فهرست مطالب

Preventive Medicine - Volume:12 Issue: 7, Jul 2021
  • Volume:12 Issue: 7, Jul 2021
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/06/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 26
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  • Siamak Pourabdian, Saeid Lotfi, Saeid Yazdanirad, Parastoo Golshiri*, Akbar Hassanzadeh Page 74
    Introduction

    A review of the existing literature shows the importance of mental health in preventing traffic accidents. Therefore, the current study aims to determine the mentioned mental disorders in relation with the history of accidents among truck drivers.

    Methods

    This cross‑sectional study was done with two groups of truck drivers (with and without a history of accidents) in Iran. 56 people with a history of accidents and 410 people without a history of accidents participated in this study. At first, using questionnaires, the demographic information of the participants including age, education level, cigarette use, and addiction to drug was collected. Then, the mental disorders of the participants were evaluated by a 71‑question, short form of the multidimensional Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The evaluated disorders are the HS or hypochondria, D or depression, HY or hysteria, Pd or social mental deviation, Pa or paranoia, Pt or mental weakness, Sc or schizophrenia, and Ma or hypomania. The tests used for data analysis include descriptive tests and Chi square.

    Results

    Man–Whitney U test showed that status of mental disorders, as revealed by the MMPI questionnaire, had a significant difference between the two groups with and without history of driving accidents (P ˂ 0.001). The results showed that mental disorders of depression, hysteria, social mental deviation, paranoia, schizophrenia, and hypomania in individuals with history of driving accidents led to meaningful differences from individuals without history of driving accidents (P ˂ 0.048).

    Conclusion

    The results of the current study showed that generally, individuals with history of driving accidents had significantly more mental disorders than people without history of driving accidents.

    Keywords: Driving accident, mental disorders, MMPI, truck drivers
  • Azadeh Aminianfar, Parvane Saneei, Maryam Nouri, Roya Shafiei, AmmarHassanzadeh Keshteli, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh*, Peyman Adibi Page 75

    Context: The validity of self-reported anthropometric indices has been examined in previous studies in different populations.

    Aims

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of selfreported height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) for the first time in middle-age staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Settings and Design: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 171 men and women were selected from staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Methods and Materials: Technician- and self-reported measurements of height, weight, and WC were collected from all participants. BMI was calculated by dividing weight in kg by height in meters squared. Overweight and obesity were defined as BMI ≥25-<29.9 and ≥30 kg/m2 , respectively. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥94 and ≥80 cm in men and women, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test, chi-square, Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), as well as Kappa measurements, were used.

    Results

    Fifty and 19 percentages of the study population were overweight and obese, respectively. Self-reported height (r = 0.83, P < 0.001, ICC =0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85–0.92), weight (r = 0.95, P < 0.001, ICC = 0.979, 95% CI: 0.971–0.98), BMI (r = 0.70, P < 0.001, ICC = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74–0.86), and WC (r = 0.60, P < 0.001, ICC = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51–0.81) were highly correlated with actually measured ones. Approximately 80% and 65% of individuals who were defined as overweight and obese, respectively, based on actually measured data were correctly diagnosed as overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported data. The Kappa coefficients for different categories of weight situation and abdominal obesity were 0.59 and 0.32, respectively. Fifty-seven percent of participants who were diagnosed with abdominal obesity based on actually measured data were correctly diagnosed with abdominal obesity based on self-reported data. Also, approximately 48% and 69% of men and women, respectively, who were diagnosed with abdominal obesity based on actually measured data were correctly diagnosed with abdominal obesity based on self-reported ones.

    Conclusions

    We found that self-reported data of anthropometric measures are reasonable in middle-age staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Nevertheless, self-reported data on WC should be cautiously relined on, in particular, among men.

