فهرست مطالب

  • سال هشتم شماره 4 (زمستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/12/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • محمد پورداود*، محمدرضا یوسف زاده چوسری، رضا کچوئیان جوادی، قدسی احقر صفحات 1-12
    هدف

    هدف پژوهش استخراج ویژگی های عناصر اساسی برنامه درسی بر مبنای الگوی اشتاینر بود.

    روش

    روش پژوهش ترکیبی (کیفی-کمی) بود. مشارکت کنندگان در بخش کیفی تعداد 40 نفر از متخصصان رشته برنامه ریزی درسی و فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت بودند .با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری ملاک محور و بر اساس قاعده اشباع نظری تعداد مشارکت کنندگان تعداد 10 نفر متخصص بودند. جامعه ی آماری در بخش کمی 220 نفر از مربیان مراکز پیش دبستانی شهر همدان در سال تحصیلی 99-1398 بودند که از میان آنها تعداد 135 نفر با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای به عنوان نمونه آماری انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات در بخش کیفی مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته و در بخش کمی پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود. شیوه تحلیل داده ها در بخش کیفی کدگذاری بود و تحلیل با استفاده از نرم افزار MAXQDA  انجام شد. برای تحلیل داده های کمی، از آزمون آماری تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی استفاده شد. برای بررسی روایی سازه پرسشنامه، از برآورد کفایت نمونه برداری (KMO) و آزمون کرویت بارتلت، استفاده شد.

    یافته ها:

     با توجه به تحلیل مصاحبه ها تعداد 78 کد باز، 4 کد محوری و یک کد انتخابی استخراج شد.از ویزگی های استخراج شده تعداد 10 ویژگی عنصر هدف ، تعداد 8 ویژگی عنصر محتوی ، تعداد 7 ویژگی عنصر روش و تعداد 5 ویژگی عنصر ارزشیابی از تناسب و اعتبار لازم برخو ردار بودند و این تعداد مولفه ها روی هم 084/55 درصد کل واریانس متغیرها را تبیین کردند. نتایج این پژوهش می تواند چارچوب و راهنمای عمل نظام مند در زمینه تدوین اهداف، تولید محتوی، روش های آموزش و شیوه ارزشیابی فعالیت های یادگیری مراکز پیش دبستان فراهم سازد.

    کلیدواژگان: الگوی اشتاینر، عناصر اساسی، تحلیل اکتشافی، مراکز پیش دبستانی
  • فرهاد نژاد ایرانی*، حسن مخدومی، غلامرضا رحیمی، سید عبدالله حجتی صفحات 13-34
    هدف

    پژوهش حاضر با هدف دستیابی به الگوی مطلوب در حوزه ارزیابی عملکرد برای درک بهتر این پدیده و ارایه الگوی مطلوب در دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کردستان صورت گرفته است.

    روش

    این تحقیق به صورت کیفی و مبتنی بر نظریه پردازی داده بنیان است. نمونه گیری به روش هدفمند و ملاک محور در پاییز 97 با استفاده از روش گلوله برفی با مشارکت 24 نفر از کارکنان خبره و متخصصین رشته مدیریت تا اشباع داده ها و با رعایت موزاین اخلاقی ادامه یافت، روش جمع آوری داده ها از طریق مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته انجام گرفته، داده ها بر اساس روش اشتراوس کوربین تحلیل گردیدند و به طور کلی 17 مقوله اصلی و 39 مفهوم بدست آمده است که در نهایت مقوله های اصلی عبارت بودند از آسیب های ارزیابی عملکرد - پیامدهای نادرست ارزیابی عملکرد- کاربست های ارزیابی عملکرد- بهره وری در سازمان- ایجادفرهنگ پویا- فراهم سازی شایستگی های توسعه حرفه ای کارکنان و مدیران- پیاده سازی مدیریت کیفیت جامع- رهبری اثر بخش- شاخص سازی عینی و ذهنی- آسیب شناسی تعارضات و ارایه راهکارهای بهبود- برنامه ریزی آینده نگرانه- توسعه شایستگی های ارتباطی فن آوری- سازمان هوشمند- ارتقاء بهره وری- بهبود عملکرد کارکنان سازمان.

    یافته ها:

     نخست فرایند ارزیابی عملکرد، باید نهادینه و آموزش در این خصوص داده شود و سپس مولفه های آن مورد مداخله ، همچنین با توجه به عادلانه اجرا نشدن فرایند، به برنامه ریزان پیشنهاد می شود با توجه به نتایج، برنامه های موجود را با جدیت بیشتر مورد باز بینی و جهت رفع تعارضات بین کارکنان و مدیران اقدام هوشمندانه در راستای استقرار الگوی مطلوب انجام دهند.

    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی عملکرد کارکنان، الگوی مطلوب، تحقیق کیفی، روش داده بنیان
  • سید احمد پارسا* صفحات 35-49
    هدف

    هدف این پژوهش بیان تحلیل و تجارب تحصیل و تدریس نویسنده از درس عروض با روش خود مردم نگاری است.

    روش

    این روش رویکردی کیفی و خود-مردم‌نگارانه دارد. منبع داده های پژوهش، تجارب نگارنده به عنوان یکی از استادان دانشگاه در زمان تحصیل و تدریس درس عروض است که به شیوه روایتگری تنظیم و روایت های پژوهشگر در ارتباط شیوه آموزش ابداعی درس عروض تبیین و تفسیر شده است.

    یافته های پژوهش

    یافته های پژوهش بیانگر این است که روش سنتی تدریس عروض، آموزش این درس را برای فراگیران دشوار و کسل کننده کرده بود. روایتگر مورد مطالعه با تجربه این مشکلات در دوران دانشجویی، روشی تازه ابداع کرد. در این روش برای حاکم کردن پذیرش آموزش سماعی لازم بود ابتدا پیش‌شرط‌هایی چون آموزش واج، هجا، تقطیع، املای عروضی و افاعیل عروضی رعایت شود؛ سپس با تکیه بر فراهم آوردن طرح درس مناسب با تکیه بر استراتژی کلان(در سطح دانشگاه ها و مراکز آموزشی)و استراتژی خرد(در سطح کلاس درس) به نیازهای آموزشی فراگیران در این زمینه پاسخ داده شود. فراهم کردن نمونه های جذاب شعری، استفاده از بحور پرکاربرد و سالم، آموزش رهاسازی ذهن، ارایه نمونه های سازگار با مصادیق فرهنگی و متناسب با روحیه و سن دانشجویان و در نهایت استفاده از راهبردهای یاددهی_ یادگیری مشارکتی این درس را به یکی از دروس جذاب و فراگیری موفقیت آمیز سماعی اوزان و بحور عروضی تبدیل کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: آموزش سماعی، عروض، ریتم ریتم، موسیقی، خود مردم نگاری
  • نرگس یافتیان* صفحات 50-71

    پژوهش حاضر به بررسی توانایی حل مسایل کلامی ریاضی دانش آموزان پایه چهارم ابتدایی بر مبنای مدل تحلیل خطای نیومن به کمک روش توصیفی-پیمایشی از نوع مقطعی پرداخته است. از میان دانش آموزان پایه چهارم منطقه 12 شهر تهران، تعداد 399 دانش آموز دختر و پسر به روش تصادفی خوشه ای انتخاب گردیدند. به منظور جمع آوری داده ها از آزمونی محقق ساخته که تلفیقی از چهار سوال تشریحی و پرسش های نیومن بود، بهره گرفته شد. برای بررسی روایی ابزار پژوهش از روایی صوری و محتوایی و برای پایایی از آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد که میزان آن 82/0 بدست آمد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از روش های آمار توصیفی و استنباطی (تحلیل واریانس چند متغیری) انجام گرفت. براساس یافته ها، دانش آموزان در فرایند دستیابی به پاسخ درست مسایل، بیشترین خطا را در مرحله تبدیل و کمترین آن را در مرحله کدگذاری از سطوح سلسله مراتبی خطای نیومن به خود اختصاص داده اند. نتایج آزمون خی دو نیز نشان داد که بین هر یک از سطوح خطای نیومن با عملکرد دانش آموزان در حل مسایل کلامی ریاضی، رابطه معنی داری وجود دارد. همچنین، نتایج حاکی از وجود تفاوت معنی دار در عملکرد دو گروه دختران و پسران بوده است و به طور کلی پسران مرتکب خطای کمتری در مقایسه با دختران شده اند. یافته‏های این پژوهش می‏تواند در بازبینی فرایند آموزش حل مسئله کلامی و تنظیم مواد آموزشی برای کتب درسی ریاضی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: پایه چهارم، خطا، روش تحلیل خطای نیومن
  • سوزان عارضی* صفحات 72-88

