective efforts of policymakers, managers, professionals, and all stakeholders in this field. The Sendai Framework is the most critical UN disaster risk reduction strategy (2015-2030). Considering the importance of the mentioned cases, a group of experts came together and discussed the solutions for implementing the Sendai Framework in Iran using the focus group discussion method. Finally, they prepared the present policy brief. One of the most important strategies is to study the history of risk in different parts of the world and Iran and prepare a risk zoning map, form a transnational and national organization. This map should delegate each authority to a particular organization for risk management, emphasize the correct understanding and upgrade the scientific level of people towards risk awareness. It must pay particular attention to create a culture in the field of risk awareness, analyzing stakeholders to attract support, and create a national information network. The map ought to develop a comprehensive risk management program, expanding education at the level of managers and society, creating and upgrading a quick alert system, and comprehensive preparedness plans. Finally, it can be said that the Sendai Framework is one of the most important documents published to plan for disasters. This planning is not just in the response phase but must be applied at all the crisis management cycle levels.

    Keywords: Disasters, Sendai framework, Disaster risk reduction, Policy brief