    Keywords: Adult, anthropometry, Iran, self-reported, validity
  • Amandeep Kaur, Mrinmay Das*, Hariom Kumar Solanki, Sadhana Awasthi, Anuradha Hyanki Page 76
    Background

    Anxiety is graded as the sixth major contributor to nonfatal health loss worldwide and is included in the top ten causes of years lived with disability. National Mental Health Survey 2015–2016 too reported the prevalence of anxiety spectrum disorders as 3.5%, and way higher among females than males. The present study was undertaken to find the prevalence of anxiety disorders in homemakers aged 15–59 years and identify factors causing anxiety disorders in this population.

    Methods

    In the present cross‑sectional study, a total of 324 ever‑married, apparently healthy women aged less than 60 years were included using systematic random sampling from the four selected urban areas after applying proportional sampling. A generalized anxiety disorder‑7 (Hindi version) questionnaire was used for screening the anxiety disorders. Additional information was collected using a pretested questionnaire for assessing determinants. The data so collected were coded and compiled in MS Excel and analyzed using IBMSPSSStatistics (version 17.0).

    Results

    Forty‑four (13.6%) out of 324 women were screened positive for anxiety disorder. Moderate anxiety was present in 10.2% and severe anxiety in 3.4% of study subjects. Anxiety symptoms were significantly higher among women with perceived economic instability 4.3 (95% CI 1.5–12.2) and non‑cordial relation with family members (11.5 [95% CI 2.4–55.5] with in‑laws and 20.2 [95% CI 4.3–94.2] with husband) Health of the children was also seen to be major reason of anxiety (31.1 [95% CI 3.8–256.6]).

    Conclusion

    Anxiety disorder is a significant mental health problem affecting over 13% homemaker women in the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, India.

    Keywords: Determinants, ever‑married, female, prevalence, primary health care, risk factors
  • Soraiya Ebrahimpour Koujan, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh*, Peyman Adibi Page 77
    Background

    Most information on the association of dietary fat intake and gastro‑esophageal reflux disorder (GERD) came from developed countries, where lifestyle and other dietary components might be different from those in developing countries. This cross‑sectional study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the association between dietary fat intake and odds of having GERD in a large group of Iranian population. Study Design: This cross‑sectional study was done among 3362 adult population in Isfahan, Iran. Dietary intakes were collected by the use of a validated semi‑quantitative food frequency questionnaire.

    Methods

    Assessment of GERD was done using a validated self‑administered questionnaire examining the frequency of heartburn in the last 3 months. Individuals with the presence of heartburn symptoms sometimes, often or always during the last 3 months were defined as having GERD.

    Results

    Participants in the top category of dietary fat intake had higher daily intakes of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients. Dietary intakes of all food groups were also significantly higher among those in the top quintile as compared with those in the bottom category of dietary fat intake (P < 0.001 for all). There were no significant associations between dietary fat intake and incidence of GERD in general population. Crude and multivariable‑adjusted models revealed no significant associations between dietary fat intake and having GERD in either gender.

    Conclusions

    We found no significant association between dietary fat intake and odds of having GERD in this population. Further studies, in particular of prospective designs, are warranted to clarify this association.

    Keywords: Cross‑sectional studies, dietary fats, gastroesophageal reflux
  • Ahmad R.Aghabozorgi, Samane Safari, Reza Khadivi* Page 78
    Context

    The first stage of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) was founded Iran to achieve better access to needed health services.

    Aims

    The aim of present study was to illustrate the prevalence rate of malnutrition’s subtypes in under 5‑year old children after UHC in comparison with before that. Settings and Design: In a cross‑sectional study in 2018, anthropometric indices of 970 under 5 years old children in rural and small towns of Isfahan province were gathered from their health files by cluster randomized sampling method.

    Methods

    Children whose weight for age, height for age, and weight for height were lower than ‑2SD based on Z score, were marked as underweight, stunting, and wasting, respectively. Children, whose weight for age was upper than +2SD, were marked as overweight. Statistical Analysis Used: The T‑test, Chi‑square, and logistic regression tests were used for determination of association between malnutrition’s subtypes and demographic variables.