    مطالعه حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر بازی های آموزشی بر بهبود یادگیری مهارت های پایه ای زبان انگلیسی دانشجویان دانشگاه پیام نورکرمانشاه انجام شد. روش پژوهش، آزمایشی بود و از طرح چهارگروهی سولومون با پیش آزمون و پس آزمون استفاده شد. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه دانشجویان مقطع کارشناسی دانشگاه پیام نورکرمانشاه بود. از جامعه مذکور با استفاده از نمونه گیری در دسترس 60 نفر انتخاب شدند و به طور تصادفی در گروه های آزمایش و گواه جایگزین شدند و با استفاده از بازی های آموزشی و روش معمول به مدت یک ترم تحت آموزش قرارگرفتند. در این پژوهش برای سنجش میزان یادگیری دانشجویان از آزمون محقق ساخته استفاده شدکه اعتبار آزمون با استفاده از روش کودر ریچاردسون معادل82./. اعلام شد. برای انجام محاسبات آماری از نرم افزار spss و برای بررسی فرضیه های پژوهش از آزمون تحلیل واریانس چند متغیره استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها نشان داد بین میانگین نمرات گروه های آزمایش و کنترل، در مولفه های دیداری، نوشتاری، شنیداری و گفتاری تفاوت معنی داری وجود دارد اما اثر پیش آزمون و همچنین تعامل پیش آزمون و گروه معنی دار نمی باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: بازی های آموزشی، یادگیری، مهارت های پایه ای، زبان انگلیسی
  • علی یاسینی* صفحات 89-122
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی الگوهای ذهنی معلمان ریاضی مقطع متوسطه اول در خصوص محتوای رنج احساسی در تدریس درس ریاضی انجام شده است. روش پژوهش برحسب هدف کاربردی، به لحاظ ماهیت اکتشافی و از حیث گردآوری داده ها، توصیفی پیمایشی است که با استفاده از روش کیو (کیفی کمی) الگوهای ذهنی مختلف معلمان نسبت به رنج احساسی در کار احصاء شده است. از بین معلمان ریاضی که تجربه بیشتری در تدریس ریاضی به شیوه نمونه گیری هدفمند تعداد 12 نفر به عنوان مشارکت کننده انتخاب و با آنها مصاحبه به روش کیو (Q) انجام شد و سپس کارت های مربوط به گزاره های کیو در بین آنها توزیع شد. بر اساس کارتهای توزیع شده، از میان 105 گزاره، 41 گزاره نهایی شناسایی و سپس توسط مشارکت کنندگان اولویت بندی شدند . در نهایت، بر اساس یافته ها و نتایج تحلیل عاملی کیو، مشخص شد که سه الگوی ذهنی مختلف نسبت به رنج احساسی در کار (کار احساسی بعنوان الزامات شغلی، کار احساسی بعنوان نمایش های عاطفی معطوف به نقش، کار احساسی بعنوان تجربه روانشناختی) در بین معلمان ریاضی وجود دارد. به عنوان نتیجه می توان چنین تفسیر کرد که درصد زیادی از گزاره ها و الگوهای شناسایی شده مدعی بر نمایش های عاطفی معلمان ریاضی در مدرسه است و طبق ذهنیت معلمان عامل نمایش عاطفی بیشترین تاثیر را در شکل گیری محتوای رنج احساسی معلمان دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: کار احساسی، رنج احساسی، الگوهای ذهنی، تکنیک کیو
  • مهدی محمدی*، رضا ناصری جهرمی، خاطره محمد جعفری، مریم صفری، پریسا معارف، فاطمه میرغفاری، راحیل ناصری جهرمی صفحات 123-144
    هدف

    هدف اصلی از انجام پژوهش حاضر واکاوی تجارب زیسته معلمان جدیدالورود از اولین سال تدریس در سازمان آموزش وپرورش استان فارس بود.

    روش

    این پژوهش کیفی با استفاده از روش پدیدارشناسی اجرا شد. روش گردآوری اطلاعات استفاده از مصاحبه های نیمه ساختمند بود. بر این اساس، از بین معلمان دوره ابتدایی 18 نفر براساس معیارهای ورود به پژوهش انتخاب شدند. تحلیل مصاحبه ها، با استفاده از الگوی هفت مرحله ای Colaizzi (1978) و روش تحلیل مضمون انجام شد. اعتبار داده های به دست آمده با استفاده از تکنیک های تاییدپذیری، اعتمادپذیری و هم سوسازی پژوهش گران تایید شد.

    یافته ها:

     پس از استخراج موضوعی و طبقه بندی آن ها، یافته ها در دو مضمون اصلی "پیامدهای مثبت" مشتمل بر سه مضمون فرعی «مهارت های تدریس»، «مهارت های ارتباطی»، «مهارت های روان شناختی» و "پیامدهای منفی" مشتمل بر چهار مضمون فرعی «چالش های حرفه ای»، «چالش های روان شناختی»، «چالش های محیطی» و «چالش های میان دانش آموزان» طبقه بندی شدند.

    کلیدواژگان: پدیدارشناسی، تجارب زیسته، معلم، جدیدالورود، تدریس
  • شاپور ترکمن، رفیق حسنی*، منصور ایران دوست، رویا شاکری صفحات 145-163
  • علی ابراهیمی نیا، فیروزه زنگنه مطلق *، حمید جعفریان یسار، مژگان محمدی نائینی صفحات 164-192

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، شناسایی راهبردهای آموزشی تربیت زیبایی شناسی در دانشگاه فرهنگیان و تحلیل برنامه درسی تربیت زیبایی شناسی آن بود.این پژوهش برخوردار از راهبرد کیفی است. برای پاسخ به سوال اول از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و بر اساس نظر آیزنر از روش «خبرگی آموزشی و انتقاد تربیتی» استفاده شد. جامعه آماری و نمونه در این بخش، برنامه درسی رشته های کارشناسی در دانشگاه فرهنگیان بود. برای پاسخگویی به سوال دوم با استفاده از روش نظریه بنیادی و روش نمونه گیری هدفمند، با 13 نفر از صاحب‌نظران حوزه علوم تربیتی، هنر و زیبایی شناسی مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته تا رسیدن به اشباع نظری انجام شد. داده های گرد‌آوری‌شده با روش استراوس و کوربین در سه مرحله، (کدگذاری باز، محوری و گزینشی) مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت و برای اعتباربخشی از روش دلفی استفاده شد. یافته ها بیانگر آن است که واحدهای درسی مرتبط باتربیت زیبایی شناسی نیاز به بازنگری در تعداد و محتوا دارد. در این میان افزایش واحدهای تربیت زیبایی شناسی رشته آموزش کودکان استثنایی و گنجاندن آن واحدها در برنامه درسی رشته های مختلف مهارت آموزان ماده 28 در اولویت رسیدگی قرار دارد. براساس یافته های برآمده از تحلیل داده ها، راهبردهای آموزشی تربیت زیبایی‌شناسی عبارت‌اند از: زیبایی‌شناسی کالبدی، مهارتهای خرد زیبایی‌شناسی، روش های مبتنی بر زیبایی‌شناسی، تدریس زیبایی شناسانه، راهبردهای زیبایی شناسانه دانشجو محور، روش های زیبایی شناسانه مبتنی بر فناوری، تجربه های زیبایی شناسانه، سواد زیبایی‌شناسی استاد، راهبردهای زیبایی‌شناسی عمومی، همچنین مقوله هسته ای «راهبردهای زیبایی شناسانه» و مهم ترین مولفه راهبردهای آموزشی «تلفیق و تنوع» است.

    کلیدواژگان: برنامه درسی، راهبردهای زیبایی شناسی، نظام تربیت معلم، تربیت زیبایی شناسی
  • سردار محمدی *، فرهاد فتحی صفحات 193-211

    جهت اندازه‌گیری و درک عواملی که بر تصمیم یک فرد به استفاده از فناوری تاثیر می‌گذارند، مدل‌ها و نظریه‌های مختلف توسعه یافته‌اند. در این میان، تیوری رفتار برنامه‌ریزی شده (TPB)حمایت گسترده‌ای را به عنوان یک مدل قوی جهت توضیح تصمیم افراد به استفاده از فناوری دریافت کرده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش 28161 دبیر ورزش استان کردستان بودند که از بین آنها 205 نفر به صورت داوطلبانه به پرسشنامه پاسخ دادند. جهت جمع آوری داده‌ها از پرسشنامه تصمیم به استفاده از فناوری با استفاده از تیوری رفتار برنامه ریزی شده بهره گرفته شد. می‌شود روابط معنادار می‌باشند و مدل پژوهش می‌تواند یک الگوی مناسب را به دست داده و روابط بین ابعاد و متغیرها را به خوبی نشان دهد. این مطالعه اهمیت نظری درک معلمان (یعنی سهولت درک شده ، سودمندی ادراک شده ، کنترل رفتاری درک شده) و فناوری نگرش را در پیش بینی قصد آینده خود از استفاده از فناوری تایید می کند و همچنین نشان می دهد که عوامل محیطی (یعنی انتظار مدیریت و پشتیبانی فنی) همچنین نقش مهمی در تاثیرگذاری بر فناوری فناوری آنها ایفا می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: تربیت بدنی، فناوری، آموزش، مدل تئوری رفتار برنامه ریزی شده
  • احمد قرطالی *، مرتضی رضایی زاده، جمیله علم الهدی صفحات 212-230

