فهرست مطالب

Journal of Hydrosciences and Environment
Volume:4 Issue: 7, Jun 2020

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/06/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • M. H .Karim *, M. Ebrahimi, M .Abbasian Pages 1-9

    Sugar Beet as a sources of human nourishment contains about 30% of sugar consumption in the word. On the other hand, problems encountered in providing human food as well as environmental pollution caused by unbridled human interference in the normal process of nature have created serious anxiety among scholars and concerned organizations. Therefore, efforts to increase production along with improving the quality of strategic products, provided that the environment is protected and not polluted, is the only fundamental solution to this global problem. In conservative agriculture, using fertilizer for increasing sugar beet production must be planned on the bases of economic beneficiary and environmental conservation. Considering the robust growth of sugar beet in saline soils and low-quality land, it is imperative to conduct studies in this respect. Unaware of the fact that compliance with the principles of operation and maintenance of fertilizing soil quality can be significantly raised the yield of sugar beet. Since Fasa region is one of the leading sugar beet production regions in Iran, it was chosen as the statistical population example. The purpose of this study is to provide guidelines for optimal use of fertilizers to sugar beet using MINITAB software and quality control charts. For this purpose, 80 samples were recorded from the fields of excavation and their OC, K, and P were tested. Results were quantified. The paper is concluded with some practical strategy suggestions.

    Keywords: management, Environmental Science, fertilizer, Sugar Beet, Technique
  • A .Seirafi, H .Kamalan * Pages 10-17

    The provisioning of a minimum standard level of settlement and the designing of camps are among the primary and essential rights and requirements of those subjected to disasters or conflicts. The presence of shelters is essential to resist diseases and protect against natural and non-natural hazards. It is also important to maintain the dignity of humans in the family and social frameworks in tough situations. The present study involved the emergency tent of the UN high commissioner for refugees (UNHCR), Q-shelter, tarpaulin-concrete shelters, recycled-paper pipes, rock-block buildings, safe units, pre-construction wooden building system, lightweight steel frame (LSF) building system, insulating concrete formwork (ICF) building system, and sliding structure system. This study investigates the possibility of using new construction management methods and technologies in Iran to establish temporary settlement sites after disasters from different perspectives, such as consistency with environmental conditions, passive defense, cost, execution speed, ease of facilities, construction technologies, and execution quality via the hierarchical analysis approach. According to the final scores of new temporary settlement establishment methods, Q-shelters were found to be the most consistent method with environmental conditions. Also, the highest passive defense score was obtained for the LSF building system. Also, the final weights of the decision criteria indicated that the highest effect was derived for execution speed at a coefficient of 0.203. Finally, obtaining a score of 0.156, the LSF building system was found as the best building system in the mass housing project based on the six criteria, followed by the sliding structure building system in the second rank. Moreover, the smallest score was obtained for the rock block system.

    Keywords: Construction management technologies, Settlement sites, environmental conditions, AHP
  • M. Sheihakitash *, S .Keshavarz Pages 18-24

    Green Entrepreneurship is a growing phenomenon that boosts sustainable investment and economic development along with the conservation of the environment and the observance of the standards. it is a type of entrepreneurship coupled with innovation that takes advantage of innovation opportunities of economic benefits and equity in society to help to improve the quality of life of communities while taking care of the principles of sustainable development and environmental conservation The present research used the survey methodology to assess the factors influencing the development of green entrepreneurship with an emphasis on environmental sustainability. Data were collected with a questionnaire from 57 staff of Agriculture Jihad Organization of Sistan and Baluchestan province and the experts of organic products and environment. After a review of the relevant literature, three dimensions were identified – economic, infrastructure, and educational. Data were analyzed in SPSS software package and by structural equations model in SMART PLS. The results of factor analysis revealed that all the identified dimensions had a positive and significant effect on green entrepreneurship and among them, the infrastructure was the most influential dimension on the development of green entrepreneurship. So, it is recommended to consider environmental sustainability from different aspects to accomplish green entrepreneurship development.