    Results

    A total of 78 (8.04%) of under 5 years old children were wasting, 74 (7.63%) were underweight, and 82 (8.45%) were stunting. Also, 12 (1.23%) of the children from the same group were overweight.

    Conclusions

    The prevalence rate of underweight and stunting in under 5 years old children were less than before UHC implementation period. The prevalence rate of overweight children below 5 in Isfahan province’s villages and small towns was low.

    Keywords: Developing countries. Iran, failure to thrive, family physician, stunting, underweight, wasting
  • Negin Badrooj, Seyed AliKeshavarz, Mir SaeedYekaninejad, Khadijeh Mirzaei* Page 79
    Background

    Diet quality has been suggested as an important factor in disorders such as obesity and mental health as it controls inflammatory biomarkers. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) with bioelectrical impedance parameters and characteristics of health in overweight\obese women.

    Methods

    In this cross‑sectional study, we calculated DII for 301 participants from their food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Body composition was assessed through a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA). Depression, anxiety and stress scale‑21 (DASS‑21) was used to assess the level of characteristics of health.

    Results

    The mean percentage ± SD of fat‑free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) was 46.81 ± 5.65 and 34.05 ± 8.69, respectively. In this study, 49% (95% CI: 40.8–57.2) of participants had positive DII. Linear regression analysis revealed that FFM (P = 0.004) and total body water (TBW) (P = 0.004) were significantly associated with DII.

    Conclusions

    A significant relationship was found between DII with FFM and TBW in overweight\obese women, supporting the hypothesis that an anti‑inflammatory diet is associated with elevated FFM and TBW.

    Keywords: Body composition, inflammation, mental health, obesity
  • Amel Mohamed Saleh, Ahmed OmerAlmobarak, Safaa Badi, Samar B. Siddiq, Hanan Tahir, Mohamed Suliman, Mohamed H.Ahmed* Page 80
    Background

    Prediabetes is an important stage before diabetes that can be treated with intensive lifestyle changes. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice of primary care physician in Sudan about prediabetes.

    Methods

    A cross‑sectional questionnaire‑based study was conducted among primary care physicians working at two family and primary health care centers in Khartoum. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and expressed as percentages.

    Results

    Out of 200 primary care physicians, 189 completed the questionnaire. 60.8% of the participants had satisfactory knowledge about prediabetes and positive attitude towards prediabetes and their practice was relatively good. Knowledge score was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.000), duration of experience (P value = 0.000), the number of working hours per day (P value = 0.001), and the number patients seen per day (P value = 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that attending courses relevant to prediabetes revealed statistically significant result in knowledge, and attending such courses were likely to be associated with gaining sufficient knowledge than those who didn’t by 2 times (P value 0.033, OR 2, CI. 1.063‑4.079).

    Conclusions

    Primary care physicians in Sudan have satisfactory knowledge, attitude, and practice about prediabetes. As they are in the front line in dealing with community, primary care physicians’ efforts can help in slowing down the epidemic of diabetes in Sudan.

    Keywords: Attitude, knowledge, practice, prediabetes, Sudan
  • Hossein Moravej, Shahrokh Rakhshandehroo, Homa Ilkhanipoor, Anis Amirhakimi, Khashayar Rostami, Negar Yazdani*, Mozhgan Moghtaderi, Shokroallah Mazlumi‑abrazgah Page 83
    Background

    Although selenium is one of the nutrients that has an important role in the metabolism of thyroid hormones, it has been investigated in rare studies. This study aimed to evaluate role of selenium deficiency in children and adolescents with acquired hypothyroidism.

    Methods

    This case and control study was conducted on 60 acquired hypothyroidism and 60 healthy children who had been referred to the pediatrics endocrine clinic in Shiraz, Iran, from November 2018 to April 2019. Some information such as age, gender, weight, height, duration of disease, and level of plasma selenium were recorded. Plasma selenium level was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS software 21.0.

    Results

    The mean of selenium level in the case and control groups were 93.77 ± 24.90 µg/dl and 85.96 ± 25.20 µg/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean levels of selenium. Independent t‑test showed no significant difference in the mean levels of selenium in male and female samples in the case group, but this difference was significant in the control group.