    ادبیات فعلی در باره کلاسهای درس معکوس ، بینش محدودی در مورد انگیزه ها ، ادراک ها و چالش های مربیان ، به ویژه در زمینه آموزش عالی ارایه می دهد. هدف از این مطالعه کیفی ، درک انگیزه های مدرسان برای اتخاذ روش کلاس درسی معکوس و چالش ها و مسایلی است که مربیان هنگام تدریس در قالب کلاس معکوس در یک دانشگاه دولتی با آن روبرو می شوند. در این مطالعه از مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته برای گرداوری اطلاعات استفاده شده است. 13 نفر از اساتید که قبلا با استفاده از روش کلاس معکوس، تدریس می کردند ، مصاحبه شدند. داده ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل مضمون مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. برای افزایش پایایی و اعتبار تجزیه و تحلیل ، از کمک همکار استفاده شد. یافته های این پژوهش چندین چالش مرتبط با بکارگیری روش تدریس معکوس در آموزش عالی ایران را نشان داد: 1) ضعف مدیریتی و ساختاری نظام آموزش عالی ،2) ضعف محتوای مورد نیاز در کلاس معکوس ، 3) موانع فردی در ارتباط با دانش و نگرش و اطلاعات دانشجویان و اساتید ، 4) ضعف فناوری . این یافته ها به طور بالقوه می توانند به عنوان راهنمایی برای مدرسانی که می خواهند برای بهبود نتیجه یادگیری دانشجویان خود از روش کلاس درس معکوس استفاده کنند، استفاده شود.

    کلیدواژگان: آموزش عالی، چالش ها، کلاس معکوس
  • مرتضی کرمی *، محدثه حاجیان، مقصود امین خندقی صفحات 231-263

    کیفیت تدریس از موضوعات مهم آموزش عالی است و درس‌پژوهی فعالیتی موثر برای بهبود کیفیت تدریس است. بنابراین هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی فعالیت‌ها و ادراکات اعضای هییت‌علمی در اجرای درس‌پژوهی به‌ منظور بهبود کیفیت تدریس پژوهش بود. جامعه پژوهش کلیه اعضای هییت‌علمی دانشکده‌های ادبیات و علوم‌ انسانی، تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزش، علوم اداری و اقتصاد، علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی که روش تحقیق را در مقطع کارشناسی ارشد تدریس می‌کنند؛ بود. سیزده نفر از آن‌ها که هدفمند و مبتنی بر ملاک انتخاب شدند؛ نمونه-ی پژوهش را تشکیل دادند. این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و روش پدیدارشناسی توصیفی انجام گرفت. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات، مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته بود. برای تحلیل اطلاعات از تحلیل تفسیری استفاده شد. جهت کسب اعتبار پژوهش از روش‌های توصیف غنی و انتخاب هدفمند افراد، یادداشت‌های تاملی، کفایت اجماعی و کدگذاری ثانوی استفاده گردید. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد بین وضع موجود و وضع مطلوب کیفیت تدریس تفاوت‌های قابل‌توجهی وجود دارد. اعضای هییت‌علمی قبل از تدریس راه‌های بهبود کیفیت تدریس را شناسایی و سپس در کلاس اجرا می‌کنند. آن‌ها معتقدند برای بهبود کیفیت تدریس؛ اشتراک دانش بین اعضای هییت‌علمی و برقراری الزاماتی در درس روش تحقیق ضروری است که در نهایت درس‌پژوهی به عنوان راهی برای اشتراک دانش بین اعضای هییت‌علمی معرفی شد.

    کلیدواژگان: درس پژوهی، روش تحقیق، کیفیت تدریس
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  • Mohammad Poordavood *, Mohammadreza Usefzadeh, Reza Katueian Javadi, Godsi Ahghar Pages 1-12

    The main purpose of this research was Identifying the features of curriculum basic elements  based on steiner model .A mixed (qualitative_quantitative) method was used. In qualitative section the participants were included (40) experts of curriculum development and philosophy of education.Based on criteria centerd and theoritical saturation (10) experts involve in research.In quantitative section the statistical population (N=220) were included all educators of hamedan city preschool centers in 1398-99 academic year.Based on strtaifed random sampling method about (135) educators were selected as study sample.The data gathering instrument in qualitative section were semi structured interview. The collected data were analayzed by  content analysis and coding method using MAXQDA soft ware and factor analysis. For assessment of construct validity  (KMO) and bartled  test method were used,Based on interviews analysis were idetified  about 78 open ,4 centeral and 1 selectional code .Also finding showed about ten features of goals, eight features of content, t seven features of method and five features of evaluation  .All components were detetermind about 55/084 percent of variables variance had the necessary fitness and validity. This research can provide a framework and guidline for preschool centers goal setting,production of content,teaching methodd and evaluation of learning activities.

    Keywords: Steiner model, basic elements.Features discovery factor analysis, Preschool Centers
  • Farhad Nejad Irani *, Hassan Makhdoomi, Gholamreza Rahimi, Seyedabdolah Hojati Pages 13-34

    The aim of this study was to obtain theories in the field of performance appraisal to better understand this phenomenon. The research method is qualitatively based on data theorizing. Theoretical sampling in the fall of 1997 with the participation of 24 management experts and qualified staff in a targeted manner to saturate the data and with the confidentiality of information and the possibility of leaving The study continued at any time, the data collection method was conducted through a semi-structured interview, the data were analyzed based on the Strauss Corbin method, and a total of 17 main categories and 39 concepts were enumerated.Ultimately, the main categories were performance appraisal impairments, improper performance appraisal results, performance appraisal applications, productivity in the organization, the creation of a dynamic culture, the provision of professional development competencies for employees and managers, and the implementation of comprehensive quality management. Effectiveness - Objective and subjective indexing - Pathology of conflicts and providing solutions for improvement - Futuristic planning - Development of communication competencies of technology - Smart organization - Improving productivity - Improving the performance of employees of the organization, which is based on these findings. Is that firstThe performance appraisal process should be institutionalized at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences,The aim of this study was to obtain theories in the field of performance appraisal to better understand this phenomenon. The research method is qualitatively based on data theorizing. Theoretical sampling in the fall of 1997 with the participation of 24 management experts and qualified staff in a targeted manner to saturate the data and with the confidentiality of information and the possibility of leaving The study continued at any time, the data collection method was conducted through a semi-structured interview, the data were analyzed based on the Strauss Corbin method, and a total of 17 main categories and 39 concepts were enumerated.Ultimately, the main categories were performance appraisal impairments, improper performance appraisal results, performance appraisal applications, productivity in the organization, the creation of a dynamic culture, the provision of professional development competencies for employees and managers, and the implementation of comprehensive quality management. Effectiveness - Objective and subjective indexing - Pathology of conflicts and providing solutions for improvement - Futuristic planning - Development of communication competencies of technology - Smart organization - Improving productivity - Improving the performance of employees of the organization, which is based on these findings. Is that firstThe performance appraisal process should be institutionalized at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences,The aim of this study was to obtain theories in the field of performance appraisal to better understand this phenomenon. The research method is qualitatively based on data theorizing. Theoretical sampling in the fall of 1997 with the participation of 24 management experts and qualified staff in a targeted manner to saturate the data and with the confidentiality of information and the possibility of leaving The study continued at any time, the data collection method was conducted through a semi-structured interview, the data were analyzed based on the Strauss Corbin method, and a total of 17 main categories and 39 concepts were enumerated.Ultimately, the main categories were performance appraisal impairments, improper performance appraisal results, performance appraisal applications, productivity in the organization, the creation of a dynamic culture, the provision of professional development competencies for employees and managers, and the implementation of comprehensive quality management. Effectiveness - Objective and subjective indexing - Pathology of conflicts and providing solutions for improvement - Futuristic planning - Development of communication competencies of technology - Smart organization - Improving productivity - Improving the performance of employees of the organization, which is based on these findings. Is that firstThe performance appraisal process should be institutionalized at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences,The aim of this study was to obtain theories in the field of performance appraisal to better understand this phenomenon. The research method is qualitatively based on data theorizing. Theoretical sampling in the fall of 1997 with the participation of 24 management experts and qualified staff in a targeted manner to saturate the data and with the confidentiality of information and the possibility of leaving The study continued at any time, the data collection method was conducted through a semi-structured interview, the data were analyzed based on the Strauss Corbin method, and a total of 17 main categories and 39 concepts were enumerated.Ultimately, the main categories were performance appraisal impairments, improper performance appraisal results, performance appraisal applications, productivity in the organization, the creation of a dynamic culture, the provision of professional development competencies for employees and managers, and the implementation of comprehensive quality management. Effectiveness - Objective and subjective indexing - Pathology of conflicts and providing solutions for improvement - Futuristic planning - Development of communication competencies of technology - Smart organization - Improving productivity - Improving the performance of employees of the organization, which is based on these findings. Is that firstThe performance appraisal process should be institutionalized at Kurdistan University of Medical SciencesThe aim of this study was to obtain theories in the field of performance appraisal to better understand this phenomenon. The research method is qualitatively based on data theorizing. Theoretical sampling in the fall of 1997 with the participation of 24 management experts and qualified staff in a targeted manner to saturate the data and with the confidentiality of information and the possibility of leaving The study continued at any time, the data collection method was conducted through a semi-structured interview, the data were analyzed based on the Strauss Corbin method, and a total of 17 main categories and 39 concepts were enumerated.Ultimately, the main categories were performance appraisal impairments, improper performance appraisal results, performance appraisal applications, productivity in the organization, the creation of a dynamic culture, the provision of professional development competencies for employees and managers, and the implementation of comprehensive quality management. Effectiveness - Objective and subjective indexing - Pathology of conflicts and providing solutions for improvement - Futuristic planning - Development of communication competencies of technology - Smart organization - Improving productivity - Improving the performance of employees of the organization, which is based on these findings. Is that firstThe performance appraisal process should be institutionalized at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences,,The aim of this study was to obtain theories in the field of performance appraisal to better understand this phenomenon. The research

