فهرست مطالب

مطالعات باستان شناسی - سال دوازدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 24، زمستان 1399)
  • سال دوازدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 24، زمستان 1399)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1399/12/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
  • Qader Ebrahimi *, Reza Rezaloo, Michael Danti, Ardeshir Javanmardzadeh, Akbar Abedi Pages 1-23

    Hasanlu archaeological joint project in partnership with Iranian-American archaeologist is the one of the rare long-term archaeological projects carried out in northwest of Iran. In the process of this project (1957-1978), the layers from the Neolithic period to the historical period have been excavated. The Seventh period of Hasanlu Tepe is contemporary of early bronze age and the beginning of massive economic and social mutation in the cultural developments context of Middle East. Cultural materials of this period in Hasanlu Tepe have illuminated the obvious cultural differentiation between southern area of Urmia lake and the whole of Iran northwest region. Although the short report on this period material have been published, but there is still very little awareness on this period around the pottery types and its distribution, burial traditions and relationship between neighbors. Therefore, the present study intends to introduce the general characteristics of the culture of the seventh period of Hasanlu by referring to the findings of Hasanlu project and other excavations carried out in this area. cultural materials of this period illuminates that during the third millennium BC, there have been a distinguished socio-cultural zone from the Kura-Araxes area with painted Orange and Red pottery characteristic in the southern part of Lake Urmia to the southern slopes of Sahand Mountains. Which on the one hand interacted with northern Mesopotamia in west and on the other hand interacted with the Kura-Araxes communities in whole of north, eastern and southern area.

    Keywords: Hasanlu, Northwest Iran, Early Bronze Age, Painted Orange Ware, Kura-Araxes
  • Nasir Eskandari * Pages 25-48

    Shahdad is an important Bronze Age city on the western edge of the Dasht-e Lut in Iran. Previous investigations at the site, with its burials containing rich and sophisticated artifacts, fully justified its definition as an advanced early urban center. After half a century of Shahdad excavations, it is time to have a new look at Shahdad and its finds in light of our present knowledge from the archeology of southeastern Iran. Here is an assessment of the Shahdad data obtained from Shahdad 1970s excavations including ceramics, stones, seals, and metal and clay objects. In addition, I will present two seals from Shahdad excavations at area D (known as industrial area) discovered by A. Hakemi which have been remained unpublished. Also, this paper presents a revised chronology for Shahdad in order to determine the syntax of the different parts of the excavated areas. This suggested dating is mostly based on the burial goods of the cemeteries of Shahdad. Here, both already-suggested horizontal and vertical chronology for cemetery of Shahdad is questioned. This comparative research on the various goods from site of Shahdad showed that Dasht-e Lut appeared to be a key region in the interaction sphere of Southwest Asia during the second half of the 3rd millennium BC.

    Keywords: Shahdad, Early Urbanization, Bronze Age, Chronology, Burial Goods
  • Morteza Hessari *, Reinhard Bernbeck, Susan Pollock Pages 49-61

    In the summer of 2017, renewed fieldwork was undertaken at Tappeh Sofalin in the Varamin Plain. A total of 20 samples for absolute dating were collected during this season, several of which have been analyzed. We present this new evidence for the dating of the site and compare it briefly with published dates and analyses from other sites. Finally, we discuss implications for the chronology of the Proto-Elamite spread to the Central Plateau and other areas of Iran.

    Keywords: absolute dating, Tappeh Sofalin, Proto-Elamite horizon
  • Narjes Heydari *, Rahmat Abbas Nezhad, Mojtaba Safari Pages 63-80

    Present paper review 350 sites from Middle Paleolithic, upper Paleolithic, Epipaleolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, respectively, 4, 9, 6, 28, 36, 15 and 252 sites. Pearson correlation coefficient test indicates a meaningful relationship between number of sites through every single period and other variations including longitude, distance to river and climate. Some 60.9% of sites located at -26 m to 500 m longitude, including fertile plains and foothills that reward seashore and marine sources. Most of the sites locates at the eastern part of the region that is generally plains with low humidity and precipitation. There are 18.1% of Iron Age sites at 1000-1500 m longitude that consist of seasonal settlements of mountain valleys. There is not meaningful relation between number of sites and slope variable. Most of the sites locates at 0-1500 m far from rivers. Considering analysis about settlement patterns in prehistoric sites of the region, number of Middle Paleolithic to Chalcolithic sites suggest an ascending process, however, they the number decreases during Bronze Age. Then, the sites increase during Iron Age, which indicate ties between high density of settlements and high capacity of environment. Finally, the average area of settlements increased from Neolithic to Bronze Ages, then decreased during Iron Age.