    Conclusion

    Selenium deficiency may not have significant role as a cause of acquired hypothyroidism in pediatric and adolescent age group, in south of Iran. Thus, it does not seem necessary to routinely check the level of selenium for patients with thyroid dysfunction.

    Keywords: Deficiency, hashimoto disease, hypothyroidism, selenium, selenoproteins
  • Yaser Sarikhani, Peivand Bastani*, Mohsen Bayati Page 84
    Background

    The shortage and unbalanced distribution of physicians has adverse effects on the provision of equitable services at all levels of health care and especially at the prevention and primary care levels. The choice of specialty can seriously change the structure and composition of the physician workforce. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between background characteristics of Iranian general practitioners’ (GPs) and their preferred specialty fields.

    Methods

    In this mixed‑method study, first, 12 medical doctors participated in a nominal group technique to determine the most important background characteristics that affect GPs’ preferences for specialty selection. In the second phase, we conducted a survey among 680 GPs in six provinces from different geographic regions. We gathered data using a researcher‑made checklist and analyzed them using an adjusted multivariate regression.

    Results

    The adjusted analysis showed that being female, being married, being in an older age group, having children, graduation from universities located in the provincial centers, and decision for living and practicing in the less‑populated areas were significantly associated with the Iranian GPs’ preferences for non‑surgical specialties.

    Conclusions

    This study provided evidence that could inform national health workforce policy‑makers to avoid unbalanced distribution of physicians and accordingly to ensure the provision of equitable services at all levels of healthcare and especially at the primary care level. Other effective factors on the selection of specialty should be evaluated at the national level using specific surveys and econometrics studies such as discrete selection experiment to move toward preventive medicine.

    Keywords: Career, choice, factors, medical, preventive medicine, socioeconomic, specialty
  • Pathum Sookaromdee*, Viroj Wiwanitkit Page 86
  • Mohammad Ahsan*, Alsayed A. Shanab, Shibili Nuhmani Page 88
    Background

    Plantar Pressure distribution refers to the distribution of force over the sole of the foot. Recently many studies indicate plantar pressure distribution assisted in determining and managing the impairment related to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted with forty participants (20 diabetes type 2 patients +20 healthy) from Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University. All the measurements were taken in the morning session. To measure height and weight, participants took off their shoes and stood on the stadiometer. The body mass index determined with the help of a bioelectric impedance device to get the health level of the participants—Proclaimed diabetes type 2 patients selected for the data collection. Tekscan's Mobile Mat was used to determine the plantar pressure of healthy and diabetes participants.

    Results

    The finding revealed that diabetes participants have more pressure in the mid-foot section, whereas healthy participants showed more pressure on the heel section. The metatarsal section showed similar types of pressure distribution in both participants. The result also revealed that diabetes participants have more peak pressures, time integral, and gradient than healthy participants. Significant differences between diabetes and healthy participants were existing.

    Conclusions

    The findings highlight the importance of measuring plantar pressure distribution since these are known to incorporate in the main parts of the foot and thus provide a shred of constructive evidence for the total load exposer of a single leg static task.

    Keywords: Diabetes, healthy subject, peak pressure, plantar pressure, pressure time integralvolunteers
  • Faisal Alsharani, Mubashir Zafar*, Eltigani Osman Omar, Muzaheed Page 89
    Background

    Tuberculosis remains to be a major public health problem. Lifestyle factors that have indirectly influence to the burden of tuberculosis. The aim of this study is to determine the lifestyle risk factors associated with tuberculosis patients in Asir region of KSA.

    Methods

    We conducted a case‑control study at the military hospital of Asir region of KSA. A total of 135 sample which is divided into 67 cases and 67 controls. Cases were included from hospital database between 2017 and 2018. Control were selected from patient attending the same hospital with respiratory disease other than tuberculosis. Data collection done through interview using a structured questionnaire. Lifestyle factors and socio‑demographic factors associated with tuberculosis were analyzed using logistic regression.

    Results

    Mean age of study participants (cases and control) are 38.04 ± 9.66 and 40.16 ± 7.72 respectively. Most important factors associated with tuberculosis patients are overweight and obese [OR = 4.40, 95% CI 1.27‑15.25 and 2.38 (1.61‑9.22)], Smoker [OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.52‑3.43], abnormal sleep at night (<8 hours) [OR = 5.03, 95% CI 1.57‑16.10], blue color job worker [OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.02‑7.28], physical exercise <3 days/week [OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.21‑3.47].

    Conclusions

    In Saudi Arabia, a person’s lifestyle and socioeconomic condition are associated with tuberculosis. Interventions focused on improving the quality of life through a reduction of risky lifestyle which prevent the spread of Tuberculosis in Saudi society and improve the efficiency of Saudi national tuberculosis control programme.

    Keywords: Lifestyle, prevention, risk factors, Saudi Arabia, tuberculosis
  • Gnanamani Gnanasabai, Gitismita Naik, Chithra Boovaragasamy, M Mohan Kumar* Page 90
    Background

    COVID‑19 is an unprecedented pandemic that has taken the modern world under seize. In spite of lack of solid evidence, certain federal governments had recommended the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), chloroquine, and azithromycin as prophylactic medications either for contacts or for healthcare providers in particular. The objective of this study is to assess the issues related to intake of prophylactic medications in view of COVID‑19 and the proportion and pattern of side effects.

    Methods

    A descriptive cross‑sectional study was conducted using mixed methods approach among healthcare workers in Puducherry, India.

    Results

    HCQ was the prophylactic drug taken by all the participants (n = 26). Of the 26, 15.4% had a baseline ECG, 26.9% took HCQ based on the recommended Day 1 dose of 800 mg and 61.5% of the participants had the drug provided by the hospital where they work. Reasons for taking prophylaxis were sense of vulnerability (due to co‑morbidities, lack of PPE kits) and peer practice. However, the participants did not recommend prophylactic medication to others due to lack of evidence, death claims related to prophylactic drugs in media, hospitals not taking responsibility of baseline monitoring and need for long follow‑up.

    Conclusions

    The data on assessment of HCQ prophylaxis indicates only minor side‑effects, though limited by sample size. Evidence‑based recommendations on prophylactic drugs for COVID‑19, effective risk communication, peer education and support, accountability, ease of baseline, and follow‑up investigations were the need of the hour to improve intake and adherence to prophylactic regime for COVID‑19.

    Keywords: Adverse effects, COVID‑19, healthcare workers, hydroxychloroquine
  • Mubashir Zafar*, Syed Tafazzul H.Zaidi, Syed Shajee Husain, Noreen M. Bukhari Page 91
    Background

    In Saudi Arabia, fuel dispensing facilities commonly present around the residential places, educational institutions, and various health care facilities. Fuel pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) and its alkyl derivatives are harmful to human health because of their toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic properties. The aim of this study was to determine the BTX concentration levels of common pollutants in and around fuel stations and their harmful health effects in the urban cites of KSA.

    Methods

    Forty fuel dispensing facilities were randomly selected on the basis of three different areas: residential, traffic intersection, and petrol pump locations (refueling stations). Portable ambient analyzer was used for measuring BTX concentration. t‑test was applied to determine the difference between these different areas.

    Results

    All mean concentration values of pollutants such as BTX around residential, traffic intersection, and fuel stations are exceeding the limits of air quality standards values (P < 0.01). The mean levels of benzene are 10.3 and 11.07 ppm in Dammam and Khobar, respectively, and they exceed the reference level of 0.5 ppm. Hazard quotient was more than >1, which shows that carcinogenic probability has increased those who were living and working near fuel stations.

    Conclusions

    The results found that the high concentration of pollutants (BTX) is in the environment around fuel stations. The environmental contamination associated with BTX in petrol fuel stations impulses the necessity of preventive programs to reduce the further air quality deterioration and reduce the harmful health effects.