    Keywords: Employee performance evaluation, optimal model, qualitative research, data-based method
  • Ahmad Parsa * Pages 35-49
    Purpose

    the purpose of this research is showing and analyzing of the author experiences through his own learning and teaching at prosodic lessons in the form of a self-ethnographic study. This is done by sharing the author's experiences during his studies and teaching which has resulted in increasing the impact of learners' motivation to learn this lesson by changing their attitude towards prosodic lessons. Using participatory teaching-learning strategies and providing prerequisites for teaching this lesson has resulted in these positive learning outcomes.

    Method

    As a qualitative research, this study carried out via a self-ethnographic study. The data source for this research is experiences and memories of one of UoK's senior lecturer (the author) in the field of prosody and its teaching in pre-university, university and in-service training of educators, which were explained, analyzed and organized in a narrative style based on the researcher’s narrations. Among the qualitative methods, auto-ethnography has been used in this study. This method is one of the newest research methods in the qualitative approach and helps researchers to produce knowledge using personal life experiences or "biological experience" (Fazeli, 2017). By adopting a self-critical approach in the form of retrospective and selective, an auto-ethnographer writes about his/her experiences that are essentially rooted in a part of a culture or derived from a particular cultural identity (Pitard, 2019). To validate the research, a researcher-made questionnaire was used, the validity of which was confirmed by several instructors who taught this lesson, and it was distributed among teachers in different cities. Eighty-five percent did not feel well about the lesson, 10 percent said they had been forced to teach it, Only 5% expressed interest, that they were only able to identify poetic rhythm by quantitative scanning. These experiences were provided to a number of literature teachers in District One of Sanandaj during a training course, the feedback of which was a complete success (retraining). I also asked an educational sciences colleague from the University to review all the steps as an outside observer.  

    Result

    findings show that the traditional methods for prosodic, makes it boring and a bit difficult for the students. The subject (the faculty that we talk about) has invented a new method according to his own experiences about this kind of problems in his schooling period. This method is taught collectively and simultaneously repeats by learners. Therefore, individual questions about meter recognition by hearing, especially at the beginning of the semester, should be strictly avoided. The nature of this study is to describe the achievement of this teaching method and how to implement it. The most appropriate method was to use auto-ethnography. Therefore, by choosing this method, the researcher first recounted his teaching experiences using this method; then recounted the factors that motivated him to find a new way to teach the subject of prosodic, and finally represented his teaching experiences with the aim of sharing these experiences with colleagues and teachers of the subject. This model was implemented in a class of 40 people for one semester and at the end of the semester students were tested orally and in writing. The results showed the complete success of this educational model in learning Prosodic. The results showed the complete success of this educational model in learning pronouns, so that 85% of the learners could recognize all contexts of agreed elements, alternating elements (distance) and the various elements well by hearing. 15 percent of learners recognized 90 percent of the meter, but sometimes had little difficulty recognizing various elements meter. The result also showed the ability to recognize the appropriateness or disproportion of the meter of the poems with their content in learners. The researcher implemented this project with long intervals both in the pre-university and undergraduate levels of Persian literature, both of which were successful; With the difference that the learning process in pre-university learners was faster than university students due to lack of mental background But in literature students having a negative mental background, due to traditional education because of passing this course in high school, along with mental fragmentation when asking to repeat the meter of the poem aloud, in the first two or three sessions, in the learning process creates noise. This problem was solved by teaching the release of the mind and reminding not to fragment the meter in the mind, and this issue increased their self-confidence and made them more credible in this teaching method. Priority of teaching the meter of agreed elements, alternating elements (distance) and the various elements , respectively, using poems appropriate to the interest and age of the learners, avoiding hymns with verbal and spiritual conviction, asking students to participate in group activities based on Repeating meter groups , pounding slowly on the floor or pounding the hand on the table evenly with the rhythm of the poem, while creating a happy atmosphere for students, played a key role in making them more confident in succeeding in learning the prosodic.   In this method because we want to dominate the acceptance of irregular teaching, first it was necessary to notice some preconditions like phoneme, poetical invective, scansion, metrical spelling, metrical teeth, then rely on preparing a suitable lesson plan rely on macro-strategy (at university level and educational centers) and micro-strategy (at class level) we can answer their educational needs. Preparing interesting examples of poems, using functional and soft metrics, educating mind triggering, presenting examples that has harmony with cultures and be adequate with the student’s age and emotional, and finally using participatory learning-teaching guidelines makes this lesson one of the interesting lessons for the students and they successfully could learn the rhythm and meter, educating mind triggering, presenting examples that has harmony.

    Keywords: irregular teaching, prosodic, rhythm, music, auto-ethnography
  • N.Yaftian Pages 50-71

    Word problems, despite their difficulties, are of great importance in mathematics. Many students' ability to solve word problems is lower than their ability to solve computational problems (Burns, 2000; Miller et al., 2017). It can be argued that understanding these kinds of problems requires an active interaction between linguistic knowledge and mathematical knowledge. If these difficulties are not solved in the early stages of learning math, these difficulties will become more widespread over the years and reach the academic level. Therefore, initial action is essential for students' success in such problems in elementary school (Clements and Sarama, 2011). Most elementary school students, in the face of these problems, after reading the problem without realizing it, simply try to find the keywords and as soon as they find them, they start solving the problem, unaware that this method does not always lead them to the correct answer. Therefore, since elementary schools are the keystone of learning mathematics for future levels, conducting research to find students' difficulties in solving word problems as well as examining and recognizing their errors in solving such problems and eliminating them. They are very important in all grades of in elementary schools, especially the fourth grade; because this is the first grade to be addressed in the TIMSS international Study. There are several ways to analyze student errors. One of these methods is the Newman error analysis method, which includes a systematic method for analyzing the errors that students make while answering word mathematical problems. This method is hierarchical and based on the assumption that students follow orderly mental patterns in problem solving that can be divided into specific stages. Other models ignore students' specific and individual methods, which are quite vital (Clarkson, 1991). According to Newman, in order to reach the correct answer in solving word problems, one must go through five hierarchies: read the problem; understand what he/she has read; to be able to choose an appropriate mathematical strategy, make a mental transformation of the words used in the problem; depending on the strategy chosen, use the required process skills and finally present the answer in an acceptable written form. These five hierarchies are abbreviated as: 1) reading, 2) comprehension, 3) transformation, 4) process skills, and 5) coding. Newman used the term "hierarchy" because failure at each level prevents the problem solver from advancing properly in the problem-solving process. In solving word problems, students go through five stages, in each of which, an error may occur that prevents the student from reaching the correct answer (Clements and Ellerton, 1996). Newman's hierarchical model of error analysis enables teachers to identify five obvious difficulties students have when solving word problems, to recognize students' errors before solving problems, and to use appropriate strategies (Watson, 1980; White, 2005). Therefore, conducting research in this field will be useful. In this regard, the present study examines the types of students' errors in solving word problems using Newman analysis. The study aimed to investigate the ability to solve word mathematical problems of 4th-grade students based on the Newman error analysis model using descriptive-survey method of cross-sectional type. Among the all 4th-grade primary school students from district 12th of of Tehran, 399 students were selected by using cluster random sampling. To collect data, a researcher-made test which composed of four questions as well as Newman questions was applied. To examine the validity of the research instrument, face and content validity was used and Cronbach's alpha (α=0.82) was used for reliability. The paper and pencil tests were corrected by two raters, and the inter-rater reliability was computed. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics (MANOVA). Based on the results, among the errors of reading, comprehension, transformation, process skills and coding, students in the process of achieving the correct answer to the word problems have the most error in the transformation (24.9%) and the least in coding (0.5%).of the Newman hierarchy stages. The results of Chi -square test at the level of 0.05 showed that there is a significant relationship between the rate of reading error and students' performance in solving math word problems (P <0.05, 2χ = 71.637). The results of Chi-square test showed that there is a significant relationship between the rate of comprehension error and students' performance in solving math word problems (P <0.05, 2χ = 61/984). The results of Chi -square test showed that there is a significant relationship between the rate of transformation error and students' performance in solving math word problems (P <0.05, 2χ = 33.543). The results of Chi-square test showed that there is a significant relationship between the rate of error of process skills and students' performance in solving math word problems (P <0.05, 2χ = 63.262). The results of Chi-square test showed that there is a significant relationship between the rate of coding error and students' performance in solving mathematical word problems (P <0.05, 2χ = 44.645).  Also, the results showed a significant difference in the performance of the two groups of boys and girls, while boys generally made fewer errors than girls. In fact, the results of Wilks' Lambda statistic showed that there was a significant difference between the total problem solving error in the Newman analysis model in comparison between the two groups of girls and boys (ƞ2 = 0.135, P = 0.002, 4.365, F (4, 394)= 4.394). The findings of this research can be used to review the word problem solving teaching process and to set up educational materials for mathematical textbooks.