    Keywords: Settlement Pattern, Mazandaran, prehistory, Geographical analyzing system, Environmental variables
  • Leila Khosravi * Pages 81-98

    Jahangir is one of the most prominent Sasanian sites In the west of Iran that excavated due to locating in the flood level of Kangir dam (Eyvan). The deficiency of knowledge about the manner of constructing, settlement areas, causes of formation, collapse and chronology of these structures, specify the type of livelihood, study the industries and various arts such as stucco decorations,  glasses, metallurgy, pottery, determining the elements, architectural decorations and materials, functions and effective factors in different artistic styles are the questions and aims of excavation. In order to answer mentioned questions, a descriptive-analytical method with the help of excavation and historical texts have been used. At the end of three seasons of archaeological excavations, the plan of a huge building included 11Spaces had been revealed. These Spaces consisted of two (Eyvans) porches and some rooms, with a courtyard and interior area that built with rubble and a mortar of Semi-baked and Semi-pressed plaster and brick for ceilings. Asymmetric geometric structure, division of interior and exterior areas, spatial variations and significant role of  Eyvans in spatial organization of the complex are the most important features of the three phases of architecture. Various artworks in this complex are influenced by the current Sasanian art, but it has own independent and native identity. According to the archaeological data, it could be claim that Jahangir site have been designed for official requirements. The construction of this site could be interpreted in the base of natural landscape and counted as a manor house with ritual/settlement function among the other palaces of this period.

    Keywords: Sasanian, Jahangir, Kangir River, Eyvan, Ilam
  • Hakimeh Razeghi Mansor *, Ran Zhang, Bagher Soljo, Bin Chen, Guangyao Wang Pages 99-125

    As an important type of ancient artwork, the Chinese blue and white porcelain entered Iran through the artists and merchants during the Safavid era (1501–1736 AD), and it strongly influenced the Islamic ceramic industry at that time. Chinese blue and white porcelain wares can be considered as the most decorative ceramic art. Bowls and plates with a floral rim and teacups were exported from China to the overseas markets. The influence of this art and its motifs can be seen in the examples obtained from the excavations at Jahan Nama Palace in the old city of Farahabad. Not only the Chinese ceramic finds from this excavation show the long-distance trade from China, the artistic imitation in the porcelain manufacturing and porcelain also can be seen in different areas of Iran. According to the historical sources and accounts, the Farahabad historical complex is a part of the city with the same name, which was built on Tahan village by the order of Shah Abbas I, and the early history of this city dates to 1612 AD in an area of about 40 hectares along the Tajan River and close to the littoral area of the Caspian Sea. The purpose of this research is to study and discuss the blue and white porcelain of Jahan Nama Palace and the extensive trade and port status of the important city of Farahabad in the Safavid era.

    Keywords: Mazandaran, Farahabad, Jahan nama, blue, white porcelain, World Palace
  • MohammadHossein Azizi Kharanaghi *, Masashi Abe, Sepideh Jamshid Yeganeh, Afshin Akbari Pages 127-151

    Eastern Iran, especially in the prehistoric period, is a completely unknown region on the Iranian archaeological map. More than one hundred years after the beginning of archaeological excavations in Iran, the eastern regions have received little or no attention from archaeologists for various reasons, and there are very limited publications as well. Kale Kub is a prehistoric site that is located in Ayask town, in Sarayan District, South Khorasan Province, eastern Iran. It has sufficient cultural deposits to provide a chronological timeframe of cultural sequence for the prehistoric cultures of this region. The first season of Kale Kub excavations, carried out in 2019, led to the identification of unknown prehistoric cultures in the region, which are introduced in this article.Perhaps the most significant achievement of this excavation was the identification of the 4th millennium BCE cultures, which are well known in the southwest of Iran and Mesopotamia and for which evidence has been obtained far from the centre of this culture. These cultural evidences, which can be considered to belong to the Susa II horizon or late Uruk cultures, include the typical pottery of this period, such as bevelled rim bowls, rough Banesh trays, tubular and nose handle jars, and fine and painted wheel-made pottery, which is well known in the south-western, western, north-western, south-eastern regions and central plateau of Iran, but which have now been identified and introduced for the first time in eastern Iran. In general, based on the excavation of two stratigraphic trenches (A and B) in this site, three cultural periods have been identified so far. They have been classified from the bottom level and the top of the virgin soil are: 1: KALE KUB I (Chalcolithic period, fifth millennium BCE), 2: KALE KUB II (Susa II horizon, fourth millennium BCE), and 3: KALE KUB III (Bronze age, third and second millennia BCE).