    Keywords: Environment, green entrepreneurship, sustainable business, determinants of green entrepreneurship, Zahedan
  • P. Zarei *, S .Moradimakram Pages 25-34

    Nowadays, because of severe droughts, the drilling of new wells, the over-abstraction of groundwater resources, and inattention to resource planning and management, there is an urgent need for paying special attention to groundwater resources and their quantitative and qualitative assessment. The present research assesses the quantitative and qualitative status of groundwater behavior in the Shourdasht basin of Qahavand in Hamadan province, Iran. Quantitative and qualitative groundwater data were collected for the 2001-2016 period and the quantitative and qualitative groundwater maps of piezometric wells data were evaluated using the GIS-based interpolation method. According to the results of the annual Shourdasht hydrograph, an average of 1.7 m decline is observed in the groundwater in the study area. The calculation of hydrodynamic coefficient shows that the studied aquifer had the maximum water transmissibility rate of about 165.23 m/day in the northwestern part of the Shourdasht basin and the minimum transmissibility rate of 16.5 m/day in the north of the basin. The maximum and minimum specific yield coefficients were recorded in the eastern and northeastern parts of the plain, which were about 0.61 and 0.006, respectively. The results of the qualitative study of the area show that according to the Schuler diagram, drinking water quality is mainly within the acceptable to moderate range. Also, according to the Wilcox diagram, the samples are classified to have medium quality.

    Keywords: Groundwater, Qualitative changes, Quantitative changes, GIS, Shourdasht
  • A. Mohseni, N .Mohseni *, S. R. Hosseinzadeh Pages 35-42

    Streams located in watershed environments act as a principal component of transportation and reservoir of heavy metals evacuated by mining activities. This study evaluated the relationship between morphometric stream characteristics and variations in the rate of sediment heavy metal pollution in a mining-influenced watershed. The study area was a mining site located in the Anguran region, Zanjan province, Iran. Three rivers were selected that exhibited significant differences in terms of path length and slope. Approximately 1500 g sediment was collected from downstream positions of Kaka River (R1), Allah Lochay River (R2), and Shurab River (R3). Total zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) concentrations and particle size distribution were measured. The pollution load index (PLI) and geo-Accumulation Index (Igeo) were then calculated. Based on the results, the sediment particle size distribution significantly decreased in response to an increase in the river length and slope (R1>R2>R3). Stream path length and slope are factors determining the size of bed particles transported by a river. The streams with longer path lengths and steeper slopes could transport finer fractions toward depositional positions. Further, the pollution level of the Kaka River sediment was the highest compared with other rivers. The highest Igeo value for the measured heavy metals was also observed in the Kaka River sediment, followed by the sediments of Allah Luchay and Shurab rivers. The regression results illustrated that the heavy metal concentrations were significantly positively correlated with clay and silt contents. These findings unequivocally showed that watershed environments exhibit a high vulnerability to mining activities because the streams can facilitate the transportation of sediment polluted by heavy metals across the landscape. On the other hand, the streams with higher length and slope surrounding mining sites increase the pollution transfer rate and cause a higher level of sediment heavy metal pollution.

    Keywords: Fluvial sediment, Stream slope, Stream length, Zn -Pb mine
  • Kh. Gorgij, A .Dehvari *, M. Dahmardeh Ghaleno Pages 43-56

    The SWAT model was used to simulate the monthly runoff of the Sarbaz watershed (6324 Km2) located in Sistan-va- Baluchestan province of Iran. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the SWAT model simulation in the calibration and validation stages and to analyze the uncertainty of input parameters of the model. A hydrological modeling approach was used to identify the sensitive hydrological input parameters of the watershed through the SUFI-2 algorithm. The important parameters of the model were determined by the general sensitivity analysis, and the model was, then, calibrated for 1997-2005 with two years as the warm-up (1997–1998) by a multi-objective optimization approach using the SWAT-CUP program. Subsequently, the model was validated on a dataset of five years (2006–2010). To reduce the uncertainty, different components of the water balance were considered in the calibration stage, and data from the Pishin station were used. Based on the p-value and t-stat, the most sensitive parameters were the curve number and the parameter of alpha in return flow, and the parameter with the lowest sensitivity was the percentage of deep aquifer feeding on the shallow aquifer. The performance of the model was tested using two objective functions of Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). R2 and NSE were estimated at 0.83 and 0.80 in calibration and 0.53 and 0.38 in validation, respectively. Acceptable values ​​were also obtained for the uncertainty assessment indicators. The p-factor and r-factor were calculated to be 0.76 and 1.53 for the calibration stage and 0.72 and 1.23 for the validation stage, respectively. In addition to confirming the goodness of fit for the conditions of the Sarbaz watershed, these results indicate that the model can positively affect the simulated runoff in future projects due to the dynamics of the model parameters in the specified uncertainty interval.

    Keywords: SUFI-2 algorithm, SWAT model, Uncertainty Analysis, Sarbaz watershed