    Keywords: Fourth Grade, Error, the Newman method of Error Analysis
  • Suzan Arezi * Pages 72-88

     The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of educational games on improving the basic English language proficiency of students at Payam-e-Kermanshah University. The research method was semi-experimental and the four-group Solomon design with pre-test and post-test was used. The statistical population consisted of all students, Payame Noor Karmanshah University. 60 people were selected from the community using random sampling and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups and trained for one semester using educational games and routine. In this research, a researcher-made test was used to measure students' learning. The validity of the test by using the Richardson CoD method was 82. announced. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and multivariate analysis of variance analysis was used to investigate the research hypotheses. The results of the data analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the test and control groups in the visual, written, auditory and spoken components, but the effect of pre-test, as well as the pre-test and group interaction is not significant. Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of educational games on improving the basic English language proficiency of students at Payam-e-Kermanshah University. The research method was semi-experimental and the four-group Solomon design with pre-test and post-test was used. The statistical population consisted of all students, Payame Noor Karmanshah University. 60 people were selected from the community using random sampling and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups and trained for one semester using educational games and routine. In this research, a researcher-made test was used to measure students' learning. The validity of the test by using the Richardson CoD method was 82. announced. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and multivariate analysis of variance analysis was used to investigate the research hypotheses. The results of the data analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the test and control groups in the visual, written, auditory and spoken components, but the effect of pre-test, as well as the pre-test and group interaction is not significant. Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of educational games on improving the basic English language proficiency of students at Payam-e-Kermanshah University. The research method was semi-experimental and the four-group Solomon design with pre-test and post-test was used. The statistical population consisted of all students, Payame Noor Karmanshah University. 60 people were selected from the community using random sampling and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups and trained for one semester using educational games and routine. In this research, a researcher-made test was used to measure students' learning. The validity of the test by using the Richardson CoD method was 82. announced. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and multivariate analysis of variance analysis was used to investigate the research hypotheses. The results of the data analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the test and control groups in the visual, written, auditory and spoken components, but the effect of pre-test, as well as the pre-test and group interaction is not significant. Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of educational games on improving the basic English language proficiency of students at Payam-e-Kermanshah University. The research method was semi-experimental and the four-group Solomon design with pre-test and post-test was used. The statistical population consisted of all students, Payame Noor Karmanshah University. 60 people were selected from the community using random sampling and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups and trained for one semester using educational games and routine. In this research, a researcher-made test was used to measure students' learning. The validity of the test by using the Richardson CoD method was 82. announced. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and multivariate analysis of variance analysis was used to investigate the research hypotheses. The results of the data analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the test and control groups in the visual, written, auditory and spoken components, but the effect of pre-test, as well as the pre-test and group interaction is not significant. Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of educational games on improving the basic English language proficiency of students at Payam-e-Kermanshah University. The research method was semi-experimental and the four-group Solomon design with pre-test and post-test was used. The statistical population consisted of all students, Payame Noor Karmanshah University. 60 people were selected from the community using random sampling and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups and trained for one semester using educational games and routine. In this research, a researcher-made test was used to measure students' learning. The validity of the test by using the Richardson CoD method was 82. announced. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and multivariate analysis of variance analysis was used to investigate the research hypotheses. The results of the data analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the test and control groups in the visual, written, auditory and spoken components, but the effect of pre-test, as well as the pre-test and group interaction is not significant. Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of educational games on improving the basic English language proficiency of students at Payam-e-Kermanshah University. The research method was semi-experimental and the four-group Solomon design with pre-test and post-test was used. The statistical population consisted of all students, Payame Noor Karmanshah University. 60 people were selected from the community using random sampling and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups and trained for one semester using educational games and routine. In this research, a researcher-made test was used to measure students' learning. The validity of the test by using the Richardson CoD method was 82. announced. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and multivariate analysis of variance analysis was used to investigate the research hypotheses. The results of the data analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the test and control groups in the visual, written, auditory and spoken components, but the effect of pre-test, as well as the pre-test and group interaction is not significant.

    Keywords: educational games, learning, basic skills, English language
  • Ali Yasini * Pages 89-122
    The purpose of this study was to identify mental models of first-grade math teachers about the content of emotional labor in the teaching. The research method is a descriptive – exploratory survey. Using Q method (quantitative qualitative), different mental models of teachers regarding the emotional labor of the work have been extracted. Of the mathematical teachers who had more experience in teaching mathematics, 12 subjects were selected with a purposeful sampling and interviewed by the Q method, and then cards related to Q statements were distributed among them. Based on distributed cards, among the 105 statements, 41 final statements were identified and then prioritized by the participants. Finally, based on the findings and results of Qi's analysis, there are three different mental models regards emotional labor in work were extracted among math teachers (emotional work as job requirements, emotional work as role-related emotional representations, and emotional work as a psychological experience). As a result, it can be interpreted that a large percentage of identified propositions and models claim to be emotional displays of mathematical teachers in school, and according to the teachers' mentality, emotional representation has the greatest effect on the formation of the content of emotional labor by teachers. The purpose of this study was to identify mental models of first-grade math teachers about the content of emotional labor in the teaching. The research method is a descriptive – exploratory survey. Using Q method (quantitative qualitative), different mental models of teachers regarding the emotional labor of the work have been extracted. Of the mathematical teachers who had more experience in teaching mathematics, 12 subjects were selected with a purposeful sampling and interviewed by the Q method, and then cards related to Q statements were distributed among them. Based on distributed cards, among the 105 statements, 41 final statements were identified and then prioritized by the participants. Finally, based on the findings and results of Qi's analysis, there are three different mental models regards emotional labor in work were extracted among math teachers (emotional work as job requirements, emotional work as role-related emotional representations, and emotional work as a psychological experience). As a result, it can be interpreted that a large percentage of identified propositions and models claim to be emotional displays of mathematical teachers in school, and according to the teachers' mentality, emotional representation has the greatest effect on the formation of the content of emotional labor by teachers.The purpose of this study was to identify mental models of first-grade math teachers about the content of emotional labor in the teaching. The research method is a descriptive – exploratory survey. Using Q method (quantitative qualitative), different mental models of teachers regarding the emotional labor of the work have been extracted. Of the mathematical teachers who had more experience in teaching mathematics, 12 subjects were selected with a purposeful sampling and interviewed by the Q method, and then cards related to Q statements were distributed among them. Based on distributed cards, among the 105 statements, 41 final statements were identified and then prioritized by the participants. Finally, based on the findings and results of Qi's analysis, there are three different mental models regards emotional labor in work were extracted among math teachers (emotional work as job requirements, emotional work as role-related emotional representations, and emotional work as a psychological experience). As a result, it can be interpreted that a large percentage of identified propositions and models claim to be emotional displays of mathematical teachers in school, and according to the teachers' mentality, emotional representation has the greatest effect on the formation of the content of emotional labor by teachers.The purpose of this study was to identify mental models of first-grade math teachers about the content of emotional labor in the teaching. The research method is a descriptive – exploratory survey. Using Q method (quantitative qualitative), different mental models of teachers regarding the emotional labor of the work have been extracted. Of the mathematical teachers who had more experience in teaching mathematics, 12 subjects were selected with a purposeful sampling and interviewed by the Q method, and then cards related to Q statements were distributed among them. Based on distributed cards, among the 105 statements, 41 final statements were identified and then prioritized by the participants. Finally, based on the findings and results of Qi's analysis, there are three different mental models regards emotional labor in work were extracted among math teachers (emotional work as job requirements, emotional work as role-related emotional representations, and emotional work as a psychological experience). As a result, it can be interpreted that a large percentage of identified propositions and models claim to be emotional displays of mathematical teachers in school, and according to the teachers' mentality, emotional representation has the greatest effect on the formation of the content of emotional labor by teachers.The purpose of this study was to identify mental models of first-grade math teachers about the content of emotional labor in the teaching. The research method is a descriptive – exploratory survey. Using Q method (quantitative qualitative), different mental models of teachers regarding the emotional labor of the work have been extracted. Of the mathematical teachers who had more experience in teaching mathematics, 12 subjects were selected with a purposeful sampling and interviewed by the Q method, and then cards related to Q statements were distributed among them. Based on distributed cards, among the 105 statements, 41 final statements were identified and then prioritized by the participants. Finally, based on the findings and results of Qi's analysis, there are three different mental models regards emotional labor in work were extracted among math teachers (emotional work as job requirements, emotional work as role-related emotional representations, and emotional work as a psychological experience). As a result, it can be interpreted that a large percentage of identified propositions and models claim to be emotional displays of mathematical teachers in school, and according to the teachers' mentality, emotional representation has the greatest effect on the formation of the content of emotional labor by teachers.The purpose of this study was to identify mental models of first-grade math teachers about the content of emotional labor in the teaching. The research method is a descriptive – exploratory survey. Using Q method (quantitative qualitative), different mental models of teachers regarding the emotional labor of the work have been extracted. Of the mathematical teachers who had more experience in teaching mathematics, 12 subjects were selected with a purposeful sampling and interviewed by the Q method, and then cards related to Q statements were distributed among them.
    Keywords: emotional work, emotional labor, mental models, Q technique
  • Mehdi Mohammadi *, Reza Naserijahromi, Khatereh Mohammad Jafari, Maryam Safari, Parisa Maaref, Fatemeh Mirghafari, Rahil Naseri Jahromi Pages 123-144
    Objective

