فهرست مطالب

نگره - پیاپی 56 (زمستان 1399)
  • پیاپی 56 (زمستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/03/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • الهه پنجه باشی* صفحات 5-23

    دوره قاجار یکی از دوره های درخشان در نقاشی است که نقاشی مذهبی یکی از شاخه های آن است. بعضی از این نقاشی ها برای شاه و با کیفیت بالا و روی بوم ابریشمی کار شده است. یکی از این نمونه ها مر بوط به اواخر دوران قاجار تابلوی عاشورای شمس است که در موزه آستان قدس رضوی نگهداری می شود و تاکنون مورد پژوهش قرار نگرفته است. این تابلو (معروف به تابلوی شمس) دارای ترکیب بندی مدور است و برخلاف تابلوهای نقاشی دیگر به صورت افقی نیست و از  نقشمایه دایره به صورت نمادین در زیرساخت هندسی اثر استفاده شده است. هدف از این پژوهش مطالعه موردی و تحلیل  نقاشی عاشورای شمس بر مبنای ترکیب بندی دایره است. سوال های این پژوهش عبارت اند از: 1- ویژگی ها بصری و عناصر ساختاری در ترکیب بندی این تابلو چگونه است ؟2 - نقش مایه دایره در ترکیب بندی اثر از چه جایگاهی برخوردار است؟ محتوای پژوهش حاضر کیفی بوده و براساس روش شناسی توصیفی- تحلیلی و شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات از نوع کتابخانه ای است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که ترکیب بندی این نقاشی جدید و منحصر به فرد است و بر اساس تقسیمات هندسی آگاهانه و هدفمند برمبنای دایره شکل گرفته است. نقاش از تقسیمات هندسی متقارن با دایره ها برای تمرکز بر نقطه مرکزی تصویر یعنی امام حسین (ع) استفاده کرده است. تقسیمات هندسی دایره ها، ارتباط آنها، همزمانی دید و رساندن مفهوم کثرت در وحدت بر مبنای ساختار هندسی مدور اثر شکل گرفته است و به همین علت به شمس معروف است.

    کلیدواژگان: قاجار، نقاشی، عاشورا، ساختار هندسی، نقشمایه دایره، موزه آستان قدس
  • فاطمه شه کلاهی*، اصغر فهیمی فر صفحات 25-37

    بنابر نظریه تجلی در دین اسلام، امر مطلق خود را با واسطه اظهار می کند و این واسطه ها در هنر و زیبایی مفهوم نماد به خود می گیرند و از زبان رمز برای بیان مفاهیم و ماهیت باطنی خود استفاده می کنند. هنر اسلامی برای تجلی صور مثالی در هنر، قالب هندسه را که خود سنخیتی ذاتی با صور مثالی دارد برگزیده است و نقوش هندسی در نگارگری ایرانی می تواند یکی از نمونه های بهره گیری از هندسه در بازنمایی عالم مثال باشد. نسخه سه مثنوی خواجوی کرمانی کتابخانه بریتانیا در سنت نقاشی ایرانی-اسلامی از وجوه مختلف از جمله نقوش هندسی به کاررفته در نگاره ها، به عنوان الگو و سرخطی تا اواخر قرن دهم هجری دانسته می شود؛ لذا تحقیق و بررسی در این زمینه اهمیت می یابد. ازاین رو هدف از این مقاله معرفی و شناخت الگوهای هندسی موجود در این نسخه و تحلیل مفاهیم عددی آن ها براساس نظریه تجلی است. سوالات پژوهش عبارت اند از: 1. نقوش هندسی به کار رفته در نسخه مصور سه مثنوی، چه ویژگی های ساختاری دارند؟؛ 2. براساس نظریه تجلی در هنرهای ایرانی-اسلامی، چه تحلیل های مضمونی می توان برای نقوش هندسی این نسخه ارایه کرد؟ این پژوهش از نوع توسعه ای و به شیوه توصیفی-تحلیلی انجام شده است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات اسنادی(کتابخانه ای) با استفاده از ابزار فیش است و روش تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات کیفی است. دوازده نقش هندسی در نسخه سه مثنوی به کار رفته است که به ترتیب برمبنای اعداد 8، 6 و 4 ترسیم شده اند و تاکید بر این اعداد خاص به منظور بیان مضامین و مفاهیم آن ها بوده است. در اندیشه اسلامی عدد هشت با عالم مثال در ارتباط است و رمز گذر از عالم محسوس به عالم معقول است. عدد چهار نماد زمین و عالم ملک است. عدد شش یادآور شش روز خلقت است و در عالم کبیر متناظر با جسم و در عالم صغیر معادل شش قوه حرکت است و عدد کمال و رمز آسمان در نظر گرفته می شود. با توجه به نظام هفت رنگ در رنگ شناسی سنتی، رنگ غالب نقوش هندسی این نسخه آبی است که نشان از نیک خواهی، احسان و نفس اماره است و غالبا در جوار رنگ مکملش، نخودی، قرار گرفته است. همچنین بنا بر تطابق ذاتی ایده و قالب در تمدن اسلامی، اکثر نقوش شش ضلعی که رمز آسمان در نظر گرفته می شوند، با رنگ آبی رنگ آمیزی شده اند و در نهایت منجر به وحدت معنا و قالب می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: هنر اسلامی، نگارگری، سه مثنوی خواجوی کرمانی، نقوش هندسی، ساختار و مضمون
  • مجید بهدانی، محمد خزایی* صفحات 39-51

    فراگیری نجوم و باورهای کیهانی در سده های چهارم تا هفتم هجری بر جوانب مختلف اجتماعی، سیاسی، اقتصادی و هنری جامعه ایران تاثیر عمیقی گذاشت به گونه ای که حجم گسترده ای از آثار هنری تولیدشده در این بازه زمانی نقوش تزیینی نجومی را شامل می شود. آثار هنری بستری مناسب برای بازتابش فعالیت های علمی و اجتماعی و نیز باورهای عامیانه مردم است لیکن هنرمندان، که خود جزیی از جامعه هستند، از اهمیت و جایگاه نجوم و باورهای کیهانی آگاهی داشته و نمادهای نجومی را در قالب نقوش تزیینی در آثار هنری ازجمله کاشی منعکس نموده اند. ازآنجا که استفاده از نقوش حیوانی در مکان های زیارتی و مقدس در هنر ایرانی-اسلامی سابقه ای نداشته، هدف پژوهش، واکاوی ارتباط نقوش انسانی، حیوانی و گیاهی کاشی های کوکبی و چلیپای امامزاده جعفر دامغان با این مکان مقدس است. در راستای این هدف، نقوش بخشی از کاشی های این مجموعه، که در موزه لوور نگهداری می شود، تجزیه وتحلیل شده و ضمن تطبیق با نقاشی های کتاب صورالکواکب عبدالرحمن صوفی رازی، بر مفاهیم و باورهای نجومی نقوش تاکید شده است. سوالات مقاله عبارتند از: 1-بین نقوش کاشی ها و اشعار با کارکرد بنا چه ارتباطی وجود دارد؟ 2-نقوش تزیینی کاشی های زرین فام امامزاده جعفر چه ارتباطی با باورها و مفاهیم نجومی دارد؟ 3- با توجه به شباهت برخی از این نقوش با نقاشی های صورالکواکب، چه رابطه ای می توان مابین نقوش کاشی ها و نقاشی های صورالکواکب صوفی برقرار کرد؟ روش تحقیق این مقاله توصیفی-تحلیلی بوده و اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه ای گردآوری شده است. در نتایج به دست آمده می توان گفت اشعار عاشقانه به کار رفته در حاشیه کاشی های زرین فام امامزاده جعفر ارتباط مستقیمی با نقوش و نیز کارکرد بنا ندارد و نقوش گیاهی، حیوانی و انسانی این کاشی ها صرفا جنبه تزیینی نداشته بلکه حاوی مفاهیم نمادین نجومی است و تاثیرات آشکاری از نقاشی های صورالکواکب صوفی دارند.

    کلیدواژگان: کاشی زرین فام، صور فلکی، صورالکواکب، امامزاده جعفر، دامغان
  • صمد نجارپورجباری*، اکرم صادقی، میثم براری صفحات 53-69

    دوره صفوی اوج هنر قالی در ایران است و قالی های تصویری ازجمله طرح هایی هستند که مورد توجه طراحان و بافندگان قالی در این دوره قرار گرفتند. قالی سنگشکو از نمونه قالی هایی است که در دوره صفوی بافته شده و دربردارنده تصاویری از داستان های ادبی با مضامین عاشقانه، حماسی و اسطوره ای است. حضور این نقشمایه ها در قالی ها ریشه در آیین و باورهای تمدن های قدیم ایران داشته است. زیبایی طرح و نقش قالی سنگشکو منبع الهام و تاثیر طراحان و بافندگان ایرانی و غیر ایرانی بخصوص در قرن 19م شد. حضور مضامین ادبی و اسطوره ای همچون مجالس بزم (دیدار لیلی و مجنون و آبتنی کردن شیرین)، رزم(صحنه های شکار) و همچنین نقشمایه های اساطیری شامل گرفت و گیر، سیمرغ و اژدها و... در طراحی دو قالی صفوی و قاجار، دلیل بررسی و تحلیل پژوهش حاضر است. هدف از این پژوهش تحلیل مفاهیم نقوش و شناسایی شباهت ها و تفاوت های این دو قالی از نظر موضوع و مضمون، در کنار تحلیل ساختاری شامل ترکیب بندی، طرح و رنگ است. حال این سوال مطرح می شود که 1- قالی سنگشکو در عصر صفوی به لحاظ مضمونی و مفهومی چه تاثیراتی بر قالی دوره قاجار داشته است؟ 2-چه تفاوت هایی در طراحی نقوش، ترکیب بندی و رنگ آمیزی و تزیینات بین دو قالی وجود دارد؟ 3- معنا و مفاهیم نقشمایه های مشترک مورد استفاده در طراحی این دوقالی چیست؟ روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی با رویکرد تطبیقی بوده و گردآوری مطالب به شیوه کتابخانه ای و میدانی صورت پذیرفته است از نتایج این تحقیق چنین برمی آید قالی دوره قاجار از نظر مضامین از قالی صفوی الهام گرفته اما در نوع ترکیب بندی و طرح، تغییراتی را ایجاد کرده و در شیوه های رنگ پردازی و تزیینات سبکی را اجرا نموده که در دوره قاجار رایج بوده است. برخی از نقشمایه های اساطیری به کار رفته در قالی سنگشکو در این دوره بارمعانی اسلامی و عرفانی به خود می گیرد نظیر نقشمایه سیمرغ که در این دوره نماد وحدت و ذات باری تعالی است. این تاثیرات در قالی دوره قاجار هم دیده می شود.

    کلیدواژگان: دوره صفوی، دوره قاجار، قالی های تصویری، قالی سنگشکو، مفاهیم اساطیری
  • علی اصغر کلانتر* صفحات 71-87

    ادبیات تعلیمی در طول تاریخ کارکردی وسیع داشته و به موضوعات مختلف اخلاقی، مذهبی، پند و اندرز، سیاست و... پرداخته است. محتوای آثار تعلیمی به تناسب شرایط اجتماعی، هویت فردی و توانایی های آفریننده شکل گرفته است. «سقانفار» سازه ای بومی و مذهبی در مازندران است که متاثر از تحولات اجتماعی سیاسی انتهای دوره صفویه و قاجار پدید آمد. نوع اولیه این سازه چوبی در مزارع و در مجاورت منازل مسکونی برای نگهبانی از محصولات ساخته می شد و در مسیر تبدیل شدن به سازه ای تعلیمی و مذهبی دچار تغییراتی گردید که به آن کارکرد و معنای تازه ای بخشید. هدف این پژوهش بررسی زمینه های شکل گیری، اهداف ساخت و مخاطبان سقانفارها جهت شناخت علت ساخت آنها بوده است. سوال پژوهش این است که میزان ارتباط بین نقوش مذهبی و غیر مذهبی با آموزه های تعلیمی چقدر بوده است؟  فرضیه پژوهش آن است که هدف اصلی سازندگان سقانفارها، ایجاد یک سازه تعلیمی با هدف انتقال آموزه های اخلاقی بوده و از این رو تزیینات با رویکرد تعلیمی انتخاب و اجرا شده اند. پژوهش به روش توصیفی تحلیلی انجام شده و کارکرد نقوش به کاررفته بر اساس محتوای آنها مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. داده ها به روش کتابخانه ای گردآوری شده اند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد بر اساس موضوع، تزیینات در دو گروه مذهبی و غیرمذهبی قرار می گیرند که در آنها مضامین مشابه یا متفاوت ارایه شده است. تحلیل آمارهای استخراج شده نشان می دهد از نظر کمی از موضوعات مذهبی بیش از موضوعات غیرمذهبی استفاده شده است. مضامین مشترک مورد استفاده به ترتیب بیشترین حضور در تزیینات عبارت اند از «شجاعت»، «جوانمردی»، «جهاد و شهادت یا مبارزه با ظلم» و «عدالت» که همه آنها آموزه های تعلیمی هستند. نسبت استفاده از مضامین مشترک در گروه تزیینات غیرمذهبی بیشتر از مذهبی است. بر این اساس به نظر می رسد علت اساسی شکل گیری و همچنین گسترده ترین کارکرد عمومی سقانفارها، جنبه تعلیمی آن ها بوده و هنرمندان مضامین مورد نظر را با استفاده متنوع از روایات مذهبی و تاریخی بیان کرده اند. سایر کارکردهای عبادی و آیینی، در سایه کارکرد تعلیمی معنا پیدا کرده است.

    کلیدواژگان: معماری مازندران، ادبیات تعلیمی، سقانفار، تزئینات معماری
  • فرزانه نجفی* صفحات 89-107

    سنگ نگاره در ایران دارای پراکندگی های گسترده ای است که با نمونه های کشف شده در سایر نقاط دنیا دارای شباهت ها و تفاوت های ظاهری و مفهومی قابل توجه است. نقوش صخره ای موجود در منطقه"شتر سنگ" یکی از هزاران نمونه سنگ نگاره هایی است که در خراسان شکل گرفته اند، بیانگر زندگی مبتنی بر پایه دامداری و شکارگری انسان عصر پارینه سنگی است. نقوش برجامانده در این صخره ها مانند سایر سنگ نگاره های مناطق مختلف دربرگیرنده نقوش جانورسان و نقوش انسان نماست که در بین نقوش موجود بیشترین نقش را نقش بزکوهی به خود اختصاص داده است. در بین نقوش موجود در سایت "شترسنگ" برخلاف پراکندگی های متنوع نقوش صخره ای در سایر نقاط ایران، نقوش گیاهی، سمبلیک و انتزاعی بندرت مشاهده می شود. در بین نقوش جانورسان، نقش بزکوهی به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین حیوانات در تداوم زندگی بشر حاکی از اهمیت فراوان این موجود است که در نقوش صخره ای منطقه "شتر سنگ"به وفور مشاهده می شود. نقش بز، نماد آب، ماه، آبادانی، فراونی، حاصلخیزی و نماد زندگی است. هدف این پژوهش، معرفی و شناخت سنگ نگاره های منطقه "شترسنگ" با تاکید بر نقش بزکوهی و وجود شباهت ها و تفاوت های شاخص نقوش این منطقه در قیاس با نقوش متنوع سایر مناطق کشور است که تاکنون مورد پژوهش و مطالعه جدی پژوهشگران قرار نگرفته است. این پژوهش در پی پاسخ دادن به این سوالات است: 1. نقوش بزکوهی در سنگ نگاره های منطقه شترسنگ دارای چه ویژگی هایی است؟ 2.  بین ساختار طراحی، اجرا و تنوع نقوش بزکوهی در منطقه مورد مطالعه این پژوهش چه شباهت ها و تفاوت های شاخصی با سایر نقوش سنگ نگاره های ایران، وجود دارد؟ جستار پیش رو به صورت توصیفی تحلیلی و با استفاده از ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات بصورت کتابخانه ای و میدانی انجام شده است. با توجه به ریخت شناسی سنگ نگاره ها و اسناد و مدارک موجود در ارتباط با نقش بز تقریبا در تمامی مراکز فرهنگی دوران پیش از تاریخ در ایران، می توان به این نکته اشاره کرد که نقش بز کوهی در محوطه "شترسنگ" نیز، اغلب به صورت استیلیزه و خلاصه شده بدون اشاره به هیچ گونه تزییناتی با استفاده از خطوط افقی برای طراحی بدن و چند خط مورب برای طراحی پاها، ترسیم شده است. همچنین، بزهای حک شده درمحوطه مورد پژوهش مانند اغلب نقوش سنگ نگاره های سایر نقاط ایران؛ به صورت نیمرخ با یک شاخ و یا دو شاخ با منحنی های کوتاه و یا بسیار بلند با عدم تناسب نسبت به بدن جانور، طراحی شده است. بزهای نیمرخ اغلب با دو پا طراحی شده اند و در مواردی نیز بزهایی با طراحی سه و چهار پا نیز مصور شده است. بین بزهای مناطق مختلف ایران، به جهت ریخت شناسی یا فرم و نیز محتوی و معنا یکسانی وجود دارد و شیوه حکاکی اغلب سنگ نگاره های ایران و نیز منطقه"شترسنگ" به شیوه پتروگلیف است. باستان شناسان با گاه نگاری نسبی و تقریبی حکاکی و ترسیم سنگ نگاره ها در منطقه "شترسنگ" را به دوره پارینه سنگی نسبت داده اند.

    کلیدواژگان: شترسنگ، سنگ نگاره، نقوش جانورسان، نقش بز، خراسان، فلات ایران
  • صدیقه پورمختار، محسن مراثی* صفحات 109-119

    هومی بابا اندیشمند حوزه پسااستعماری، در روابط بین استعمارگر و مستعمره، فضای سومی را تعریف می کند که در آن تعامل بین این دو عنصر پدیده ای یکسر جدید و تازه ایجاد می کند که عناصر هر دو طرف را دربرمی گیرد. فضای سوم از نظر هومی بابا دورگه ای را پدید می آورد که می تواند باعث ایجاد تحول و گفتمان پس از خود شود. شکل گیری بیان در این فضا تنها نیازمند تماس دو طرف نیست؛ بلکه تولید معنا به حرکت دو مکان و یا دو فضا به سوی یکدیگر ارتباط دارد. با توجه به نقش تاثیرگذار هنر در انتقال فرهنگ ها، بررسی دورگه گی و فضای سوم در هنر به ویژه در آثاری که مستقیم و یا غیرمستقیم متاثر از هنر غرب (به عنوان یک عنصر تاثیرگذار) بوده اند ضروری به نظر می رسد. ایجاد چنین فضایی را می توان راه میانبری برای تعاملات هنری و به طور گسترده تر تعاملات فرهنگی دانست. بسط این دیدگاه در هنر معاصر ایران موضوع این پژوهش بوده و با هدف شناخت بیشتر هنر معاصر ایران (از حدود صد سال پیش) به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی به انجام رسیده است. نمونه های مورد بررسی از مکاتب نقاشی معاصر ایران، فرنگی سازی، کمال الملک، قهوه خانه و سقاخانه به روش انتخابی گزینش شده اند. این پژوهش به دنبال پاسخگویی به این پرسش است که آیا تحولاتی که با تاثیر از عوامل مختلف سیاسی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی در ایران معاصر به وجود آمد منجر به شکل گیری فضای سوم در نقاشی معاصر ایران گردیده است؟ با بررسی نقاشی معاصر ایران از شیوه ی فرنگی سازی تا مکتب سقاخانه، چنین نتیجه گرفته شد که فضای سوم در نقاشی معاصر ایران طی فرایندی چهار مرحله ای شامل: تقلیدی، غلبه عناصر ایرانی، غلبه عناصرغیرایرانی و ایجاد فضای سوم شکل گرفته است.

    کلیدواژگان: نقاشی معاصر ایران، فرنگی سازی، سقاخانه، فضای سوم، هومی بابا
  • اسماعیل معروفی اقدم، کریم حاجی زاده*، رضا رضالو، بهروز افخمی، فریبرز طهماسبی صفحات 121-137

    در طی ادوار مختلف اسلامی، بنا بر اعتقادات و باورهای مذهبی و فرهنگ و جغرافیای خاص هر منطقه از ایران، سنگ قبر های متنوعی در اشکال و ابعاد مختلف مورد استفاده قرار گرفته که از آن جمله می توان به افراشته، محرابی، ساده ایستاده، صندوقی، گهواره ای، قوچ شکل، شیر سنگی، اسب شکل اشاره کرد. از مهمترین این دسته از سنگ قبرها، از منظر معناشناختی و باورهای اسطوره ای، قوچ های سنگی هستند که عموما در نیمه غربی ایران و بالاخص در شمال غرب و غرب ایران یافت می شوند. بررسی و مطالعه این گروه از سنگ قبرها می تواند به نمودارسازی و کشف مفاهیم این آثار ارزشمند در هنر ایرانی - اسلامی منجر شود و در نهایت می تواند به اهداف و جوابی منطقی برای سوالات زیر نیز دست یابد:

    اهداف

    الف.  بررسی و مطالعه قوچ های سنگی گورستان های حاوی این سنگ قبر ب. نمادشناسی و مطالعه کهن الگوی قوچ های سنگی و تطبیق آن با مفهوم شناختی این نقش در ایران باستان ج.بررسی طرح و نقوش موجود بر روی قوچ ها سوالات: قوچ های سنگی در گورستان های دوران اسلامی ایران، در کدام حوزه جغرافیایی و در چه زمانی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است؟ باورها و اعتقادات نهفته در تندیس قوچ سنگی در گورستان های ایران کدام بوده و چه ارتباطی بین مفاهیم و نمادشناسی این نقش در دوران اسلامی با نقش آن در پیش از اسلام وجود دارد؟ انواع نقوش بر روی قوچ های سنگی کدامند و ریشه های آنها چیست؟ در این راستا، پژوهش پیش رو به شیوه توصیفی - تحلیلی و تاریخی و به کمک اسناد کتابخانه ای و بررسی های میدانی به دنبال معناشناسی، جست و جوی کهن الگویی و همچنین ریشه شناسی اعتقادی نقش قوچ در سنگ قبور اسلامی ایران، از طریق پی جویی آن در طول دوره های پیش از تاریخ و تاریخی است. مطالعات صورت گرفته نشان می دهد که قوچ های سنگی بیشتر در نیمه غربی ایران یافت می شوند و غیر از چند مورد، اکثرا متعلق به قرون نهم و دهم هجری هستند. قوچ در ایران باستان نماد باروری و به عنوان نشانه ای از فر ایزدی و در ارتباط با خدای پیروزی یعنی بهرام بوده است.  قرار گرفتن نقش قوچ به شکل سنگ قبر روی گورهای دوران اسلامی، به معنای طی طریقت و فرزانگی و نشان از استحاله فرد متوفی است. بنا بر اعتقاد مردم، حضور قوچ های سنگی در گورستان ها، مانع از ورود شیاطین می شده و استفاده از آنها با ظاهری انتزاعی  نشانه دلاوری و رشادت دلیران ایرانی و حاکی از مردانگی، قدرت و شجاعت آنان است.

