فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 1, Aug 2021
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/08/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Negar Moradi-Maram, Dara Dastan, Amir Nili-Ahmadabadi* Pages 1-7
    Background

    Allium hirtifolium and Satureja khuzestanica are the Iranian endemic plants and proper candidates for antioxidant studies. This study investigated the antioxidant, anti-hemolytic properties, and phytochemical composition in different extracts of A. hirtifolium and S. khuzestanica.

    Methods

    Hydroalcoholic, methanolic, and n-hexane extracts of A. hirtifolium and S. khuzestanica plants were prepared using soaking and ultrasonic methods. Different plant extracts were evaluated for the presence of secondary metabolites using standard methods based on colorimetric analysis. The antioxidant properties of the compounds were measured by the ferric reducing ability of power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Finally, the anti-hemolytic effects of the extracts were investigated using the 2,2’-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) methods.

    Results

    Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of flavonoids, phenolic acids, glycosides, steroids, and terpenoids in S. khuzestanica, as well as amino acid compounds, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, and phenols in A. hirtifolium. FRAP assay showed that the methanolic extract of S. khuzestanica and the n-hexane extract of A. hirtifolium have the highest total antioxidant activity. The results of the DPPH assay also demonstrated that the minimum IC50 was related to the hydroalcoholic extract of S. khuzestanica (18.58 µg/mL) and the n-hexane extract of A. hirtifolium (87.95 µg/mL). In general, the extracts of both plants could reduce the percentage of AAPH-induced hemolysis while being significant only in some concentrations (P<0.001).

    Conclusion

    Overall, A. hirtifolium and S. khuzestanica can be used as a herbal supplement in the human diet due to their anti-hemolytic effects.

    Keywords: Satureja khuzestanica, Allium hirtifolium, Antioxidant, Anti-hemolytic
  • Mahdi Heidari, Rasool Haddadi*, Amir Nili, Amir Larki Pages 8-14
    Background

    Depression has a high prevalence and high mortality and a tremendous negative impact on people’s quality of life. This study was considered to examine the effect of levodopa and spironolactone (SPIR) in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced depression-like behavior.

    Methods

    Parkinson was induced by the unilateral intra-nigral injection of 6-OHDA (8 µg/2 µL/rat) in the central region of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In the levodopa treatment group, 21 days after the injection of 6-OHDA, the rats were treated with (i.p.) injections of levodopa (15 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. In the other group, only SPIR (25 mg/kg) was added to levodopa (15 mg/kg) as a concurrent therapy according to the treatment protocol. Anxiety and depression-like behavior were assessed by behavioral tests such as passive avoidance task (PAT), open field test (OFT), tail suspension test (TST), and forced swimming test (FST).

    Results

    Intra-nigral injection of 6-OHDA in the SNc increased anxiety and depression-like behavior. Our results showed that the use of levodopa (15 mg/kg) treatment significantly attenuated depression-like behavior induced by 6-OHDA in FST (P<0.001) and TST (P<0.001) in rats. Moreover, levodopa (15 mg/kg) + SPIR (25 mg/kg) significantly reduced the symptoms of depression-like behavior induced by 6-OHDA in OFT (P<0.05), FST (P<0.001), and TST (P<0.001) tests in rats.

    Conclusion

    Based on the findings, the intra-nigral injection of 6-OHDA into rats could cause anxiety and depression-like behavior in the fourth week onwards. Treatment with levodopa was able to attenuate stress and depressive symptoms. Additionally, our results revealed that SPIR could improve the effect of levodopa on depression-like behavior. Base on the results of this study, it is suggested that levodopa and SPIR could have some improving effects on 6-OHDA-induced depression-like behavior in parkinsonian rats.

    Keywords: Depression, Parkinson’s disease, 6-OHDA
  • Amir Larki-Harchegani, Abbas Ehsanikia, Sara Ataei, Fakhriosadat Hosseini, Rasool Haddadi* Pages 15-19
    Background

    Iranian traditional medicine uses hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) as an effective medicinal plant to reduce pain and inflammation in different diseases. Although the anti-inflammatory effect of this plant is proved, there is no study into its analgesic effects. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from hyssop flowers and upper branches.

    Methods

    This experimental study was conducted on 66 male rats that were divided into several groups including a saline control group, the groups of different doses of hyssop extract, morphine positive control group, the groups of hyssop extract plus morphine, and the most effective dose of the hyssop extract plus naloxone. All injections were administered intraperitoneally, and the pain was measured through the tail flick test.

    Results

    Based on the results, 600 mg/kg was the most effective analgesic hyssop extract dose, and the most analgesic effect was observed at 45 minutes after administration. In addition, the administration of the most effective extract dose (600 mg/kg) plus morphine significantly improved the analgesic effects of morphine (P<0.001). Finally, the administration of naloxone plus the most effective extract dose (600 mg/kg) significantly reduced the analgesic effect of the extract (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    Overall, the hydroalcoholic extract of hyssop has analgesic effects that are probably applied through opioid receptors.

    Keywords: Hyssop, Pain, Tail flick test, Rat
  • Mohammad Rafiee, Mohammad Abbasi, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Safoora Nikzad, Alireza Zamani** Pages 20-24
    Background

    Exposure to an increasing amount of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) causes some adverse effects. Considering a direct association between the sizes and numbers of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) and cell proliferation, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 50-Hz MFs on the AgNORs of bone marrow (BM) cells.

    Methods

    Eighty male rats were randomly divided into four exposed groups and one control group. The exposed groups received 50-Hz MFs with magnetic flux densities of 1, 100, 500, and 2000 µT two hours a day for two months. BM cells were aspirated from sacrificed rats’ femoral bones, smeared on glass slides, and then stained with silver nitrate for AgNORs. The area (AA), length (AL), and number (AN) of AgNORs were calculated by a microscope equipped with a camera and Scion Image software in 100 BM cells of each rat. The mean of AA, AL, and AN was computed for each group.

    Results

    AA, AL, and AN significantly reduced in the 1 µT group compared with 2000 µT and control groups. Eventually, there was a nonlinear relationship between the effect of 50-Hz MFs and magnetic flux densities.

    Conclusion

    Overall, 50-Hz MFs with a magnetic flux density of 1 µT reduced AgNORs in BM cells. However, 100, 500, and 2000 µT did not affect AgNORs. Therefore, 50-Hz MFs with low density may suppress BM cell proliferation.

    Keywords: Bone marrow, Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions, Magnetic fields
  • Arefeh Hosseini, Soham Ansari* Pages 25-29
    Background

    The most prevalent fungal infection in the mouth is Candidiasis, which causes various problems for patients. Chemical treatments such as nystatin are the most common methods that are locally used for the mouth that tastes bitter. The repeated use of this method 4 times a day and its preparation during the total consumption lead to patients’ dissatisfaction. Herbal treatments due to less medicinal side effects while having equal effects can be a suitable alternative to chemical treatments. Accordingly, this research focused on evaluating the effect of the herbal extract of the antifungal palm on the types of Candida and then comparing it with Nystatin.

    Methods

    To this end, the effect of the herbal extract of antifungal palm on 4 types of Candida (i.e., albicans, glabrata, tropicalis, and parapsilosis) was investigated, and then the results were compared with that of nystatin, which is diagnosed by the broth microdilution method. The result of the study is descriptive, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the blue palm herbal extract was studied in comparison with nystatin for 20 isolated Candida.

    Results

    Based on the result, MIC in the palm herbal extract was (mL/mg) 0.25-0.5 while the inhibitory effect of nystatin growth in this type was 0.125-0.5 (mg/L), and the MIC of the remaining types of Candida, including tropicalis, glabrata, and parapsilosis was 1-0.5 (mg/mL), 0.5-2, and 0.5-1. Finally, the inhibitory effect of growth (MIC) in nystatin drugs in the mentioned types was 0.5-0.25 (mg/L), 0.5-1, and 0.5-0.25.

    Conclusion

    Overall, the activity of the antifungal palm herbal extract is suitable against the examined types of Candida, and this extract may be used as a drug or mouthwash for candidiasis patients.

    Keywords: Mouth fungal infection, Candidiasis, Palm herbal, Candida albicans, Oral cavity
  • Ali Bahrami, Mohammad Taheri, Parisa Habibi, Meysam Soleimani, Fatemeh Nouri* Pages 30-39
    Background

    Pemphigus consists of a group of rare autoimmune blistering diseases involving the skin and mucous membranes. Pemphigus pathophysiology is mediated by autoantibodies against two desmosomal cadherins, namely, desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and (Dsg) 3 that are present in the skin and mucosal membranes. The involvement of coding and non-coding RNAs in the pathophysiology of pemphigus has been studied in the literature. MicroRNAs are small RNAs that could also be used as diagnostic biomarkers for some autoimmune diseases. The aim of this research was to explore the potential of this specification of some RNAs to be used as biomarkers for diagnosing pemphigus or its severity. This review discussed RNA expressions in patients with pemphigus.

    Methods

    A comprehensive search was performed on published studies from 1990 to May 2020 using different search engines including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science.

    Results

    In general, 335 articles were obtained according to search keywords. Then, 41 relevant studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. MiR-338-3p, miR-424-5p, and miR-584-5p were among the miRNAs that were reported to be increased in pemphigus. The C3 mRNA, mRNA of CD36, mRNA of CD163, mRNA of urokinase plasminogen activator (PA), IL23R mRNA, RORγt mRNA, and human leukocyte antigen G1 (HLA-G1) mRNA were coding RNAs that increased in pemphigus in addition to the activity of the mRNA of tissue-type PA while HLA-G2 mRNA decreased in pemphigus.

    Conclusion

    Overall, this study investigated the role of Mir-338-3p, miR-424-5p, MiR-127, miR-584-5p, and some mRNAs in pemphigus, and it was revealed that some RNAs may be impressive on pemphigus. More studies and clinical assessments need more information about the role of RNAs on pemphigus to obtain a better view of their mechanisms and use them as biomarkers for earlier diagnosis or probable treatment.

    Keywords: Pemphigus, RNA, miRNA, Cytokine, Gene expression
  • Gholamabbas Chehadoli* Pages 40-41
  • Hajar Nili Ahmadabadi, Sahin Uyaver* Pages 42-43