    Keywords: Air, benzene, fuel, pollution, toluene, xylenes
  • Najmeh Golestanbagh, M. Miraghajani, Reza Amani*, Michael E.Symonds, Sorour Neamatpour, Mohammad Hosein Haghighizadeh Page 92
    Background

    Personality plays an important role in food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the association of personality traits with dietary habits and food preferences.

    Methods

    This cross‑sectional study was carried out on 224 healthy female students aged 18–30 years with a normal BMI. Dietary habits, food preferences, and personality were assessed using validated questionnaire.

    Results

    Our results showed that neuroticism and openness were associated with low scores while conscientiousness was related to high scores of dietary habits (r = ‑0.33 P < 0.001, r = ‑0.13, P < 0.05 and r = 0.26, P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, neuroticism was correlated with preference to salty, sour and fatty foods and negatively associated with dairy products (P < 0.05). Extraversion showed a positive correlation with preference to fast foods, ice cream, chocolate, cocoa, and negative correlation with meat. Openness was positively correlated with preference for meat and biscuit and negatively correlated with fruits (P < 0.05). Agreeableness was related to having soft drinks and sweetened fruit juices and conscientiousness had a positive association with preference to dairy products, vegetables, nuts, food with salty tastes, and a negative association with biscuits (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    Overall, assessing personality traits could be useful to identify young women who may be at risk of unhealthy dietary habits.

    Keywords: Body mass index, feeding behavior, food preferences, personality, tast
  • Justin Chin*, Ana Christina Reyes, Connie Chen, Alexandra Over, Elise Hsu, Sushama Rich, Christine Lomiguen Page 93
    Background

    Undergraduate medical schools serve a critical role in providing screenings to medically underserved populations through the use of health fairs. Non‑profit community organizations (NPCO) often participate by providing local credibility, administrative resources, and technical knowledge. Here we present a three‑year narrative of hepatitis B and C screening efforts to highlight the challenges and benefits of undergraduate medical school and NPCO partnerships.

    Methods

    Hepatitis screenings were conducted at biannual health fairs in Harlem, New York from 2017 to 2019. Meeting minutes from post‑event debriefings were analyzed to identify any overarching themes with NPCOs.

    Results

    NPCOs share a common goal in working with the community to advance their access to medical care and treatment. Communication and prompt follow‑up are critical to maintaining expectations between NPCOs and health fair organizers.

    Conclusions

    NPCOs can play an important role in encouraging, outreaching, and even managing hepatitis screening initiatives in conjunction with medical school health fairs.

    Keywords: : Chronic, health fairs, hepacivirus, hepatitis c, mass screening, medical students
  • Mina Salehi, Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi, Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahani, Awat Feizi, Amir Hadi, Gholamreza Askari* Page 94
    Background

    Exercise‑induced oxidative stress, muscle damage, and inflammation represent major contributors to why athletes use ergogenic aids. Turmeric is used as a spice because of its polyphenol ingredient named curcumin. We assessed the effects of curcumin supplementation on inflammatory, oxidative stress markers, muscle damage, and anthropometric indices in women with moderate physical activity.

    Methods

    This double‑blind, placebo‑controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 women with moderate physical activity levels (defined as walking or swimming for at least 1 h per day) for 8 weeks. Mean ± SD of age (years) all participants was 21 ± 2. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups: curcumin (500 mg/day) and placebo (500 mg/day cornstarch). Serum C‑reactive protein (CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, body composition, and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) were evaluated before and after an intervention.

    Results

    Sixty‑five subjects completed the 8‑week intervention. Within analysis indicated a significant decrease in CRP, LDH, MDA levels, and a significant increase in VO2 max in the curcumin group after an intervention (P < 0.05). There were significant decreases in CRP (P = 0.002), LDH (P = 0.041), and MDA (P = 0.005), no significant increase in TAC, and significant increase in VO2 max (P = 0.0001) levels in the curcumin group compared with placebo group. There were no significant changes in weight, body mass index, body fat, and lean body mass between two groups.