    کلیدواژگان: سنگ قبر، قوچ های سنگی، ایران باستان، دوران اسلامی، گورستان
  • ندا شفیقی* صفحات 139-153

    گرافیتی یکی از رسانه های هنری غیررسمی و مردم پسند است که در خدمت بیان عقاید و دیدگاه های اعتراضی قرار دارد. اگرچه سابقه این هنر در ایران طولانی نیست اما در همین زمان اندک نیز آثار قابل تاملی خلق و بر سطوح شهری عرضه شده اند. شناخت هرچه بیشتر گرافیتی ها و معرفی انواع روابط متنی حاکم بر آن ها، مستلزم نقب به مطالعات ترامتنی است. رویکرد ترامتنیت ژرار ژنت تمامی روابط ممکن میان متن ها را بررسی می کند که در این ساحت بیش متنیت در تحلیل و رمزگشایی متون هنری تناسب بیشتری دارد. بیش متنی رابطه برگرفتگی متن دوم از متن اول است به گونه ای که اگر متن اول نباشد متن دوم شکل نمی گیرد. در این مقاله با استناد به گونه شناسی بیش متنی ژنت، به طبقه بندی و درک پیوستگی ها، تاثرات و مناسبات متنی در منتخبی از آثار گرافیتی ایران پرداخته می شود و هدف مطالعه ای نظام مند است که منجر به شناخت هرچه بیشتر هویت هنری معاصر می گردد. جستار پیش رو در پی پاسخگویی به این پرسش کلی تدوین شده است که گونه های بیش متنی ژنتی چگونه و به چه میزان در گرافیتی های ایرانی قابل شناسایی است؟ روش تحقیق توصیفی، تحلیلی و گردآوری اطلاعات از طریق منابع اسنادی و مشاهده مستقیم صورت پذیرفته و شیوه تجزیه و تحلیل کیفی است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد مولفان گرافیتی با حفظ فضای معاصر، گستره تاثیرپذیری و صراحت ارجاع متفاوت، اشتقاق از متن های پیشین را در آثارشان منعکس کرده اند ازاین رو تمایزات فرامتنی و تفاوت های ناشی از عوامل فرهنگی در بیش متن ها قابل رویت است که در جهت مقاصد اعتراضی و اجتماعی هنرمند قرار دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: گونه شناسی، بیش متنیت، برگرفتگی متنی، گرافیتی ایران، ژنت
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  • Elaheh Panjehbashi * Pages 5-23

    The Qajar period is one of the brightest periods in painting, and religious painting is one of its branches. Some of these paintings have been made for the king in high quality and on silk canvases. One of these examples is the Ashura painting of Shams, which is kept in the Astan Quds Razavi Museum, and has not been studied yet. This painting has a circular composition and unlike other paintings, it is not horizontal and is circular and based on the composition of the circle, and the circle motif is used symbolically in the geometric substructure of the work. The purpose of this study is a case study and analysis of Shams Ashura painting based on circular composition. Questions of this research are: 1- What are the visual features and structural elements in the composition of this painting? 2- What is the role of the circle in the composition of the work? The content of the present study is qualitative and is based on descriptive-analytical methodology and library research data collection method. The results show that the composition of this painting is new and unique, and is based on conscious and purposeful geometric divisions based on a circle. The painter has used symmetrical geometric divisions with circles to focus on the central point of the image, Imam Hussein. The geometric divisions of the circles, their relationship, the concurrence of vision and conveying the concept of plurality in unity are based on the circular geometric structure of the work. At the end of this study, it is concluded that this composition is different from the traditional type of Ashura horizontal rectangular composition and shows a new type of painting that is unique and introduces Shams as a special and different artist in painting. It well puts the Ashura event together in separate plans, emphasizing the simultaneity of Iranian painting in the past. This painting is a unique and different example that was created in the Qajar period and was probably based on the size, quality, type of painting, and composition of custom works from Ashura to court use. The artist works to use them consciously and purposefully in combination. The circular layout uses the geometry and pattern of the circle. In this study, it was found out that the geometric divisions in this work were not accidental and the work has a geometric substructure based on the circle. The painter used geometric divisions and relationships between eight circles to focus on the original highest point of the painting that is the last farewell, and it is emphasized by using geometric divisions. In addition to the mystical dimension, it is a symbolic geometric motif that shows the relationships between divisions, the relationship of small circles, the eight main circles, and the focus on the main circle as well as the focal point of the image. Geometric knowledge, correct and accurate use of circles in place of mesh in the geometric substructure of the work, and the conscious use of eight circles next to the main circle have helped expressing the main theme of the painting. The cognitive level of the image of the circle in the Ashura painting of Shams should be considered as a manifestation of the Qajar-period artist's worldview. The theme of Ashura is emphasized as an intuitive symbol in painting, and is therefore based entirely on the core of the universe and the repetition and continuity of time and place. Circular symbolic interpretation at the center of the image completes the image's resolution, balance, harmony, unity or geometry of the image. The events are fully illustrated and, if they fit in with the religious books in the first part of the article, the story of the artist's awareness and nobility of this Shiite religious event is illustrated. The coloring in this painting is very precise and conscious. Colors with muted tones are used. The tones are very harmonious and white is used in the painting for the breathing space in the image. The coloring in this image is flat, and the black font can be seen around the images. The design of human figures is very precise and with the skill of the artist, this number of figures is depicted in small circles. Recognition of independent sculpture and portraiture in each sculpture shows that the artist had the necessary knowledge for painting and the figures were well arranged according to the narratives. The composition of this painting is the most important feature of this painting, which is circular and is a different composition in the field of Ashura curtains.

    Keywords: Qajar, Painting, Ashura, Geometric Structure, Circular Motif, Astan Qods Museum
  • Fatemeh Shahkolahi *, Asghar Fahimifar Pages 25-37

    According to the manifestation theory in Islam, the God expresses himself through the mediator, and these mediators take on the meaning of symbol in art and beauty, and use the mystery language to express their inner concepts and nature. The way that God is portrayed in a religion determines the nature of its religious art. Islamic art has chosen the form of geometry, which is inherently similar to the ideal forms, to manifest exemplary forms in art, and geometric motifs in Persian painting can be one of the examples of using geometry to represent the exemplary world. Geometric motifs in Persian-Islamic arts are one of the types of images that can help artists to express facts. It means by combining geometry and philosophical and theological aspects, as well as spiritual and sacred allusions, they use the language of mystery and allegory to express facts. In the traditionalist view, geometric motifs were not merely a form of decoration in Islamic art; rather, each implies a message that the conscious viewer must attain to the highest meaning and truth from the material form and appearance. The Illustrated manuscript of the three poems by Khwaju Kermani (Homay o Homayun, Kamal namah and Roudat al-Anwar), 798 AH/ 1395 AD, British Library, add. 18113, in various aspects, including geometric motifs used in paintings, is considered as a sample in the tradition of Persian-Islamic painting until the end of the tenth century AH. Therefore, research in this field is important. So, the aim of this article is to introduce and recognize the geometric patterns in this illustrated manuscript and analyze their numerical concepts based on the manifestation theory. The questions are: 1. What are the structural features of the geometric motifs that are used in the illustrated manuscript of the three poems by Khwaju Kermani? 2. What thematic analyses can be provided for the geometric patterns of this illustrated manuscript according to the manifestation theory in the Persian-Islamic arts? This research is developmental and done by descriptive-analytical method. The method of collecting information is documentary (library research method) and the method of analyzing information is qualitative. The statistical population of this research is all the paintings of illustrated manuscript of the three poems by Khwaju Kermani (British Library, add. 18113) which consists of 9 paintings. Between these 9 paintings, only 4 paintings have geometric motifs that have been considered as research examples. The method of selecting research samples is non-probabilistic (selective) method and the criterion for selecting samples is the presence of geometric motifs in the painting. Examples are: "Homay in the Court of Faghfor of China", "Homay Arrives at Homayoun’s Castle", "Parliament the Day after Homay and Homayoun's Wedding", "Bozorgmehr in the Presence of Khosrow Anoshirvan". Twelve geometric motifs have been used in the illustrated manuscript of the three poems by Khwaju Kermani, which have been drawn based on the numbers 8, 6 and 4, respectively, and the emphasis on these special numbers has been in order to express their themes and concepts. The number eight with 79.2% is the most frequent geometric basis in the manuscript of the three poems by Khwaju Kermani. In the Islamic thought, the number eight is related to the world of examples, and the key to passing from the tangible world to the rational world, the transition between the earth and the heaven, and the interface between divinity and immortality. It is also reminiscent of the eight bearers of the Divine Throne, the eight heavens and the eight heavenly rivers. The number four symbolizes the earth and the tangible world. It shows the active attributes of nature and the passive attributes of matter as well as the four parts of human worldly life. According to the companions, the number four is manifested in a square which vertical lines indicate the descent of mercy and its horizontal lines represent the balance of creatures and divine justice, and they use it to indicate the two mystical states of intuition and absence. The number six is ​​reminiscent of the six days of creation and corresponds to the body in the large world and is equivalent to six powers of motion in the small world. If the number six is represented as two inverted triangles, it indicates the relationship between body and soul. Furthermore, it is considered the number of perfection and mystery of the sky. According to the seven-color system in traditional chromatography, the predominant color of the geometric motifs of this manuscript is blue with % 52, which indicates benevolence, beneficence and self-control, and is often placed next to its complementary color, cream color. Also, due to the inherent correspondence of ideas and forms in Islamic civilization, most of the hexagonal patterns that are considered as symbols of the sky are painted in blue, and ultimately leads to the unity of meaning and form.

    Keywords: Islamic Art, Persian painting, Three poems by Khwaju Kermani, geometric motifs, structure, theme
  • Majid Behdani, Mohamad Azadbakht * Pages 39-51

    In the ancient culture of Iran, attention bestowed on the stars and planets, has a rich history. The ancient inhabitants of Iran were fascinated by astronomy. The Iranians are one of the first nations to interrelate between celestial symbols and spiritual aspects. They, much like their neighboring civilizations (Sumer and Babylon) imagined the stars as creatures they encountered and dealt with on earth such as birds, animals, women, men and fish. So they would fictionalize them and tell tales about them, a quality that may well be observed in mythological culture of Iran. Following the conquest of Iran by the Muslims, they became familiar with the astronomical tradition of Iran. Its influence mostly occurred through the presence of the Iranian scientists at courts as well as the translation of astronomical books and manuscripts into Arabic. The science of Iranian astronomy and mathematics in Islamic periods are, without doubt, a collection of treasures that have significantly contributed to enhancing world knowledge. It was during the tenth to twelfth century AD that science reached its highest point in Iran. During the Buyid period, many astrological accomplishments were achieved including the valuable book by Abdul Rahman Sufi Razi (903-986 AD) with the title of “Sovar-al Kavakeb”. The prevalence of astronomy during the tenth to the thirteenth centuries AD had a high influence on various social, political, economic and artistic fields of Iran in which many of the artworks entailed astronomical decorative elements. Such cosmological and astronomical concepts highly influenced the artworks of various stages of Islamic art history; an influence which is particularly evident during the eleventh to the thirteenth century AD. This indicates the impact of such concepts on social aspects and simultaneously on the political and economic fundamentals of the governments. Artworks are a reflection of scientific, social and folklore actions; hence, artists, being a part of the society, acknowledged the significance of astronomy and the universe, and applied such astronomical symbols in the form of decorative features in their artworks, particularly in the realm of tilework. Luster tileworks are the decorative manifestation of the use of astronomical symbols. Many of such tileworks are preserved in museums worldwide. The luster-glazed tileworks of the Imamzadeh Jafar’s tomb represent such peace, benevolence and valuable features. What occurs to the mind of the spectator at first sight is the unrelated relationship between animal motifs and romantic poetic verses on the tileworks of a holy site Since in Iranian-Islamic art the application of animal motifs is not common in holy buildings and places of worship, the current research strives to acknowledge and study the symbolism, reflected in the decorative tilework of the Imamzadeh Jafar of the city of Damghan. Hence, parts of the tileworks of this monument that are preserved at the Louvre museum are studied and interrelated with the book illustrations of “Sovar-al Kavakeb” by Abdul Rahman Sufi Razi in order to emphasize its astronomical concepts and features. The unrelated relationship between animal motifs and romantic poetic verses, represented on the tilework of a holy place is the first comprehension of the audience at first glance. Hence, the author seeks to answer the following questions: What is the connection between the motifs of the tiles, the poems and the function of the building? What are the relations between the luster-glazed tileworks of Imamzadeh Jafar with astronomical beliefs and concepts? And, how are these decorative patterns related to the illustrations of the Sovar-al Kavakeb book? In order to answer the mentioned questions, the luster-glazed tilework of Imamzadeh Jafar, which is preserved at the Louvre museum, is studied and compared to the illustrations of the Sovar-al Kavakeb book, which is initiated and completed throughout various historical periods. A descriptive and analytic methodology is followed throughout this study and data is gathered using library research method. The results of the research emphasize on the hypothesis that the romantic poems, represented on the margins of the luster glazed tilework of Imamzadeh Jafar show no direct relation with the depicted motifs and the function of the building. Furthermore, the depicted plant, animal and human motifs do not merely have decorative aspect, but display symbolic concepts related to the astronomy, as well as evident influences from the illustrations of the Sovar-al Kavakeb.

