فهرست مطالب

Medicinal Plants and By-products - Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter-Spring 2021
  • Volume:10 Issue: 1, Winter-Spring 2021
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/05/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
  • Gholam Basati, Fatemeh Mehrabi Rad, Arash Momeni Safarabadi, Pegah Shakib, Mehrnoosh Sedighi *, Mostafa Cheraghi Pages 1-8
    Despite the increased awareness about high blood pressure, it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the community. Medication and high blood pressure can be treated with medication and non-medication. The high prevalence of high blood pressure around the world and development of serious and dangerous complications this disease a major health problem in all societies and is a major cause of cardiovascular disease. Concerns about the side effects of chemical drugs lead to misuse of medications, intolerance to patients and consequently, impaired control of the disease. That's why today there is a new approach to medicinal plants and a lot of research is being done on medicinal plants. The purpose of the present study is investigation of plants and provides the mechanism of action of the most effective medicinal plants in the treatment of hypertension. This paper examines the use of electronic search in articles published in various Internet databases and reference books on the mechanism of action of various plants in the treatment of hypertension by affecting the molecular mechanisms involved in the disease. According to the results of some medicinal plants such as Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Berberis vulgaris L., Rosa × damascena Herrm., Punica granatum L., Olea europaea L., Teucrium polium L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Urtica Dioica L., Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Allium sativum L. and Juglans regia L. are the most important medicinal plants affecting high blood pressure. Studies have shown that medicinal plants with various mechanisms such as vasodilation, production of nitric oxide (NO), calcium channel blockers, increased potassium, inhibition of renin-angiotensin pathway, and activation of intracellular CGMP and expansion of vasodilator effect to hypertension treatment.
    Keywords: hypertension, Medicinal plants, Molecular Mechanisms, Drug
  • Sina Fallah *, Marzieh Rostami, Ali Abbasi Surki, Mohammad Rafieiolhossaini Pages 9-19
    The effect of the phytotoxicity of black cumin, dragonhead, dill and soybeans was investigated on the emergence and early growth criteria of canola. Experiment was conducted as factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications under greenhouse conditions, Shahrekord University, 2016. The experimental factors consisted of four species of plants (soybean, black cumin, dragonhead and dill), two fertilizer types (organic and chemical fertilizers) and two levels of plant residue (without and with residue). The results showed that the black cumin residue in soil treated with both organic and chemical fertilizers reduced the dry weight of canola seedling. In soil fertilized with organic manure, the effects of all four plants residues were the same. The chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents of canola seedling significantly decreased in soil with chemical fertilizer and black cumin or dragonhead residues. In soil fertilized with organic manure, there were no significant differences in the effects of the soybean, black cumin and dill residues. In general, the cultivation of autumn canola should be delayed until the plant residues from black cumin, dragonhead, dill and soybean have been removed or until their effects have dissipated after harvest.
    Keywords: Allelopathy, medicinal plant, Photosynthetic pigment, Phytotoxicity
  • Zahra Nemati Lafmejani, Ali Ashraf Jafari *, Pejhman Moradi, Alireza Ladan Moghadam Pages 21-28
    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) from Lamiaceae family is one of the most important medicinal plants, used in food, sanitary and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Nano Zinc and Zinc-Chelate on morpho-physiological traits and essential oil composition of peppermint. A factorial experiment was conducted based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications in Karaj, Iran, in 2016. Treatments were zinc micronutrient in two levels (Zinc-Chelate and zinc nanoparticles) and concentration in four levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/l). The zinc micronutrient was applied in foliar spraying in three times of the interval of 15 days up to flowering stages. Results showed that both of Nano zinc and Zinc-Chelate micronutrient significantly increased all of morpho-physiological traits than that for control. The higher values were obtained in Zinc-Chelate (1.5 g/l) and Nano zinc (1 g/l), respectively. The effects of treatments were significant at 21 out of 34 compounds. The higher compounds with average values of 19.7%, 7.8%, 5.9%, 5.7%, 4.9% and 4.1% were obtained in Menthol, Menthone, Menthofuran, Piperitone, Menthyl acetate and Beta-caryophyllen, respectively. Nano zinc (1.5 g/l) had increased Menthol, Menthone and Menthofuran content up to 28%, 61% and 237% higher than the control, respectively. t. It was concluded that foliar spraying of Nano zinc (1 g/l) in flowering stage had increased dry matter yield and essential oil content and spraying of Nano zinc (1.5 g/l) had increased essential oil composition of peppermint.
    Keywords: essential oil, leaf pigments, yield, foliar spray, Zinc Nanoparticles, MENTHA PIPERITA
  • Roghayeh Khoshamad, Hamid Hassanpour *, Amir Rahimi Pages 29-38
    Peel and pulp of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries contain a wide range of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for their biological activities. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes of wild grape accessions from the West Azerbaijan province were investigated in different fractions of berries, i.e., peel and pulp fractions. The total phenol (TP) content ranged from 139.29-843.10 and 151.67-416.91 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per 100 g in the peel and pulp, respectively. The highest level of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activities (Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in all the native accessions was observed in peel fraction. Also, principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that genotypic effect is more pronounced toward peel antioxidant activity based on 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhy (DPPH) assay and pulp total anthocyanin (TA) of grape berries. The present study displays the potential of native grapeaccessions studied for improvement of nutritional value through germplasm enhancement programs.
    Keywords: Catalase enzyme, Iran, Principal component analysis, total phenol
  • Mahsa Jalili, Somayeh Sharifi, Khadijeh Abdal, Fahimeh Daneshyar * Pages 39-42
    Despite major advances in oral health in the past decades, tooth decay is one of the most common preventable diseases in the worldwide. Nowadays, Streptococcus mutans is discussed as one of the most important challenges in tooth decay. Also, medicinal herbs can be considered as an effective weapon against infectious diseases. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the biofilm formation in S. mutans clinical isolates and to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of Crocus sativus against S. mutans clinical isolates. In this study, thirty dental plaque samples were collected. Then, identification of samples was performed by standard methods. Biofilm formation was evaluated on S. mutans clinical isolates. C. sativus alcoholic extract was applied as an anti-biofilm formation in this isolates. Our results demonstrated that a significant number of S. mutans samples were identified as biofilm producers. Then, C. sativus in 60 mg/ml, 30 mg/ml and 8 mg/ml were able to eradicated strong, moderate and week biofilm formation in thisisolates, respectively. In addition, more extensive studies and in vivo research are needed to confirm the results of this study.
    Keywords: Tooth Decay, Streptococcus mutans, biofilm formation, Crocus sativus
  • Sonia Ebrahimian, Alireza Pirzad, Jalal Jalilian, Amir Rahimi * Pages 43-50
    Milk thistle extract is used to treat liver diseases. The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of micronutrients (Fe, Zn, B, and Mn) on antioxidant activity of milk thistle seed. The study was conducted at the Experimental Fields of Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture and the lab of Biology Department, Urmia University, West Azerbaijan, Iran, during 2016-2017, used randomized complete block design in three replications. Control, Fe, Zn, B and Mn were used as fertilizer treatments. According to the results the effect of micronutrients on total phenols and flavonoids content, nitric oxide radical scavenging, super oxide radical scavenging activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Chain-breaking activity was significant (P ≤ 0.01). Total phenolic content under Zn spraying had significant difference than other treatments whereas in terms of flavonoids content, Zn and B spraying was significant. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in Mn and Fe using than other treatments as the difference was significant. Application of mentioned micronutrients significantly decreased the percentage of super oxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity than control. In general, according to the findings of this study, spraying micronutrients such as Fe, Zn, B and Mn can be useful to increase the antioxidant capacity of milk thistle under dryland conditions.
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Drought Stress, Micronutrients, Milk thistle
  • Patricia Garcia-Palencia *, Catalina Rivas Morales, Azucena Oranday Cardenas, Myriam De La Garza Ramos, Catalina Leos-Rivas, Ernesto Torres L&Oacute, Pez Pages 51-59

    Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. There is interest in anti-inflammatory substances of plant origin because of their advantage in relation to classic anti-inflammatory drugs. The cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effect of extracts of Scopulophila parryi and Psacalium decompositum (A.Gray) H.Rob. & Brettell were evaluated with the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) method and their pro-inflammatory cytokine profile was determined in a human peripheral blood monocyte culture model. The plant was collected and identified and the methanol extract was prepared by maceration. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro with the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium) assay in two cell lines, VERO and Detroit 551 human fibroblasts. The anti-inflammatory activity of human peripheral blood monocytes and gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8, were evaluated The extract of P. decompositum was less toxic on the VERO and Detroit 551 cell lines with a DL50 of 77.30 μg/mL and the S. parryi extract had 150.58 μg/mL. Both extracts significantly reduced expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 at 300 μg/mL for S. parryi and at 400 μg/mL for P. decompositum. The extract of P. decompositum was less toxic for both cell lines and the two methanol extracts are good alternatives as immunomodulators of proinflammatory cytokines.

    Keywords: Cytokines, Toxicity, cell lines, periodontal
  • Merrine Raju, Y. Vasudeva Rao * Pages 61-68
    The latex was collected from an Indian native species, Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. The latex was analysed for different bioactivities, i.e., catalase, protease, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Catalase activity was determined by the catalytic decomposition of H2O2, which was monitored by the decrease in the absorbance at 240 nm using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Protease activity was determined by the hydrolysis of milk casein proteins, the resultant hydrolysate was colorimetrically analysed using Folin-Cioclateu   reagent at 700 nm, in a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activity was analysed by the reduction of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) reagent at 518 nm in a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The antibacterial activity was determined by well diffusion method using the agar medium. The antifungal activity was determined by well diffusion method using the potato dextrose agar medium. Based on the results, latex of T. divaricata possessed mild catalase activity (15.2±3.93 U/ml), high protease activity (4461.55±230 µg/ml), and moderate antioxidant activity (28±3.0%). Latex of T. divaricata inhibited Enterococcus faecalis bacteria growth, but did not affect Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The fungal species Aspergillus flavus showed no susceptibility, but A. niger was inhibited by latex of T. divaricata.
    Keywords: Tabernaemontana divaricata, Catalase activity, Protease activity, Antioxidant activity, Antimicrobial activity
  • Ardeshir Qaderi, Nasrin Qavami, Sara Ghezelbash, Nassim Zarinpanjeh * Pages 69-75
    The Iranian poppy by the scientific name of Papaver bracteatum Lindl. has been long propounded as a source for thebaine. Thebaine is among secondary metabolites that due to its wide spread and unique medicinal properties play a valuable role in production of herbal medicines and pharmaceutical industries on the whole.The objective of the present study is to investigate the enhanced production of thebaine by over expression of salutaridinol 7-o-acetyltransferase (SalAT) gene, a key gene in thebaine biosynthesis pathway, in Agorobacterium-mediated transformed cell suspension culture of P. bracteatum. In this study, the cDNA of SalAT with P. bracteatum origin was cloned in pBI121 expression vector under CaMV35s promoter. In order to transfer the cloned gene Agrobacterium tumefaciens of LBA4404 strain and hypocotyl–cotyledon explants were used. For recognition of transformed calli obtained, PCR and Southern blot analysis were employed and high performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC) was applied for determination of thebaine content. The comparison of callus induction and thebaine content between transformed and non-transformed cell culture was studied on completely randomized design with three replications. According to HPLC analysis which revealed a significant 1.7 fold (0.58 mg/g) enhancement in thebaine content in transformed suspension cell culture comparing to non-transformed cell culture (0.34 mg/g), it can be concluded that the over expression of key genes such as SalAT gene in the cellular suspension culture of P. bracteatum could be a promising potential for mass production of this valuable alkaloid.
    Keywords: Cell suspension culture, Over expression, Papaver bracteatum, SalAT gene, thebaine
  • Vahid Ganjiani, Mohammad Tabatabaei *, MohammadSadegh Golvajouei Pages 77-82

    Comparative and dose-dependent evaluation of antimicrobial potential of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni was aim of current study. Six solvents were used for extraction of S. rebaudiana leaves to compare the effect of different solvents. These extracts were confronted against six selected pathogens. To determine the effect of dose on S. rebaudiana antimicrobial activity, nine concentrations were prepared for every extract to check against every mentioned pathogen using spot diffusion technique which taking of different concentrations is a prominent feature of present study in comparison with similar studies. Results were recorded by measuring the diameter zone of inhibition (DZI). Broth dilution method was also used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Among six extracts, acetone extract revealed the best results against all pathogens except A. hydrophila. Furthermore, acetone extract showed better antimicrobial potential against G+ microorganisms than G¯ ones. Ethanol extract was most effective extract to inhibit A. hydrophila. No or a little activity was revealed by water and hexane extracts. Among six microorganisms, the most susceptible one was B. cereus exhibiting largest DZIs by all extracts. In MIC results, acetone extract revealed better results than ethanol and methanol extracts against all microorganisms, but this excellence was significant just against S. aureus and E. coli (p <0.05). Present study greatly proved S. rebaudiana has powerful antimicrobial potential and this feature is highly affected by solvent type and dose. S. rebaudiana can be used in food and pharmaceutic industries for either prevention or treatment.

    Keywords: Stevia rebaudiana, Antimicrobial activity, acetone extract
  • Bhagya Samarasinghe, Ewon Kaliyadasa *, Piyal Marasinghe Pages 83-88

    To enhance the value of the unexplored medicinal herbs in Sri Lanka, this study was focused on the physicochemical analysis and investigation of biological activities of four different Curcuma species abundantly dispersed in Sri Lanka namely, Curcuma albiflora Thwaites, Curcuma aromatica Salisb., Curcuma longa L. and Curcuma zedoaria Roxb. Many species in genus Curcuma were rich with phenolic compounds. The total phenolic content (TPC) of dried rhizomes of Curcuma longa was the highest of all (5.530 g of GA equivalents/1 g of dried rhizome). The average antioxidant properties in the DPPH test was reported in MeOH extracts of the rhizome and leaf samples of four species. Further the MeOH extracts exhibited the inhibitory activities toward α-amylase enzyme with IC50 values ranging from 6.455 µg/ml to 307.475 µg/ml. The present study shows that Sri Lankan Curcuma species have a potency to be used as antioxidant and antidiabetic agents. This information particularly physicochemical constants such as moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash values will be helpful in standardization of quality, purity and authentication of these medicinal plants for preventing its raw materials adulteration.

    Keywords: Antioxidant, antidiabetic, Biological Activities, Curcuma, Physicochemical
  • MohammadHossein Mirjalili, Ali Sonboli, Atousa Aliahmadi, Seyed Mostafa Goldansaz * Pages 89-93

    The current study aims to investigate the effect of solvent variety on some phytochemical factors of Nepeta asterotricha Rech. f.: as an endemic plant from Iran. It is suspected that quantity and quality of chemical compounds would be affected by solvent type. For this purpose, aqueous, hydro-alcohol (50/50 ethanol/water), and methanol were used as solvents. The studied factors were total phenol, flavonoid, antioxidant activity, and rosmarinic acid that were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu, colorimetric, FRAP, and HPLC methods, respectively. The outcomes showed hydro-alcohol extraction could significantly isolate phenol compounds (156.84 mg GAE/g DW) with considerable antioxidant properties (318.55 mg AA/g DW). However, methanol was more effective to extract total flavonoid content (101.34 mg RE/g DW) and rosmarinic acid (140.39% DW). In addition, more study should be done to investigate the importance of each compounds for both medicinal and industrial uses.

