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Hydrosciences and Environment - Volume:1 Issue: 1, Mar 2017

Journal of Hydrosciences and Environment
Volume:1 Issue: 1, Mar 2017

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/12/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • H Naderianfar *, H Moradi, H Ansari Pages 1-7

    Evapotranspiration is the most important part of the hydrological cycle, which playsa key role in water resource management, crop yield simulation, and irrigationscheduling. Therefore, developing a cost-effective and precise model is essential forestimating hourly grass crop reference evapotranspiration (ETo). In this study thepotential of the fuzzy inference system (FIS) is investigated as a simple technique formodeling hourly ETo obtained using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith and ASCEequations. Then, combinations of efficient hourly climatic data namely temperature,wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation were used as inputs to the fuzzymodel. Four fuzzy models were developed based on different combinations of inputs.Common statistics such as Mean square error, average absolute relative error anddetermination coefficient and two more statistics of Jacovides (t) and R2/t are used ascomparison criteria for evaluation of the model performance. Here, Training andtesting fuzzy models were done with Fariman meteorological data – an arid region inthe northeast of Iran. The fuzzy model whose inputs are solar radiation, airtemperature, relative humidity and wind speed, yield the highest correlation andcompatibility to reference models of FAO-56 PM and ASCE, based on commonstatistics. Whereas, the fuzzy model whose inputs are solar radiation, air temperatureand relative humidity, are selected as the best model based on combination ofcommon and additional statistics. The fuzzy model with two inputs namely solarradiation and relative humidity has acceptable results, too. The results show that solarradiation is the most effective parameter on hourly reference evapotranspiration andtemperature, relative humidity and wind speed were other effective parameters,respectively. These results for training and testing phase are alike. It was found thatthe developed fuzzy models could be successfully employed in estimating the hourlyETo with a limited weather data.

    Keywords: Fuzzy Inference System, Hourly Reference, Evapotranspiration, Asce Model, Fao-56 Penman-Monteith Model
  • H Shahbazi * Pages 8-19

    The purpose of the Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) Program in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region (MENARID) is to bring national investment projects in the field of INRM. Within the scope of MENARID, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) planned to support a full and details impact study that captures the adoption of all INRM technologies implemented by the Iran’s MENARID project titled Institutional Strengthening and Coherence for Integrated Natural Resources Management, and further assess a few high potential technologies selected in close collaboration with the local project team, and for which primary and secondary data are available. Such a study should also explore the gender aspect of the technologies analyzed. The impact evaluation study tests whether the selected technology has significantly contributed to restore and maintain of the ecosystem functions and productivity, and whether has improved the economic and social well-being of the targeted communities. We chose Kamkooyeh Village in the Behabad Site (in Yazd Province) where a Village Development Group (VDG) has been established by following participatory and capacity building approaches such as social mobilization and micro credit mechanism. A set of complementary activities and interventions were recommended and implemented in this site by consultation and active participation of the local communities and beneficiaries. One of the proposed interventions is the implementation of an Irrigation Water Supply Project (IWSP). The expected benefits and costs of the IWSP were predicted through financial valuation and an ex-ante evaluation of socioeconomic impacts. The financial and social (Economic and Environmental) benefit-cost ratio of IWSP was estimated to be about 0.83 and 2.32, respectively.

    Keywords: Impact Study, MENARID, Water Supply Efficiency, ICARDA, Iran
  • M Mohammad Ghasemi *, M.R Naroui Rad, G Keikha, J Shahraki Pages 20-24

    In this study, the water content that is allocated for agricultural productions wasanalyzed using stochastic dynamic programming. The technical coefficients used in thestudy referred to the agricultural years, 2013-2014. They were obtained through the useof simple random sampling of 250 farmers in the region for crops like wheat, barley,melon, watermelon, and ruby grapes under the scenarios of drought and normal andwater that is required in the most sensitive growth stages. Production function and profitfunction were obtained from the yield-water-product function of crops using Eviewssoftware. Expected net profit of the system and optimal allocation of water were alsocalculated based on the GAMS economic analysis software. Results of the modelindicates a reduction in wheat, barley, melon and watermelon production area undercultivation while at the same time an increase in ruby grapes cultivation areas underoptimal conditions. The results showed that the cultivation of the ruby grape was thebest product with the highest expected profit in normal and drought conditions. Ingeneral, when the expected value of net profit is positive, managers would actoptimistically and they would promise the optimal level of water allocated to thefarmers.