    Keywords: Kale Kub, Stratigraphy, Relative, absolute Chorology, Susa II horizon
  • Samaneh Asgarnezhad, Mohsen Javeri * Pages 153-173

    The historical site of Tesmijan, 300 hectares in area, is located northeast of Kashan city. According to archaeological data, this site was used during the Iron Age, Parthian, Sassanid, and early Islamic periods. According to the surface archaeological materials, the peak of settlement in Tesmijan was during the Sassanid period, during which the site has probably been a Sasanian city. The site is one of the few Sassanid sites in Kashan that has been expanded during the Parthian period. According to the quantity and quality of data, this site can help understand the Sassanid period in the Iranian Central Plateau. In the present study, we want to answer these questions: What are the basic characteristics of the Sassanid pottery typology and forms in the site; how does a comparative analysis of these forms with other Sassanid sites help to gain a better understanding of the archaeological processes in the region? What are the main arguments regarding the origin of stylistic forms and decorations of local types in this site? For this purpose, the ceramics were sampled through systematic survey and networking of the Tesmijan site to determine the typology and forms of Sassanid pottery in the site, and a comparative analysis of these forms with other Sasanian sites has been presented We have attempted to investigate the local origin of the pottery in the site; Although the cultural material of the site is comparable to various Sassanid sites, especially in western Iran. Some local forms are also identified and introduced in this research using descriptive-analytical methods.

    Keywords: Kashan, archaeology, systematic survey, Sassanid’s, Historical Pottery, Ceramic Typology
  • Hassan Fazeli Nashli *, Roger Matthews Pages 175-210

    Introduction Iran in the Transitional Chalcolithic periodTracking the emergence of political authority and social hierarchy in the archaeological record has been one of the major challenges addressed by archaeologists in the past fifty years or more, with considerable attention given to potential material correlates of early stages in developments leading ultimately toward statehood (Chapman 2003; Smith 2012). Much of this research has explored the evidence from past societies of the ancient Near East, including Mesopotamia and Iran (Wright 1998; Flannery 1999; Smith 2003), but there has been less investigation of the communities of the Iranian plateau in this light (Matthews and Fazeli 2004). What was their role(s) in the complex series of socio-political developments leading to the appearance of hierarchical societies in the centuries between 5500 and 4000 BC, and how might the archaeological evidence inform us on those roles? Recent and ongoing research into societies of the Iranian plateau in the so-called Transitional Chalcolithic period (5200-4200 BC) is continuing to enhance our understanding of this question. In this article we summarise and analyse the evidence from archaeological investigations of sites and regions on the Tehran, Kashan, and Qazvin plains, addressing in turn settlement patterns, subsistence strategies, craft production, and mortuary practices (Fig. 1).

    Keywords: Hierarchical, Transitional Chalcolithic, North-Central, plateau, Iran
  • Hossein Moradi * Pages 211-228

    During the late fourth millennium B.C some changes took place in many archaeological sites of south eastern Iran that affected the different aspects of life in the region. By expanding of local cultures in the late 4th millennium B.C, at the same time we are witnessing the presence of proto Elamite cultural materials near some key sites and consequently remarkable increasing in trade exchanges with distant areas. In fact, some evidence of foreign merchants with Banesh/proto Elamite elements that has specialization on storing goods, commodity management and trade in long distances. These evidence have been documented by archaeological excavations near Shahdad, Konar Sandal and Shahr i Sokhta. All these sites are the big cities in the first centuries of third millennium B.C.  It seems that in spite of expansion of Aliabad culture in Kerman, Baluchestan, Makran and near Sistan since 3700 B.C to 3300 B.C that consequently followed by local cultures in each area from 3300 to 3000 B.C, the main factor for starting and developing of urbanization in south east of Iran is connected to presence of proto Elamite culture and building the exchange centers or Bazar in the areas with good potential for the natural resource. These areas became the urban centers in the beginning of third millennium B.C. In fact, the art of those merchants was learning to local people that how to control their valuable resource and crafts for exchange and interaction with the other people.