    Keywords: Folin-Ciocalteu, colorimetric, FRAP, HPLC, Endemic
  • Hassan Khamisabadi *, Hassan Fazaeli Pages 95-101
    Milk production and composition, lamb growth, blood hematological profile and relevant blood metabolites were assayed in Sanjabi ewes and lambs as affected by supplementing basal diet by either thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)(THY) or Peppermint (PEP). Twenty-one pregnant Sanjabi ewes of similar weight (BW around 50 Kg) and age (45-48 months) were equally divided into three dietary treatments. Group (1) served as a control group received a basal diet (BD) with no feed supplement. Groups  (2) THY and (3) PEP received 10 g/ewe/day THY or PEP, respectively. Lactation period and milk yield were higher (p <0.05) in ewes of THY supplement followed by that of PEP supplement than that of basal diet only, respectively. Whereas, weaning weight (WW) and average daily gain (ADG) of lambs were improved (p <0.05) by the addition of THY or PEP to the basal diet. The addition of THY and PEP increased (p <0.05) WBC’s and lymphocytes counts of these lactating ewes, while, monocytes count was higher (p <0.05) in ewes fed basal diet only. No significant effects were noticed on eosinophils, RBC’s count and Hb concentration in ewes fed the supplemented diets. RBC’s, WBC’s, lymphocytes counts and Hb concentration of suckling lambs were improved (p <0.05) by adding THY or PEP to the basal diet of ewes. The addition of THY or PEP to the basal diet increased (p <0.05) blood serum; total protein and globulin concentration of these ewes compared to those of the control group. However, no significant differences were observed in albumin, glucose, triglycerides and urea concentrations. Total serum cholesterol was decreased (p <0.05) by the addition of THY and PEP. Concerning suckling lambs, the addition of THY or PEP to the basal diet increased (p <0.05) total protein and globulin concentration, while, it decreased albumin: globulin ratio. No significant effects were noticed in albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol of suckling lambs blood serum. It is concluded that THY and PEP diet supplements could be used as natural growth promoters in ewe diets to improve milk yield and composition and lamb growth.
    Keywords: Sanjabi ewes, Thymus vulgaris powder, peppermint, supplements
  • Hossein Tavallali, Atefeh Bahmanzadegan *, Vahid Rowshan, Vahid Tavallali Pages 103-116
    The massive pomace of Citrus aurantofolia (Christm.) Swingle exhibits a challenging losses exposure difficulty for the processing industries. The resent study was aimed to evaluate the composition and quality of pomace and understand its bioactive compounds to introduce it to different industries such as pharmaceutical, food, medicinal, agricultural etcetera for optimum use. Volatile compounds (VCs) were extracted by water distillation (WD) and Static headspace (SHS) methods. Four different extracts were analyzed for polyphenol compounds identified by HPLC-DAD, total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Limonene (71.7%), b-pinene (8.5%), g-terpinene (7.3%), myrcene (1.8%) and a-pinene (1.7%), were the main compounds of essential oil (EO) of C. aurantifolia pomaceby HD extraction. The dominant VCs of C. aurantifolia were limonene (49.3%) followed by b-pinene (21.7%), g-terpinene (9%), a-pinene (6.8%) and sabinene (4.9%), respectively by static headspace analysis. Trans-ferulic acid was major polyphenol compound in all studied extracts of C. aurantifolia marcs. Methanolic extracts from C. aurantifolia pomaces represented higher antioxidant activity, TPC and TFC than other investigated extracts. This studied marc can be introduced to different industries as a source of bioactive and medicinal natural compounds because of its valuable phytochemical characterization.
    Keywords: Citrus aurantifolia, Phenolic compound, DPPH, total flavonoid, total phenol