    Keywords: Expected value, Agricultural Production, Stochastic dynamic programming, Hirmand River Basin
  • N Aliahmadi *, S Rigi, E Moradi Pages 25-32

    Due to the limited water resources in arid and semi-arid areas, it is necessary toutilize new high-efficiency irrigation systems to irrigate the horticultural crops. Thepresent study attempted to compare the productivity of pomegranate cultivation perhectare after utilizing two drip irrigation and furrow irrigation methods and examinedsome of the economic, environmental and managerial factors affecting the adoption ofthe drip irrigation among pomegranate farmers in Khash city during 2015 crop yearusing Logit models. Results of the model indicated that theapplication of drip irrigation had both direct and indirect effects on increasing theproductivity of pomegranate cultivation. As the direct effect, the productivity of thepomegranate cultivation increased by 32.28 percent per unit area without any changein the consumption of inputs and as the indirect effect by changing the consumption ofinputs, the productivity of the pomegranate cultivation increased by 6.47 percent perunit area. Generally, the use of drip irrigation in pomegranate orchards led to 12/28percent change in productivity (kilograms per hectare) of the pomegranate cultivation.On the other hand, the results of the logit model indicated that the farmer's age,number of family labor force working on the farm and the accessibility to waterresources have a negative impact on the adoption to the drip irrigation technology.Moreover, it was found that the farm size, level of education, farmer's job, land slope,farmers income, type of land use, instructional and promoting classes, accessibility tocredit facilities have positive and significant effects on adoption to drip irrigation.

    Keywords: Logit Model, Drip Irrigation, Pomegranate, Khash
  • S.A Hashemi Monfared *, Y Zamani, M Azhdary Moghaddam Pages 33-41

    Water is the main demand of people settled in the arid areas of large watersheds.This demand is more necessary and critical in the areas with the potential of dustsources and fine sediments entering into the watershed in a long-time period. Sistanwatershed to the south-east of Iran is a region with the specific hydrologicalconditions. The 120-day winds blow continuously in the summer propagating largeamounts of dusts directly into the cities and rural areas. In this study, a demand isconsidered for the dust stabilization in the study area. A field surrounding thewatershed that directly affects the amount of dusts is selected. The amount of waterdemand that is needed for the stabilization and saturation of the soil is measured bythe soil sampling and experimental on-site works. A demand for dust stabilization isdefined and the water resources systems are simulated. Different scenarios of watersupply and demand are considered. Results show the unmet demands of the differentscenarios (Sc) in a 15-year period in the region. The highest amount of unmet waterdemand is calculated for the scenario No.10 that is the combined effects of reducingagricultural land use and increasing the agricultural efficiency and reducingevaporation from Chahnimeh reservoir and flow of discharge in accordance with theagreement between Iran and Afghanistan enforced in 2015. Different scenarios areevaluated in terms of dust stabilization priority and also agriculture using the analytichierarchy method. This shows the high score of Scenario No.9 that is the combinedeffect of reducing agricultural land use and the increasing the agricultural efficiencyand reducing the evaporation from Chahnimeh.

    Keywords: Stabilization Dust, evaluation, Sistan Region, Water Resources Simulation, Water supply
  • S Rigi, J Shahraki * Pages 42-52

    The main objective of the current study was to estimate the demand function forwater in the industrial sector of Zahedan city based on the methodology of dualitypremise. To this end, the trans-log cost function which is considered as a morerobust framework for the analysis of production relationships was utilized toestimate the demand function of water in the industrial sector instead of usingconventional production methods. This is an applied survey in which the trans-logcost function and the cost share equations using Iterative Seemingly UnrelatedRegressions (ISUR) approach. After the estimation of the model, the productioninfrastructure technologies, the substitution and price elasticity were calculatedand homothetic, constant return to scale and Cob-Douglas hypotheses for theproduction function were tested using Eviews software. The data of the study referto 30 active production units located in the industrial clusters of the Zahedan cityduring the period from 2011 to 2012. Data were collected through questionnaires.The determination coefficient of the model was equal to 97 percent whichindicated the goodness of fit. On the other hand, the results of the modelestimation represented water as a non-elastic commodity because the priceelasticity calculated for water was less than 1 (-0.07). Moreover, the calculatedvalues for Allen-Uzawa and Morishima elasticities indicated a strong substitutionrelationship between water as a production input and machinery (6.69) andbuilding (1.30) inputs. On the other hand, there was a weak substitution effectbetween water and land inputs (0.65) and a complementary relationship existedbetween water and labor inputs (-0.43). However, it should be mentioned that thehomotheticity, constant returns to scale, and the Cob-Dagoulas form of the costfunction hypotheses were rejected based on the Maximum Likelihood Ratio(Wald-Statistic).

    Keywords: Demand for Water, Price Elasticity for Water, Translog Cost Functions, Zahedan city