    Keywords: South East of Iran, urbanization, trade, Proto Elamite elements, Parviz Piran
  • Seyed Mehdi Mousavi Kouhpar *, Alireza Zabanavar, Solmaz Ahmadzadeh Khosrowshahi Pages 229-249

    Tang-i-Chakchak complex is located at eastern Fars Province. As one of the biggest religious Sassanid architectural complex, it consists of two main architectural spaces including a Chahartaq or a domical squared space. One of the two main spaces, with a square plan, considered the place of maintenance of the holy fire. Present paper attempts to suggest a plan of the structure of the religious architecture, during Sassanid period, following investigating architectural square space of Tang-i-Chakchak in comparison to similar structural spaces, in order to understand historical and realistic function of the building. Purposefully, it is a fundamental research, with a historical and descriptive-analytical methodology and nature, while data collected bibliographically and following fieldwork. The conclusions present a modern classification of the sanctuaries attributed to Anāhitā during Sassanid period, consisted of two different religious architectural spaces, furthermore, there is an introduction of the square architectural space of Chakchak as a sanctuary that attributed to Anāhitā. Some of the religious spaces relate to Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā the ancient Zoroastrian goddess, and some other structures connect to Anāhitā, with Mesopotamian origin. The architectural spaces indicate various religious attitude for different reason, not a development during Sassanid period. It appears that there was an attempt to diminish the latter, for their non-Zoroastrian origin during late Sassanid phase. Present paper potentially is Important for suggesting a new structure of the sanctuaries of Anāhitā, in addition to revising earlier theories and assigned structure to Anāhitā, which explain various religious attitude within Zoroastrian framework during Late Antiquity of Iranian history.

    Keywords: Sassanid period, Tang-i-Chakchak, religious architecture, Temple of Anāhitā, Zoroastrianism, Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā
  • AliAkbar Vahdati * Pages 251-270

    The mountainous region of Northern Khorasan, north-eastern Iran is rich in rock art complexes including several petroglyphic and rock-painting sites. The rock paintings at Takke rock-shelter near Bojnord is one of the four recorded pictographs in the Atrak River Basin depicting a hunting scene. The panel shows a human with a spear accompanied by several dogs pursuing various species of wild animals in a hilly and wooded landscape. Most of the animals are depicted between the trees on steep footpaths. The Takke pictograms are the only identified rock paintings in Iran and the neighboring regions depicting a dog-assisted hunting scene in a forest zone characterized by several species of plants and animals. The plant and animal diversity in the panel as well as certain landmarks such as animal tracks could perhaps be interpreted as an attempt to illustrate features of the natural local landscape which is a rare phenomenon in the corpus of Iranian rock art. On stylistic grounds, the Takke pictograms appear to date between the Late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age. Located in the foothills and upland zone suitable for nomadic hunting groups, mobile pastoralists, and herding population, the pictograms of Takke, like other rock art complexes of Northern Khorasan, appear to linked to pastoral models of subsistence during prehistoric period

    Keywords: Khorasan, rock-paintings, Chalcolithic era, Bronze Age, hunting scene, Plant diversity, nomads
  • Massimo Vidale *, Francois Desset, Dennys Freenz Pages 271-285

    We re-discuss the so-called Jalalabad seal, a well-known cylinder seal dating of the late 3rd millennium BC, reportedly found in Fars. It displays a scene related to a south-eastern Iranian religious or mythological iconography, showing a male supernatural character with snakes spreading out of his body, probably a divinity, and three women bowed for worship or submission in front of him. This scene is combined with an Indus Script signs sequence which connects this seal to a ‘family’ of short, equally well-known inscriptions in Indus signs recorded on ‘Persian Gulf’ round stamp seals, notably coming from Bahrain, ancient Dilmun, and southern Mesopotamia. The present discussion is based on a new, more detailed recording of the seal's intriguing iconography, and it brings another brick in the already imposing wall of the of acculturation and cosmopolitism phenomena attested in the Persian Gulf during the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. At that time, Mesopotamian, Dilmunite, Maganite (Oman), Meluhhan (Indus) and Marhashean (Halil Rud) traders were interacting along the then main Near Eastern commercial highway, and a pervasive process of cultural hybridization was in full development. A review of the various Indus iconographic elements currently known in Iranian glyptic is finally proposed, trying to restitute for each of them their respective historical implications.

    Keywords: Jalalabad cylinder seal, Jiroft, Halil Rud pantheon, Indus inscriptions, ‘Persian Gulf’ stamp seals