    Keywords: Luster Tilework, constellations, Sovar-al Kavakeb, Imamzadeh Jafar, Damghan
  • Samad Najarpoor Jabbary *, Akram Sadeghi, Meysam Barari Pages 53-69

    Iranian rug is one of the most precious and ancient arts in Iranian culture and art history. Safavid era was the utmost of outstanding blossoming of rug weaving art in Iran. Safavid-era artists created numerous novelties in designation and coloring of rugs. Designs of rugs weaved during the Safavid time specifically distinguished them from other rugs. Such quality was the result of a couple of factors such as weaving the rugs under support of the Safavid court, the influence of the court designers on all steps of creating artistic works including rug weaving, availability of any kind of raw materials and colors and dyes both from local and from foreign markets, and prevalence and acceptance of the rug business by the businessmen, especially in overseas markets. During the Safavid time, pictorial rug designs, which are mingled with lofty literary concepts, were especially attended to by rug weavers and designers. A good example of those rugs was Sangeško rug which was weaved during the Safavid time and includes large and small margins and background as well as some pictures of some Iranian literary stories with romantic, epic and mythical themes. Presence of these motifs in the carpets has roots in rituals and beliefs of ancient Iran. The beautiful design and the role of Sangeško carpet became the inspiration of Iranian and non-Iranian rug designers and weavers, especially in 19th century. One of Iranian rugs in which Sangeško designs are evident was created in the Qajar time. This rug looks completely like Sangeško with some minute differences, however; there are several common literary themes and concepts in the two rugs. So, it is worth considering how those differences were created in Qajar rug. The presence of literary and mythical themes such as Meetings (Leili and Majnoun & Shirin`s bath) and Martial arts (hunting scenes), as well as mythological themes, including Gereft-o-Gir (Entanglement), Simorgh (Phoenix), the Dragon and etc. in both Safavid and Qajar rug designs is the reason for the study and analysis of this research. The purpose of this research is to analyze the concepts of motifs and to identify the influence of Safavid Sangeško rug on its Qajar corresponding one and to recognize similarities and differences of these two rugs in terms of overall structure, that is composition, design and color. The question is: 1- How the effects of the Safavid rug, i.e. Sangeško, were manifested in the Qajar rug thematically and conceptually? 2- what are the meanings and concepts of the common elements used in the design of these two rugs? And 3- what are the differences between the two rugs in terms of theme and concepts? This is a descriptive-analytical research which takes a comparative approach. All data were collected using library research method and referring to photos taken in museums by the author. The results of the study revealed that due to numerous similarities between the two rugs, the themes of the Safavid rug were the sources of designs and themes of the Qajar rug. All themes of Sangeško rug are present in Qajar rug. The moving form of human and animal, even the instruments, follow the same root and pattern in both rugs. However, there are some distinguishing points, both in margins and background. Qajar rug’s designation is not merely limited to Sangeško and has undergone some modifications in some images, background and margins.  For example, the meeting scene of Leili and Majnoun, and designation of the All-seeds tree are a bit different. Qajar artist weaver has added some new themes to the background and modified the margins in this scene. This reveals that the Qajar rug is not a mere copy of its Safavid corresponding rug and, borrowing some concepts from the original texts, the artist has rebuilt some scenes based on his own understanding. In composition of the Qajar rug, the position and location of the designs are of no specific order, and each literary scene has occupied a part of the background. Another point about the Qajar rug is that animal and human bodies in that are more harmonious. On the other hand, the Safavid rug includes simple ornaments and represents no chiaroscuro, while the Qajar rug has different colorings and ornaments. The Qajar artist has applied the prevalent art in Qajar time, which mostly included naturalistic designs with specific coloring and contrast, and has bestowed special attention on details such as wrinkles on the cloths and the third dimension of the objects and bodies. Mythical themes used in Sangeško rug are related to mystic concepts, which might have been influenced by Gnostic and Sufi thoughts and schools that were prevalent during Safavid time and especially inside the Safavid court, the effect of which is evident in design of the Qajar rug as well.

    Keywords: Safavid era, Qajar Era, Pictorial Carpets, Sangeško Carpet, Mythological Concepts
  • Ali Asqar Kalantar * Pages 71-87

    Throughout history, Didactic Literature has had a wide-ranging function and has dealt with ethics, religion, mysticism, consultation, politics, wisdom and more. The content of this literary genre has generally been created tailored to the social conditions, individual identity and creative abilities of the author. In the history of Iranian literature, there are so many brilliant examples of educational literature in the form of poetry and prose. "Qaboos Nameh" by Unsur al-Maali Kaykavus ibn Iskandar ibn Qabus, "Bustan" and "Golestan" by Saadi and "Masnavi Manavi" by Rumi are among the leading examples of educational literature. "Saqanefar" is a native and religious wooden structure in Mazandaran that was built with the influence of social and political developments of the late Safavid and Qajar periods. The original type of this wood structure was built in fields or adjacent to residential buildings to protect crops and in the process of becoming a religious and educational structure, it has undergone changes that gave it new meaning and function. Due to the weather conditions in Mazandaran, there are not many examples of the use of decorative forms in various independent art disciplines and architectural decorations. So, what has made the "Saqanefars" famous is not their wooden structure, but the motifs used to decorate them have attracted the attention of researchers. The Decorative motifs have been painted on thin wooden boards using a brush and using natural colors and have been installed under the ceiling. The wooden pillars of the structure have also been used as a surface for decoration. In this study, the decorations have been looked as visual texts that artists and founders have used them to convey their intended meanings. The aim of the present research is to scrutinize the basis for the formation, the objective of the production and the audience of the Saqanefars in order to identify the reason for their construction. This research questions the extent to which religious and non-religious designs are related to, and connected with the didactic teachings. The research hypothesis is that the main purpose of the creators of Saqanefars was to establish a didactic construction with the objective of conveying moral and ethical teachings, thus the ornamentations had been selected, implemented and executed with regard to a didactic/educational approach. The method of this research is descriptive-analytical and the function of the motifs has been analyzed based on their content. Data was collected by library research method. The Saqanefars studied in this study are Armij Kola in Babil, Ahangar Kolai in Ghaemshahr, Espi Kola in Babolsar, Shahidabad (Baei Kolai) Western Bandpey in Babol, Taligaran Lalehabad in Babol, Jazin in Imamzadeh Abdullah Fereydoonkenar, Hamzeh Kola Shesh Pol in Babel, Khoshkrud Rudbast in Babolsar, Ramenet in Babol, Sharmeh Kola Rudbast Babolsar, Shiyadeh Western Bandapi in Babol, Aliabad in Babolsar, Aliabad Sorkhrud in Mahmoudabad, Foolad Kola Rudbast Babolsar, Valik Rudposht in Rudbast in Babolsar, Quran Talar in Babolkenar in Babol, Navaei Mahale in Babolsar, Navaei Kola in Lalehabad in Babol, Kardgarkola  in Rudbast in Babolsar and Kija in Hamzeh Kola in Babol. The results show that, depending on the subject, the decorations fall into two religious and non-religious groups with the same or different contents. The analysis of the extracted statistics shows that religious issues are used more quantitatively than non-religious ones. The common contents used are respectively "Courage", "Fairness", "Jihad and Martyrdom or Fighting Cruelty" and "Justice" all of which are educational. The proportion of use of "common contents" in non-religious decorations is more than religious ones. On this basis, it seems that the basic cause of the formation and the most extensive general function of Saqanefars were their educational aspect and artists have expressed selected doctrines using a variety of religious and historical narratives. This approach seems to have been influenced by the social, political, religious, and climatic conditions of the formation period, and topics and themes have been selected to suit the needs of the time. Examination of field reports showed that according to the traditions of the region and according to the content of the decorations used, the audiences of these works were young boys and men, which confirms the above-mentioned opinion. Other religious and ritual usages of decorations have found meaning in the shadow of the educational function. Saqanefar is a valuable masterpiece of indigenous architecture and Shiite art that has almost unlimited capabilities for educational, religious and cultural functions and has significant historical, social and cultural values. In addition, this structure makes it possible to study the formation and re-creation of the moral values in a new structure based on the original and native Iranian architecture.

    Keywords: Mazandaran Architecture, Didactic Literature, Saqanefar, Architectural Decoration
  • Farzaneh Najafi * Pages 89-107

    In Iran petroglyphs are widely dispersed and have superficial and conceptual similarities with other cases found throughout the world. The motifs depicted in the petroglyphs, which are categorized among the artworks that have remained from Paleolithic to the contemporary era, are in fact the result of the lives of humans and societies prior to the invention of the alphabet. Following the invention of the alphabet and writing, this type of imagery lost its prominent presence in human life. The investigation and study of these pieces would help identifying and knowing the cultural context of the people living in that areas, as well as recognizing the geographical and cultural conditions and their way of life. The rock motifs of “Shotorsang” region are one of thousands of petroglyphs found in greater Khorasan and indicate the herdsman and hunting-based lifestyle of humans during the Neolithic. The motifs remaining on these rocks, as other rock motifs, include animal and human shapes, the most frequent of which is the wild goat. Unlike dispersion of various rock motifs in other regions of Iran, plant, symbolic, and abstract motifs are rarely seen in Shotorsang. The role of Goat as one of the most import animals in continuity of human life indicates the significance of this animal which is abundantly found in petroglyphs of Shotorsang. According to historical documents and evidences, wild goat is one of the oldest known symbols in human history, which is observed in ancient Iran since Neolithic period in different forms such as sculptures remaining from Neolithic shelters (Sarab, Ganj Darreh …), paintings on pottery (pottery works excavated from Sialk, Shush, Esmaeilabad …), engravings on utensils or rocks, and so on. Goat is the symbol of water, moon, prosperity, affluence, fertility, and is also the symbol of life. Once upon a time this animal had been worshipped as the embodiment of human fertility and was considered identical with Sumerian fertility god, Tammuz. In Hindu mythology, the goat was considered as a sacrificial animal of the god of fire. In Greek myths, goat has been a sacred animal for Zeus/Jupiter. In Christian art, the goat represents the Curse in the Last Judgment (resurrection). The objective of this study is to introduce and identify the petroglyphs in Shotorsang region and to explore distinct similarities and differences between motifs of this region and various motifs in other regions in Iran, a task that is not still seriously accomplished by researchers. This research aims at answering these questions: 1. what are the properties of wild goat motifs in “Shotorsang” petroglyphs? 2. What are the prominent differences and similarities in design structure, performance, and goat motif variation between the studied area in this research and other motifs in petroglyphs in Iran? The present research is conducted using analytic-descriptive research method. The data collection is done through library research and field study. While conducting field study, after identifying “Shotorsang” area in the last week of August 2019, as a survey, regarding the dispersion of the motifs on the rocks of the identified area, the researcher took many photographs from these motifs as series or as single shots. Approximately, around 80 petroglyphs are found in the “Shotorsang” area. The statistical society of the present study is composed of goat motifs in studied area and the dispersion of this motif in other regions in Iran, including Asbaghteh in Yazd, Jorbat petroglyphs in Khorasan Razavi, Darreh Negran in Saravan, Tappeh Shah Firoozjan in Kerman province, petroglyphs in Khorasan Jonoobi, Asu petroglyphs and also motifs in Erges Sofla in Zand district of Malayer. Regarding the morphology of petroglyphs, existing documents and evidences in relation to the motif of goat, nearly in all Iranian prehistoric cultural centers, it could be mentioned that wild goat motifs in “Shotorsang” area are often drawn in a stylized form with no decorative element using horizontal lines for top body and a few oblique lines for legs. Furthermore, the goats in studied area, similar to motifs of petroglyphs in other regions in Iran, are drawn in side view with one or two horns with short or very tall curves, which does not fit analogously to the animal body. Side view goats are often drawn with two legs, but in some cases goats with three or four legs have been recognized as well. Morphologically and conceptually, there are high degrees of similarities among goat motifs in different regions of Iran, majority of which are carved using petroglyph style. Archeologists, using approximate and relative chronology, have attributed the carving and formation of petroglyphs of “Shotorsang” to Paleolithic period.

    Keywords: Shotorsang, Petroglyph, Animal motif, Goat motif, Khorasan, Iranian Plateau
  • Sediqeh Pourmokhtar, Mohsen Marasy * Pages 109-119

    Homi K. Bhabha is a Professor of English and American Literature and Language, and one of the most important figures in contemporary post-colonial studies who has developed a number of the field's neologisms and key concepts, such as hybridity, mimicry, difference, and ambivalence which describe ways in which colonized people have resisted the power of the colonizer. The term ‘hybridity’ has been most recently associated with the work of Bhabha, whose analysis of colonizer/colonized relations stresses their interdependence and the mutual construction of their subjectivities. Bhabha contends that all cultural statements and systems are constructed in a space that he calls the ‘Third Space of enunciation’ which makes the claim to a hierarchical ‘purity’ of cultures untenably. For him, the recognition of this ambivalent space of cultural identity may help us to overcome the exoticism of cultural diversity in favor of the recognition of an empowering hybridity. It is significant that the productive capacities of this Third Space have a colonial or postcolonial provenance. Descending willingness into that alien territory may open the way to conceptualizing an international culture, based not on the exoticism of multiculturalism or the diversity of cultures, but on the inscription and articulation of culture’s hybridity. It is the ‘in-between’ space that carries the burden and meaning of culture, and this is what makes the notion of hybridity so important. Homi Bhabha has developed his concept of hybridity from literary and cultural theories to describe the construction of culture and identity within conditions of colonial antagonism and inequity. For Bhabha, hybridity is the process by which the colonial governing authority undertakes to translate the identity of the colonized within a singular universal framework. As used in horticulture, the term refers to the cross-breeding of two species by grafting or cross-pollination to form a third, ‘hybrid’ species. By generalizing this theory into different aspects, hybridization can be studied in different spaces. For example, in the field of art, the effects of different cultures on the artwork of other cultures can be examined. This study examines the impact of European elements on Iran’s painting. The result of this research indicates that the third Space and Hybridity of Bhabha have been formed in contemporary Iranian painting, but through a process. The Qajar artistic style, like the Timurid school centuries before that, had its origins outside the historical period from which it derives its name. It was in the late Safavid period that a thoroughgoing Europeanized style began to oust the old native traditions, and by the beginning of the 12th/18th century the new style was completely dominant. The works were only mimicry of Iranian and European elements, whether consciously or unknowingly, they could not create the third space and hybridity, but it can be the beginning of this process. The theme and content, in terms of which the elements of previous Iranian painting have been inherited from their predecessors, are more evident in Coffee House paintings. But, the primitive usages of space, dimension and perspectives as European elements can be seen here. Kamal Al-Molk’s school was the culmination of a trend towards the adaptation of a European naturalistic style in Persian art, which led to the emergence of a Euro-Persian style in Iran. This approach began to take shape during the latter half of the 17th century. In this style, the subject with all the details was shown as a photo. Furthermore, in this style, European elements such as the three-dimensional space and perspective are dominant. Therefore, in these two styles, Coffee House painting and Kamal Al-Molk’s school, one element dominates another element, and therefore the third space is not formed. The term “Saqqā-Qāna” was initially applied to the works of artists, both in painting and sculpture, who used already existing elements from votive Shiite art in their own modern works. It gradually came to be applied more widely to various forms of modern Persian painting and sculpture that used traditional-decorative elements. The Saqqā-Qāna movement in the sixties tried to found and establish a “national” or “Iranian” school of art. On the other hand the attention was paid to modernism. The general perception was based on the belief that the artists could achieve a “modern-traditional” synthesis that included an Iranian identity and character. So, in this style the formation of the third space is evident. Therefore, the process of formation of the third space is evident in four stages in contemporary Iranian painting: Qajar-European style, the start point, Coffee House style and Kamal Al-Molk’s style are respectively the domination of Iranian and European elements and finally its formation in Saqqā-Qāna school.