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the lived experiences of new teachers from the first year of teaching in the Education Organization of Fars Province.

    Method

    This qualitative study was performed using phenomenological method. The method of data collection was the use of semi-structured interviews. Accordingly, 18 elementary school teachers were selected based on inclusion criteria. The interviews were analyzed using the Colaizzi (1978) seven-step model and the content analysis method. The validity of the obtained data was verified using the researchers' verification, reliability and alignment techniques.

    Findings

    After thematic extraction and their classification, the findings are divided into two main themes of "positive outcomes" including three sub-themes "teaching skills", "communication skills", "psychological skills" and "negative consequences" consisting of four sub-themes consists of four sub-themes: "professional challenges", "psychological challenges", "environmental challenges" and "challenges among students".

    Keywords: Phenomenology, Lived Experiences, teacher, newcomer, teaching
  • Shapor Torkaman, Rafigh Hasani *, Mansor Irandost, Roya Shakeri Pages 145-163

    Creating entrepreneurial educational centers as catalysts for national, national and international innovation is inevitable. Few foreign and domestic studies have considered the entrepreneurial capacity, so this study aimed to identify and rank dimensions of educational centers' entrepreneurial capacity. A framework based on dimensions and develop have been developed and concepts of potential deployments of the Entrepreneurial University Development Model are presented. The study has been conducted based on the Descriptive-exploratory research method in terms of category identification and evaluation model design. The research community consists of specialists, books, documents and related articles in the research literature. Using the focus group method, 15 experts in academic entrepreneurship were selected. Designed based on the Delphi method, data collection tools included a researcher-made form of dimensions and concepts of Entrepreneur educational centers that was designed and developed based on the theoretical foundations and literature of the research as well as experts' opinion. Using TOPSIS software, data were analyzed in terms of content analysis and rating test. The research findings showed that the dimensions and concepts of Entrepreneurial educational centers Capacity include: Governance and Leadership; Entrepreneurial Human Capital; Financial Capital; Entrepreneurial Intellectual Capital; Technical (Digital) Capital; Reflexivity (Strategic Planning Evaluation of effects; Organizational structure; Entrepreneurial culture; Strategy (strategic plan); Pivotal development; Competitiveness; Interdisciplinary Majors, respectively. The findings suggest that, this framework can be used to assess the entrepreneurship capacity and prepare the strategic plan for the national educational centers as well as for academic centers.

    Keywords: entrepreneurship, Dimensions, Concepts, strategic plan
  • ali ebrahiminia, Firoozeh Zanganeh Motlagh *, Hamid Jafarian Yasar, Mojgan Mohammadi Naeeni Pages 164-192

    The field of art and education is so close that some thinkers of art and aesthetics consider the foundation of education (Karami and Abedi, 2017). The purpose of aesthetic education is to create aesthetic experiences. This type of experience indicates the presence of the element of pleasure in various human experiences (Sharifzadeh, Baezat and Jalalian Rad, 2016). Broudy (1994) also considers the development of pleasure and satisfaction capacity of "aesthetic satisfaction" as one of the reasons for justifying and confirming aesthetic education. He considers aesthetic knowledge as a unique kind of knowledge in which decoding takes place. This type of knowledge can be used in educational systems when, in addition to paying attention to the cognitive and intellectual field, it also pays attention to other fields, including the field of aesthetics. This attention in the teacher education system is doubled due to the artistic characteristics of the teacher (Emam Jomeh and Mehr Mohammadi, 2006). Due to the fact that aesthetic education has been marginalized for reasons such as having priority in the field of cognition, lack of attitude towards aesthetic education, lack of awareness of its importance, consequences and benefits, lack of attention to applied art, etc. Necessary reforms should be made to recognize the importance and application of art curriculum in order to eliminate the shortcomings and needs of student teachers (Kian and Mehr Mohammadi, 2013), therefore, teacher training is a good place to understand and be aware of these principles and based on the program Formal and non-formal education provided the basis for teacher training with desirable professional competencies. In the meantime, the competence of aesthetic educators, which indicates having diverse and attractive strategies based on aesthetics and innovation, and considering different cognitive, social, emotional and skill areas, has a higher priority and is used wisely. They facilitate the achievement of educational goals in Farhangian University, in accordance with the time and place requirements. Educational strategies are one of the important factors in educational design; Because it determines the form of teacher and student activity in the classroom. Aesthetic-based educational strategies, in addition to being diverse, are enjoyable, productive, innovative, and exciting, and the learner tends to repeat them, so when subjects are presented in schools with strategies such as storytelling, drama, imagination, and the use of artistic symbols, The emotional relationship between the speaker and the audience is strengthened, learners follow the subjects with interest and a positive attitude and have a better performance in understanding the relationships of existence (Kharazi and Talkhabi, 2017). Wilcox (2019) emphasizes the creation of a safe psychological art class in which learners can discuss, produce, discover, test, "fail" and succeed in the social, emotional nature Therefore, this research intends to identify the educational strategies of aesthetic education in teacher training system and provide new insights based on aesthetic education. Therefore, while critically analyzing the prescription curriculum of aesthetic education in teacher training system, educational paths of aesthetic education have been identified and presented. This research has a qualitative strategy. To answer the first question, the descriptive-analytical method was used and according to Aisener, the method of "educational expertise and educational criticism" was used. The statistical and sample population in this section was the undergraduate curriculum at Farhangian University. To answer the second question, using the fundamental theory method and purposive sampling method, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 experts in the field of educational sciences, art and aesthetics to reach theoretical saturation. The collected data were analyzed by Strauss and Corbin method in three steps (open, axial and selective coding) and Delphi method was used for validation and component approval At present, little attention has been paid to aesthetic education in all undergraduate disciplines of Farhangian University (on average, nearly 2% of the units in each field) and the skill fields of article 28 students were deprived of it, but this amount, with the view of educating the general aesthetics to the curriculum and the mission of the student teachers in the implementation and presentation of aesthetic content that should lead to valuable and meaningful learning and deep understanding and understanding It is insignificant and expandable and can be extended to at least 5 units (two theoretical units of three practical units) in all disciplines. In addition, the professors who teach these courses should have scientific, practical, ethical, artistic and aesthetic competencies and these aesthetic activities are tailored to the teaching profession. One of the most important and practical aesthetic skills in all fields of education and disciplines is orly art and calligraphy. The art of ore can be included in the curriculum of all disciplines (except elementary education) by increasing the number of language courses in education, and calligraphy can be included in the curriculum of all disciplines (except elementary education) by increasing the course of art application in the following education. Also, all the fields of Article 28 can have at least one workshop of three-hour aesthetic training. The courses related to aesthetic education need to be reviewed in number and content. In the meantime, increasing the number of aesthetic training units in the field of exceptional children's education, and including them in the curriculum of different majors of 28 provision of apprentices is a priority. Based on the findings of the data analysis, the educational strategies of aesthetic education are: physical aesthetics, micro-aesthetic skills, aesthetic-based methods, aesthetic teaching, student-centered aesthetic strategies, echnology-based aesthetic methods, aesthetic experiences, master aesthetic literacy, general aesthetic strategies, as well as the core category of "aesthetic strategies" and the most important component of educational strategies "integration and diversity". The identified strategies in this study have two sides. In the first aspect, it covers aesthetic education in teacher training, and secondly it is used in teaching other courses and disciplines. Although it is not possible to introduce a specific strategy or approach as the best method in all educational situations, but aesthetic strategies have capacities and elements that, on the condition of proper design and implementation, can pave the way for mechanical, dry and free classes of innovation, participation and interaction and develop the scope of teacher training strategies. In addition, it should be emphasized on the aesthetic teacher and his continuous support and empowerment in this type of strategies which plays a key role, because the developments in the teacher's education system can only be followed by the role of the teacher's model and transformational role. Using aesthetic guides, it can be expected that future teachers will make a change in school educational strategies and students will experience new and enjoyable experiences.