    Conclusions

    Our findings indicated that 8‑week curcumin administration could significantly improve CRP, LDH, MDA, and VO2 max. Curcumin supplementation did not elicit significant changes in anthropometric indices in this study

    Keywords: Body composition, curcumin, inflammation, muscle damage, oxidative stress
  • Mosad Zineldin* Page 95
    Background

    This study aimed to determine the major neurological and psychological elements affecting depression, anxiety (DEPXITY), and the overall quality of life.

    Methods

    This analytical descriptive study was carried out on 141 respondents with formal mood disorder diagnosis, with mental illness identity, with current depression and anxiety symptoms of at least moderate severity and people with mild symptoms. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation test, reliability test, and separate regression models. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05.

    Results

    The findings showed that external control by others on one’s own life (EC) is the most significant factor (0.45) related to depression and the social conflict (SC) was found to be the most influential factor (0.28) for the anxiety. Internal control over own personal life (IC) is the most significant factor to cure or regulate some of the negative symptoms of the anxiety (−0.66). Good performance in personal life (PP) is a common positive factor to regulate both depression (DEP) and anxiety (XITY). This study shows that DEPXITY is associated with negative life quality.

    Conclusions

    The lack of internal control and the control by others on one’s own personal life are associated with impaired cognitive, affective, and behavioral functioning. The results of this study can also be a good indicator and confirmation that the medial prefrontal cortex is able with the support of IC and PP to coordinate self‑appraisal processes by regulating activity in the posterior cingulate cortex area of the brain.

    Keywords: Anxiety, depression, medial prefrontal cords, neurological factors, psychological factors, social support
  • Zahra Mohammadi, Masoume Vahabi, Seyed Mohammad Sadat, Rezvan Zendehdel* Page 96
    Background

    There is a wide range of challenges through the use of nano‑material in buildings. By developing construction industries the use of flame retardant nano‑materials is a hurdle for human health. However occupational exposure measurement is not applicable for nano‑particles monitoring. Risk assessment is an alternative method for industrial hygiene strategies. In this study, we use the control banding approach for risk assessment of 3 nano‑fire retardant (NFR) in the building industry.

    Methods

    We used control banding as a risk assessment approach for decision making about nano‑materials in the building industry. The risk of nano‑fire retardants such as monokote accelerator, monokote Z‑106 G and monokote Z‑106 HY in the construction industry was studied. The level of risk was evaluated by the matrix of hazard severity and probability score. Hazard severity was scored by toxicological information. The probability score was estimated by the state work operation.

    Results

    A score of hazard severity in monokot Z‑106 HY was higher than other nano‑materials. The probability score of spraying tasks was lower than mixing and transportation tasks. The results show the application of all nano‑materials had the higher risk level in transportation and mixing tasks. The risk level of monokote accelerator and monokote Z‑106 G in spraying task is lower than monokot Z‑106 HY.

    Conclusions

    There is a high risk level for studied nano‑materials in the coating tasks of the construction industry. In conclusion, powerful controlling strategies such as the substitution of nano‑materials was suggested to decrease the risk of nano‑fire retardants.

    Keywords: Construction industry, control banding, flame retardant, nano‑material
  • Amirebrahim Miroliaei, Ramin Hamidi Farahani, Morteza Taheri, Ebrahim Hazrati* Page 97
    Background

    Nosocomial sinusitis is a common and less attended complication in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). It can cause several problems, such as prolongation of hospitalization, comorbidity, and mortality in patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of azelastine (second‑generation antihistamine) and sodium chloride spray on sinusitis prevention in ICU admitted patients.

    Methods

    In this randomized, open‑label, and parallel clinical trial a total of 126 patients were enrolled (63 patients per arm). Finally, 121 patients (61 patients in the control group and 60 patients in the treatment group) completed the study, and 120 patients entered the final analysis. In the treatment group, during 24 h after the insertion of nasogastric tube azelastine and sodium chloride sprays were administered (one puff from each spray every 12 h) while no intervention was conducted in the control group. Primary and secondary end‑points were evaluated within 10 days of the study period.