    Keywords: Contemporary Iranian Painting, Third Space, Homi Bhabha, European School, Coffee House School, Kamal Al-Molk School, Saqqā-Qāna School
  • Esmaiel Maroufi Aghdam, Karim Hajizadeh *, Reza Rezaloo, Behrouz Afkhami, Fariborz Tahmasbi Pages 121-137

    According to religious beliefs, cultures and geographies of each region of Iran, different gravestones have been used in various shapes and sizes during different Islamic times. These include standing tombstone, altar tombstone, simple standing tombstone, masonry tombstone, cradle tombstone, ram-shaped tombstone, rock valves, horse-shaped tombstone and others. The stone rams are The most important of these types of gravestones in terms of their semantics and mythical beliefs that are commonly found in the western half of Iran and especially in northwest and western Iran. Studying this group of tombstones can lead to the revelation and discovery of the concepts of these valuable works in Iranian-Islamic art and ultimately to the achievement of the following goals and Questions:Goals:1. Study of the stone rams of the cemeteries of Iran
    2. Symbolology and study of the archeology of the stone rams
    3. Study of the designs and motifs on the stone rams

    Questions:
     In which Geographical area and which period of time stone rams were used?
    What is the relationship between popular belief in stone rams and understanding and symbolism before Islam?
    The current research is conducted using library research method and field studies as well as analytical-comparative method to trace semantics, ancient archetypes, as well as the etymology of belief in the design of the ram in Islamic gravestones of Iran, through following it up in prehistoric and historical periods, and seeks a rational answer to the above-mentioned questions.
    The prior Studies show that stone rams are mostly found in the western Iran and most of them belong to the ninth and tenth centuries AH, except for a few. The ram in ancient Iran has been a symbol of fertility, and a sign of a lord in connection with the god of victory, Bahram. Placing the design of a ram, in the form of a tombstone on Islamic-era graves, means arriving at the wisdom and symbolizing the transformation of the deceased. According to the beliefs of the people, the presence of stone rams in the cemeteries prevented demons from entering, and using them as abstract appearances, symbolized the valor and bravery of the Iranian brave men as well as indicating their masculinity, power and courage. The design of ram or rock ram, in turn, is rooted in ancient patterns, beliefs and old ideas. It should be noted that the insights, that have been used in the use of the design of the ram or other creatures in the gravestones and other arts of this period, have been based on a transcendental vision, thought and belief, that sometimes in accordance with the same thoughts and sometimes going on with symbolism and new meanings, have been reused by Islamic artists. Therefore, design of each ram and stone ram placed on the graves of the Islamic era, had a meaning behind them that relates to the beliefs and religious imaginations or culture of the peoples of the region. The use of stone rams in cemeteries and religious sites is actually a revival of beliefs that existed in the past, but in the Islamic era, according to the Islamic vision, some of their meanings have been forgotten. Others have been accepted along with new symbols and beliefs. The stone rams are a symbol of masonry art and very artistic stone carving of various Islamic eras, most of which have been identified in the Qaraqoyunlu and Agh Qiyunluo-ruled territories. Surveys show that, the ram-shaped gravestone was present in the times before these two governments and afterwards, and used in cemeteries and on graves. So the idea of using stone rams on the graves of the dead is rooted in ancient times.  According to studies, stone rams are mostly used in cemeteries in the northwest and west of Iran, and generally in the western part of Iran. These works, while there are few specimens of which left from an older era, have been used extensively in the 9th and 10th centuries. These rams are usually placed on the tombs of heroes and alongside religious sites, which imply meanings that the most functional and symbolic of this category of works have been greatness, power, boldness, bravery and even theology. Naming the ram for the champions is still common in Azerbaijan, such as Quch Ali, Quchi Nabi, Quch Qur Gogli, and so on. One of the oldest ceremonies in the region has been the fight against the rams, and they believe that the rams are a symbol of struggle and heroism. Nowadays, horns are also seen on the gates of some urban homes, especially in Iranian villages in other parts of the country, including Gorgan, Yazd, Khoy and Ilam. They use it to prevent evil eye (scar or saline eye) and as a sign of strength and wealth.

    Keywords: Tombstone, Ram-shaped Tombstone, Ancient Iran, Islamic Era, Cemetery
  • Neda Shafighi * Pages 139-153

    Graffiti is one of the unofficial and popular artistic media that serves to express protests as well as political, social and cultural contents. This new popular art is noteworthy in terms of communication with subcultures, youth and street art in big cities and urban areas, as well as the fact that it has found an informal, unofficial and even underground life in Iran in recent years. Graffiti is a way of expressing the views and opinions of groups, images or letters used on surfaces of public places such as walls or bridges that are visible to the public, and also the raw wall paintings are handmade and sometimes disgusting, linear drawings, conventional inscriptions on doors and walls, linear motifs and irregular and obscure writings. Graffiti is used as a way to send social and political messages and as a form of advertising. It is also known as a modern art from that is now on display in galleries around the world. Although the history of this art medium in Iran is not long, but in this brief time, remarkable works are presented in different urban areas. Further recognition of graffiti works and introduction of the variety of textual relations that govern them, require referring to the transtextuality studies. All possible relations between texts may be reviewed by taking transtextuality approach of Gerard Genette, French researcher, in which area hyper textuality is more appropriate to analyze and decode the art texts. Hypertextuality is the relation of the second text, being derived from the first text, so that if the first text does not exist, the second text will not form. According to this, the paper based on Gerard Genette’s transtextuality typology, considers classifying and exploring conjunction, effects and text relations in Iranian graffiti works. The purpose of this essay is to conduct a systematic study which leads to a wider knowledge of the identity of contemporary art. The research methodology is descriptive- analytical and based on the Genette’s theory of Transtextuality types of hypo text approach that analyzes a number of graffiti works in Iran. The graffiti samples have been collected from web-based sources. The author’s statistical population includes about 350 Iranian graffiti artists, among which 20 images have been selected as case studies by targeted sampling method. Selected works are more closely related to the head of their branch in the process of hypo text classification, and in order to answer the research questions and their goals, the method of analysis is qualitative. Also data collection is done through the documentary resources and direct observations. The results showed and explained how the text in human world is reproduced and spread with hypotextuality, as well as how this approach can be used to better understand the arts and the relationship between the texts. Graffers by keeping the contemporary space, different domains of effectiveness and explicitness of different reference, have reflected the previous divisions of hypo text in their works. Therefore, the difference of hypertext and distinction of artistic and cultural elements are visible in graffiti works that are used as artists’ protests and social purposes. Explicit reference to the hypertext is different in these samples that are different in terms of imitation and classified changes. In hypo text imitations, extent of resemblance is distinct. It is certain that hypo text compiler had more constraint in protection of hypertext’s formal style, and has shown a major creativity in content. Another result in this section is the lack of any charges and exaggerated types in Iranian graffiti works as hypo texts. Recognizing borrowed elements from hypertext requires greater consideration and delicacy so that it would include a wider transposition and less degree of parody and travesties. Perhaps it could be due to the change of system that makes this look inevitable in interdisciplinary and inter-significant transposition. In addition, slight changes in those types are perhaps related to their functions. It means that the satirical and fancy approaches in a type are more frequent, bold and explicit, and popular implication is more needed, because the artist uses the humorous language in familiar structure to achieve a more lasting impact. Major changes, both in style and content, can lead to a significant gap among hypertext and hypo text of graffiti, and thus reduce the impact on the audience. Studying the samples on mutable hypo text in graffiti works, leads to understanding incremental change, that has the largest share itself. Finally, it should be said that the application of types of hypo text at least are implicit in graffiti works and cannot be clearly decided as Genette’s classifications, especially in border resolution of fancy function. However, one can see that the pastiche of fancy function in hypo text of graffiti is the closest concept to the Gerard Genette’s typology.

    Keywords: Typology, Hypotextuality, Textual Derivation, Iran’s Graffiti, Genette