    Keywords: Curriculum, Aesthetic Strategies, Teacher Education System, Aesthetic Education
  • sardar mohammadi*, farhad fathi Pages 193-211

    Various models and theories have been developed to measure and understand the factors that influence an individual's decision to use technology. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), meanwhile, has received widespread support as a robust model for explaining individuals' decision to use technology. The statistical population of this study was 28161 sports secretaries of Kurdistan province, of which 205 people answered the questionnaire voluntarily. To collect data, the decision questionnaire to use technology using the theory of planned behavior was used. Relationships can be meaningful and the research model can provide a suitable model and show the relationships between dimensions and variables well. This study confirms the theoretical importance of teachers' perceptions (ie perceived ease, perceived usefulness, perceived behavioral control) and attitude technology in predicting their future intention to use technology, and also shows that environmental factors (ie management expectation) And technical support) also play an important role in influencing their technology.Various models and theories have been developed to measure and understand the factors that influence an individual's decision to use technology. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), meanwhile, has received widespread support as a robust model for explaining individuals' decision to use technology. The statistical population of this study was 28161 sports secretaries of Kurdistan province, of which 205 people answered the questionnaire voluntarily. To collect data, the decision questionnaire to use technology using the theory of planned behavior was used. Relationships can be meaningful and the research model can provide a suitable model and show the relationships between dimensions and variables well. This study confirms the theoretical importance of teachers' perceptions (ie perceived ease, perceived usefulness, perceived behavioral control) and attitude technology in predicting their future intention to use technology, and also shows that environmental factors (ie management expectation) And technical support) also play an important role in influencing their technology.Various models and theories have been developed to measure and understand the factors that influence an individual's decision to use technology. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), meanwhile, has received widespread support as a robust model for explaining individuals' decision to use technology. The statistical population of this study was 28161 sports secretaries of Kurdistan province, of which 205 people answered the questionnaire voluntarily. To collect data, the decision questionnaire to use technology using the theory of planned behavior was used. Relationships can be meaningful and the research model can provide a suitable model and show the relationships between dimensions and variables well. This study confirms the theoretical importance of teachers' perceptions (ie perceived ease, perceived usefulness, perceived behavioral control) and attitude technology in predicting their future intention to use technology, and also shows that environmental factors (ie management expectation) And technical support) also play an important role in influencing their technology.Various models and theories have been developed to measure and understand the factors that influence an individual's decision to use technology. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), meanwhile, has received widespread support as a robust model for explaining individuals' decision to use technology. The statistical population of this study was 28161 sports secretaries of Kurdistan province, of which 205 people answered the questionnaire voluntarily. To collect data, the decision questionnaire to use technology using the theory of planned behavior was used. Relationships can be meaningful and the research model can provide a suitable model and show the relationships between dimensions and variables well. This study confirms the theoretical importance of teachers' perceptions (ie perceived ease, perceived usefulness, perceived behavioral control) and attitude technology in predicting their future intention to use technology, and also shows that environmental factors (ie management expectation) And technical support) also play an important role in influencing their technology.Various models and theories have been developed to measure and understand the factors that influence an individual's decision to use technology. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), meanwhile, has received widespread support as a robust model for explaining individuals' decision to use technology. The statistical population of this study was 28161 sports secretaries of Kurdistan province, of which 205 people answered the questionnaire voluntarily. To collect data, the decision questionnaire to use technology using the theory of planned behavior was used. Relationships can be meaningful and the research model can provide a suitable model and show the relationships between dimensions and variables well. This study confirms the theoretical importance of teachers' perceptions (ie perceived ease, perceived usefulness, perceived behavioral control) and attitude technology in predicting their future intention to use technology, and also shows that environmental factors (ie management expectation) And technical support) also play an important role in influencing their technology.Various models and theories have been developed to measure and understand the factors that influence an individual's decision to use technology. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), meanwhile, has received widespread support as a robust model for explaining individuals' decision to use technology. The statistical population of this study was 28161 sports secretaries of Kurdistan province, of which 205 people answered the questionnaire voluntarily. To collect data, the decision questionnaire to use technology using the theory of planned behavior was used. Relationships can be meaningful and the research model can provide a suitable model and show the relationships between dimensions and variables well. This study confirms the theoretical importance of teachers' perceptions (ie perceived ease, perceived usefulness, perceived behavioral control) and attitude technology in predicting their future intention to use technology, and also shows that environmental factors (ie management expectation) And technical support) also play an important role in influencing their technology.Various models and theories have been developed to measure and understand the factors that influence an individual's decision to use technology. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), meanwhile, has received widespread support as a robust model for explaining individuals' decision to use technology. The statistical population of this study was 28161 sports secretaries of Kurdistan province, of which 205 people answered the questionnaire voluntarily. To collect data, the decision questionnaire to use technology using the theory of planned behavior was used. Relationships can be meaningful and the research model can provide a suitable model and show the relationships between dimensions and variables well. This study confirms the theoretical importance of teachers' perceptions (ie perceived ease, perceived usefulness, perceived behavioral control) and attitude technology in predicting their future intention to use technology, and also shows that environmental factors (ie management expectation) And technical support) also play an important role in influencing their technology.

    Keywords: Secretary of Sports, physical Education, technology, Education, Model of Planned Behavior Theory
  • Ahmad Kartali *, Morteza Rezaei Zadeh, Gamileh Alamolhoda Pages 212-230