    Results

    The incidence of sinusitis and pneumonia (18.3% and 16.6% in the control group compared to 8.3% and 3.3% in the treatment group, respectively) in the treatment group showed a decreasing trend; however, only the difference of pneumonia was statistically significant between groups (P = 0.03). In addition to the clinical pulmonary infection score, nasal and tracheal secretions were significantly improved in the treatment group (P = 0.03, P < 0.001, and P = 0.01, respectively).

    Conclusions

    The findings of the present study offer an inexpensive, low‑risk, and efficacious intervention for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in ICU patients.

    Keywords: Intensive care unit, histamine H1 antagonists, sinusitis, sodium chloride
  • ObadahMohammed Hendi*, Lujain Hussain Alturkistani, Ameerah Saleh Bajaber, Mustafa Abdulmonem Alhamoud, Mohammad EidMahmoud Mahfouz Page 98
    Background

    The purpose of this research is to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and their association with psychological stress among medical students at Taif University, Saudi Arabia.

    Methods

    A total of 640 medical students were selected by multistage cluster sampling. The data were collected by trained students using a standardized Nordic questionnaire and 10‑k questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using the statistical package (SPSS.21). Standardized Nordic questionnaire and 10‑k questionnaire besides questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, study year, weight, height, smoking, marital status, chronic disease, and educational degree) were used.

    Results

    Among 640 medical students, 45.9% males and 54.1% females reported musculoskeletal pain, it was more prevalent among fourth ‑ and sixth year students, in the last 7 days, neck pain was the highest site of complaint (33.4%) followed by low back pain (15.1%) and shoulder pain (12.8%). Prevention of work was highest due to neck pain (27.7%) and low back (25.1%) followed by knees (19.1%), the stress rate was highest in the second year (67.8%) and third year (67.3%) students followed by the sixth year (65.8%) students.

    Conclusions

    Musculoskeletal disorders are a common health problem reported by more than half of medical students, with a significant association with females and preclinical students. Stress is a common psychological problem that affects two‑thirds of medical students. However, we found a nonsignificant association between the onset of musculoskeletal disorders and the level of stress among medical students.

    Keywords: Musculoskeletal disorders, Saudi Arabia, stress, students, universities
  • Mardiana DwiPuspitasari*, Mugia BayuRahardja Page 99
    Background

    The under‑5 mortality rate in Indonesia is 32 per 1,000 live births, still higher than the SDG target. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), as one of the leading causes of death, must be prevented. Arguments emerge concerning the association of home crowding, health behavior, and the incidence of ARI.

    Methods

    A cross‑section analysis with the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) 2017 dataset is performed. Samples are restricted to 16,555 children aged 0–59 months who lived with their mother (eligible women interviewed) during the survey. For each of the variables observed during this study, missing data must be omitted as exclusion criteria. A 100 per cent answer rate was achieved. Logistic regression was used to determine ARI‑associated factors, by examining the effect of each explanatory factor (independent variables) on the odds ratio of ARI (one dependent binary variable).

    Results

    The prevalence of ARI was more common among children living in the poorest households (AOR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.20 – 2.28) and those exposed to indoor tobacco smoke pollution (AOR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.04–1.56). On the other hand, those aged 0–5 months (AOR 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43–0.82), living at home with improved sanitation (AOR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61–0.89), and exclusively breastfed (AOR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73–0.99) were less likely to have ARI.

    Conclusions

    Home crowding is not associated with ARI. Efforts should be focused on preserving family health behavior. The family functioned as a health‑support system for their under‑5 children by establishing an indoor tobacco smoking‑free zone, practicing exclusive breastfeeding, and enhancing hygiene facilities.

    Keywords: Breastfeeding, crowding, family health, tobacco smoke pollution