فهرست مطالب

The International Journal of Humanities
Volume:29 Issue: 1, 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1400/10/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Emamali Shabani, Ali Zareei*, Reza Muhammadi Pages 1-23

    The use of biological agents, also known as biological weapons in modern terms, to eliminate enemies and rivals, has been a critical issue in recent decades. The history of political developments in Iran during the Islamic Middle Ages has been witness to many instances of using weaponized biological agents for accomplishing political-military goals. This research employs a historical approach and attempts to identify the functions of biological agents in political and military developments of Iran during the Islamic Middle Ages. The results indicate that in addition to functioning as an instance of deterring propaganda, thus breaking the enemychr('39')s morale, biological weapons were able to alter the balance of military power in the battleground and determine the triumphs and defeats. Accordingly, biological agents have had other military and political implications, such as sabotaging enemieschr('39') weaponry and equipment and eliminating prominent figures. Iranchr('39')s history has documented innumerable instances of such applications of biological weapons during the Middle Ages.

    Keywords: Biological Agents, Microbial Weapons, Military Functions, The Islamic Middle Ages, History of Iran
  • Seyyed Taghi Andy, Arsalan Golfam*, Ferdows Aghagolzadeh, Mojtaba Monhshizadeh Pages 24-47

    Compounding is one of the most common and also very productive word formation processes among languages in the world. Because of its productivity and high frequency, it has precisely been studied by many Iranian and non-Iranian linguists. However, this productive process has not yet been studied in Mazandarani. In the present study, first Mazandarani compound words taken from Tabari dictionary, have been analysed in the form of a table and based on the criteria such as syntactic category, semantic classification of compound types (endocentric, exocentric and dvandva), the position of head and being verbal or nonverbal. By taking into consideration the above mentioned criteria and based on three fundamental concepts, namely, head, dependent (non-head) and feature percolation, the resulting compounds have been analysed separately. At the end of the article, after studying and evaluating the hypotheses, appropriate explanations have been presented. The high frequency of “N+ N → compound noun construction” refers to their predictability in meaning compared to other constructions. It means that there is a direct relationship between high frequency of a word formation process and its semantic predictability. Also, the reason why endocentric compounds are more frequent than others is due to the fact that both constituents of the compound are used in their original meanings. Hence, endocentric compounds are unmarked elements and are easier to learn in the process of language learning. The above mentioned findings are in line with markedness theory. That is why the frequency of occurrence of unmarked elements is higher than marked ones which is related to language universals.

    Keywords: Compound Process, Head Constituent, Non-Head Constituent, Feature Percolation, Endocentric, Exocentric, Dvandva, Coordinate Compound
  • Manijeh Hadian Dehkordi*, Youssef Majidjadeh Pages 48-68

    The fifth season of archeological excavation of Konar Sandal Mound Hill in Jiroft (located in southeast of Iran) in 2006 was characterized by discovery of a clay monument on the wall of one of the architectural spaces there. With dimensions of 110 × 95 cm and 18cm thickness, the monument is regarded as the unique and oldest clay relief ever discovered (third millennium BC). On the one hand, historical and artistic values of the unique monument and its location in the site and environmental and human threats causing serious damages to it on the other hand, has made its documentation ever more necessary. The study of constituting materials and building techniques of the monument was done through macroscopic (field and visual study) and microscopic (optical and electron) methods as well as chemical analysis of elements and compounds on the clay foundation and its color layers (FT-IR, XRF, XRD, and SEM-EDS). The results suggest that the clay monument was built in two parts, namely the built-on torso and lower torso (skirt) which was carved out on a cob wall. Then, a delicate finish layer made of clay was put on the colored layer. The finish layer was made by using mineral pigments such as limonite (yellow) for covering the body (i.e. arms, chest and waist scarf), and Ochre hematite (red) and carbon (black) for ornament of embossed skirt. The used clay soil is of montmorillonite type which reacts, expands and contracts significantly due to humidity variation.

    Keywords: Jiroft, Konar Sandal, Clay Relief, Pigments, Ochre
  • Seyed Javad Miri* Pages 69-84

    In this article, the author is trying to problematize the concept of critique in Critical Theory by arguing that we need to go beyond the traditional parameters of the Critical Theory Canon as defined by Euro-Atlantic historiographers and critical social theorists. But in order to achieve this goal the author has attempted to demonstrate alternative approaches in conceptualizing complexities of social reality by employing the concept of Istehmar as defined by Ali Shariati. What does Istehmar mean? How does Shariati articulate this concept in sociological fashion? How is this concept different than classical concepts such as anomie, alienation and disenchantment?

    Keywords: Istehmar, Ali Shariati, