فهرست مطالب

Biological and Biomedical Journal - Volume:5 Issue: 4, Autumn 2019
  • Volume:5 Issue: 4, Autumn 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/04/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 4
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  • Hafiz Ahmed Hebiel, Abdelnassir Mohammed Ahamed* Page 1

    Anemia is a common hematological disorder and global public health problem which affects both developing and developed countries with major consequences for human health and their social and economic development. This study aimed to evaluate the morphological types of anemia ant its causes among children attending Elnihoud Teaching Hospital, Elnihoud locality, West Kordufan State, Sudan. This is a cross sectional study conducted from February 2018 to February 2019. A total of 353 anemic children were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of anemia was based on hemoglobin levels <10 g/dl in both males and females. Hb was significantly lower among anemic children with ages from 5 to 14 years old compared to those with under 5 years old (p-value = 0.006). MCV and MCH were significantly lower among under 5 years old anemic children than anemic children with ages between 5 to 14 years old (p-value = < 0.0001). Microcytic hypochromic anemia was the most common type of anemia among children with highly significant elevation among under 5 years old anemic children versus those with ages from 5 to 14 years old (p-value = < 0.0001), and the common causes of anemia were iron deficiency, malaria and immune defect or unknown. The study demonstrates that microcytic hypochromic anemia was the most common type of anemia among children particularly among those under 5 years old and the commonest causes of anemia were unknown, iron deficiency, malaria and immune defect.

    Keywords: Anemia, hemoglobin, microcytic, hypochromic, hypersplenism
  • İsmet Rezani Toptanci*, Gizem Karagoz Page 2

    Pre-Eruptive Intracronal Radiolucency (PEIR) is seen as a radiolucent anomaly at coronal dentin of unerupted teeth. PEIR is often confused with dental caries because of their similarities. Pre-eruptive intracoronal resorptions are typically observed as radiolucency in dentin tissue and the lesions are close to the enamel dentin junction. Lesions are often accidentally noticed on the radiographs of the unerupted tooth. The aetiology of REIR is not clear and mechanism of its progression is not fully understood. But some of the histological studies described its resorptive nature. The treatment of pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption varies according to the progression of the lesion. The aim of this case report is to present the diagnosis of pre-eruptive radiolucency in three unerupted teeth in the same patient. Case report: 7 years old girl admitted to our clinic for dental caries. After taken panoramic radiography PEIR was detected at ♯16, ♯26 and ♯46. After detailed examination we decided to wait eruption for restorative procedures. Conclusion Early detection and classification of PEIR lesions will always help to build treatment plans for patients.

    Keywords: Pre-Eruptive Intracoronal Radiolucencies, Occult Caries, Dentin Caries, Panoramic Radiography
  • Assessment of Thyroid Function in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Gasoline and Paint Products in Anambra Central of Nigeria
    Samuel C. Meludu, Chidiebere E. Ugwu, Ogechukwu S. Ogbuowelu, Patrick O. Manafa, Ogbonnia Ekuma Okereke* Page 3

    Hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX) found in gasoline and organic solvents are ubiquitous in the environment, and are known to have toxic effects in human system. This study therefore investigated the thyroid function of workers occupationally exposed to gasoline and paint products using TSH, T3 and T4 as markers. A total of 162 subjects were recruited for this study; (56 gasoline pump attendants and 56 paint factory workers) and 50 subjects as control. Blood sample was collected from each subject and thyroid function tests (T3, T4 and TSH), were assayed using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. The mean values of TSH was significantly lower in the gasoline workers and painters compared to the control subjects (1.73±0.89, 1.66±0.84 Vs 2.09±1.06µIU/ml; F= 3.169, p<0.05). The mean values of T4 was significantly lower in gasoline workers and painters when compared to the control subjects (9.09±1.87, 9.63±1.90 Vs 12.06 ± 1.82µg/dl; F= 37.430, p<0.05). However, the mean levels of T3 was significantly higher in gasoline workers and painters compared to the control subjects (2.56± 0.65, 2.72 ± 0.65 Vs 1.03 ± 0.30ng/ml; F= 161.292, p<0.05). The mean body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were similar in all the groups. The levels of TSH showed a significant inverse correlation with the duration of exposure in the subjects exposed to gasoline (r=-0.326, p<0.05), whereas the levels of T3 showed a positive significant correlation with the duration of exposure in paint workers (r=0.301; p<0.05). This study demonstrated that both gasoline and paint showed similar effects on the thyroid parameters of the subjects under study, which is suggestive of T3 thyrotoxicosis.

    Keywords: Hydrocarbons, Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl benzene, Xylene, thyroid function
  • Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment of Melastomastrum capitatum Fern. leaf methanol extract in Wistar albino rats
    Cletus Anes Ukwubile*, Abubakar Ahmed, Umar Adam Katsayal, Jamilu Yau, Henry I. Nettey Page 4

    This study was carried in order to determine short-term (acute) and long-term(subchronic) effects of Melastomastrum capitatum leaf methanol extract in the management and treatment of certain diseases in traditional and complementary medicines  by many villages in Mambila Nigeria. Acute and subchronic toxicities were carried out in  accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines.  Acute toxicity test was carried out with a limit test dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of  leaf extract administered via orally gavages to five wistar albino rats grouped into five groups of one rat each, and observed carefully for signs of toxicity especially for the first 4 h and then once daily for 14 days. Subchronic toxicity was carried out in 30 wistar albino rats of opposite sexes divided into five groups of six  rats . Doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg body weight of  M. capitatum leaf  extract were administered to the rats for 28 days orally. Blood samples were collected from the rats by cardiac puncturing for hematological analysis, liver function, lipid profiles and serum biochemical analysis. The test limit dose did not cause any mortality or signs of acute intoxication in the rats. There was no significant difference between hematological, liver, lipid and biochemical parameters  in the control rats and treatment groups (p ≤ 0.05) after subchronic study. No  major organs damage was seen. The study showed that M. capitatum leaf extract is safe when administered at the test limit dose orally in treatment of diseases in traditional medicine.

    Keywords: Toxicity profiles, Melastomastrum capitatum, hematologic analysis, biochemical parameters