    The current literature on flipped classrooms offers limited insights into the motivations, perceptions, and challenges of educators, especially in higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the motivations of teachers to adopt the flipped classroom method and the challenges and problems that educators face when teaching in the form of information in a public university. In this study, semi-structured interviews were used to collect information. Thirteen professors who had previously taught using the flipped classroom method were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis method. Peer assistance was used to increase the reliability and validity of the analysis. The findings of this study showed several challenges related to the use of flipped teaching method in Iranian higher education: 1) managerial and structural weakness of the higher education system, 2) weak content required in the flipped classroom, 3) individual barriers in relation to knowledge and attitude And information of students and professors, 4) Weakness of technology. These findings could potentially be used as a guide for educators who want to use the flipped classroom method to improve their students' learning outcomes. In the third millennium, with the introduction of information and communication technologies in the field of life, the proper use of educational systems from these technologies in teaching and learning is one of the major professional challenges in most societies (Parsa Moin, 2020). It is popular where activities that were traditionally done in the classroom (for example, presenting material) become homework and activities that were normally called homework become lesson activities. Akçayır et all., 2018) In the reverse classroom, the instructor helps students to take responsibility for the learning process instead of just providing information, and in fact promotes inclusive learning (Lai & Hwang, 2016). . Because class time is not used to impart knowledge to students through lectures, the instructor is able to engage with students through other learning activities such as discussion, problem solving suggested by students, helpful activities, and guidance. Today, the concept of reverse class is implemented in many different disciplines (mathematics, social sciences, humanities, etc.) and in schools and universities around the world (Hao, 2016). As a popular new educational model, the reverse class has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Research on reverse class, especially in higher education, has increased dramatically. In general, the literature on this topic focuses mainly on the benefits and challenges of reverse classrooms (Ho & et all, 2018). Researchers have discussed the benefits of inverted classrooms to justify their effectiveness. Another important benefit of such a classroom is that it can enhance active learning. In the reverse classroom, students are more involved in meaningful learning activities, self-centered learning, in-depth information processing, and achieving more learning (Lai & Hwang, 2016). The problem is used, which leads to deep learning (Maciejewski, 2016), citing self-centered learning theory, claiming that active presence in the reverse classroom may meet students' need for independence, solidarity and competence, and thus Improve students' motivation and learning. Flexibility is another benefit of the reverse classroom that is often discussed by researchers. Using step-by-step self-help videos enables students to quickly, at any time, place, confront themselves with pause, rewind, review, or video lectures (Karabulut-Ilgu, 2018). Regarding student participation in an inverted classroom, Qualifi concluded that the emotional dimensions of learning should not be underestimated. Dimensions such as peer commitment, recognition, a sense of security, and the coaching relationship are particularly highlighted as contributors to student learning (Steen-Utheim & Foldnes, 2018). Another study showed that reverse teaching method was more effective in students' learning than traditional (explanatory) teaching method (Mobaser Maleki & Kian, 2018). Although the reverse classroom has many benefits for improving learning, it also has some drawbacks. Some studies do not support the effectiveness of the reverse class compared to the traditional class, or even show that the reverse class discussion undermines group learning (McClelland, 2013; Velegol, 2015;). The biggest challenge of using the classroom approach is the heavy workload created for faculty and students. Turning a traditional course into a reverse course creates a significant workload and workload for professors (Howitt and Pegrum, 2015). As noted (Wanner & Palmer, 2015), the actual time used to prepare a reverse class course is approximately six times longer than the preparation time of a traditional course. To effectively implement the reverse classroom approach, the instructor has to design the curriculum, including objectives, content, instructions, and reassessment. Teachers should prepare pre-class video lectures and in-class activities. Even their PowerPoint slides have been redesigned to make them better at online personal learning. In-class activities also require more investment from the instructor to design, monitor, guide and provide feedback. Students should also make more efforts for learner-centered. Students must complete significant amounts of preparation through class before entering class, including watching pre-class video lectures, reviewing other instructional materials, completing online tests, and completing extracurricular activities. In the traditional classroom, students need to discuss and engage with peers and give lectures to solve their academic problems. Therefore, facing a large amount of information along with the feeling of drowning in a lot of work will cause anxiety and frustration for students. They may not be interested in learning online, give up and resist classroom activities, and are therefore dissatisfied with the reverse class approach (Karabulut ‐ Ilgu, 2018). Another important challenge of using the class is The reverse lesson is the lack of theoretical and practical framework for the design and implementation of this model (Karabulut ‐ Ilgu, 2018), which creates a major obstacle and prevents educators from using this type. A large number of experimental studies have focused on the effectiveness of flipped classrooms. A significant body of research has generally demonstrated the benefits of this educational approach in terms of improving student learning, including understanding, participation, learning approach, motivation, general skills, satisfaction, and academic achievement (Al-Zahrani, 2015; Zainuddin & Attaran, 2016; Hung, 2015). Researchers have discussed the benefits of flipped classrooms to justify their effectiveness. One of the most important benefits of such classrooms is that it can promote active learning. In the flipped classroom, students are more involved in meaningful learning activities, self-directed learning, deep information processing, and achieving more learning (Bishop & Verleger, 2013; Hwang & Lai, 2016; Davies, 2013). Moreover, class time is used more for social interaction, peer support, group discussion, and problem solving, which lead to deep learning (Hao 2016; Gilboy et al., 2015; Maciejewski, 2016). Abeysekera and Dawson (2015), referring to self-directed learning theory, claimed that active participation in flipped classrooms may fulfil students’ need for autonomy, solidarity, and competence, thereby improving students’ motivation and learning.

    Keywords: Higher education, challenges, flipped classroom
  • Morteza Karami *, Mohadeseh Hajian, Maghsod Amin Khandaghi Pages 231-263

    The current literature on flipped classrooms offers limited insights into the motivations, perceptions, and challenges of educators, especially in higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the motivations of teachers to adopt the flipped classroom method and the challenges and problems that educators face when teaching in the form of information in a public university. In this study, semi-structured interviews were used to collect information. Thirteen professors who had previously taught using the flipped classroom method were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis method. Peer assistance was used to increase the reliability and validity of the analysis. The findings of this study showed several challenges related to the use of flipped teaching method in Iranian higher education: 1) managerial and structural weakness of the higher education system, 2) weak content required in the flipped classroom, 3) individual barriers in relation to knowledge and attitude And information of students and professors, 4) Weakness of technology. These findings could potentially be used as a guide for educators who want to use the flipped classroom method to improve their students' learning outcomes. In the third millennium, with the introduction of information and communication technologies in the field of life, the proper use of educational systems from these technologies in teaching and learning is one of the major professional challenges in most societies (Parsa Moin, 2020). It is popular where activities that were traditionally done in the classroom (for example, presenting material) become homework and activities that were normally called homework become lesson activities. Akçayır et all., 2018) In the reverse classroom, the instructor helps students to take responsibility for the learning process instead of just providing information, and in fact promotes inclusive learning (Lai & Hwang, 2016). . Because class time is not used to impart knowledge to students through lectures, the instructor is able to engage with students through other learning activities such as discussion, problem solving suggested by students, helpful activities, and guidance. Today, the concept of reverse class is implemented in many different disciplines (mathematics, social sciences, humanities, etc.) and in schools and universities around the world (Hao, 2016). As a popular new educational model, the reverse class has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Research on reverse class, especially in higher education, has increased dramatically. In general, the literature on this topic focuses mainly on the benefits and challenges of reverse classrooms (Ho & et all, 2018). Researchers have discussed the benefits of inverted classrooms to justify their effectiveness. Another important benefit of such a classroom is that it can enhance active learning. In the reverse classroom, students are more involved in meaningful learning activities, self-centered learning, in-depth information processing, and achieving more learning (Lai & Hwang, 2016). The problem is used, which leads to deep learning (Maciejewski, 2016), citing self-centered learning theory, claiming that active presence in the reverse classroom may meet students' need for independence, solidarity and competence, and thus Improve students' motivation and learning. Flexibility is another benefit of the reverse classroom that is often discussed by researchers. Using step-by-step self-help videos enables students to quickly, at any time, place, confront themselves with pause, rewind, review, or video lectures (Karabulut-Ilgu, 2018). Regarding student participation in an inverted classroom, Qualifi concluded that the emotional dimensions of learning should not be underestimated. Dimensions such as peer commitment, recognition, a sense of security, and the coaching relationship are particularly highlighted as contributors to student learning (Steen-Utheim & Foldnes, 2018). Another study showed that reverse teaching method was more effective in students' learning than traditional (explanatory) teaching method (Mobaser Maleki & Kian, 2018). Although the reverse classroom has many benefits for improving learning, it also has some drawbacks. Some studies do not support the effectiveness of the reverse class compared to the traditional class, or even show that the reverse class discussion undermines group learning (McClelland, 2013; Velegol, 2015;). The biggest challenge of using the classroom approach is the heavy workload created for faculty and students. Turning a traditional course into a reverse course creates a significant workload and workload for professors (Howitt and Pegrum, 2015). As noted (Wanner & Palmer, 2015), the actual time used to prepare a reverse class course is approximately six times longer than the preparation time of a traditional course. To effectively implement the reverse classroom approach, the instructor has to design the curriculum, including objectives, content, instructions, and reassessment. Teachers should prepare pre-class video lectures and in-class activities. Even their PowerPoint slides have been redesigned to make them better at online personal learning. In-class activities also require more investment from the instructor to design, monitor, guide and provide feedback. Students should also make more efforts for learner-centered. Students must complete significant amounts of preparation through class before entering class, including watching pre-class video lectures, reviewing other instructional materials, completing online tests, and completing extracurricular activities. In the traditional classroom, students need to discuss and engage with peers and give lectures to solve their academic problems. Therefore, facing a large amount of information along with the feeling of drowning in a lot of work will cause anxiety and frustration for students. They may not be interested in learning online, give up and resist classroom activities, and are therefore dissatisfied with the reverse class approach (Karabulut ‐ Ilgu, 2018). Another important challenge of using the class is The reverse lesson is the lack of theoretical and practical framework for the design and implementation of this model (Karabulut ‐ Ilgu, 2018), which creates a major obstacle and prevents educators from using this type. A large number of experimental studies have focused on the effectiveness of flipped classrooms. A significant body of research has generally demonstrated the benefits of this educational approach in terms of improving student learning, including understanding, participation, learning approach, motivation, general skills, satisfaction, and academic achievement (Al-Zahrani, 2015; Zainuddin & Attaran, 2016; Hung, 2015). Researchers have discussed the benefits of flipped classrooms to justify their effectiveness. One of the most important benefits of such classrooms is that it can promote active learning. In the flipped classroom, students are more involved in meaningful learning activities, self-directed learning, deep information processing, and achieving more learning (Bishop & Verleger, 2013; Hwang & Lai, 2016; Davies, 2013). Moreover, class time is used more for social interaction, peer support, group discussion, and problem solving, which lead to deep learning (Hao 2016; Gilboy et al., 2015; Maciejewski, 2016). Abeysekera and Dawson (2015), referring to self-directed learning theory, claimed that active participation in flipped classrooms may fulfil students’ need for autonomy, solidarity, and competence, thereby improving students’ motivation and learning.

    Keywords: Higher education, challenges, flipped classroom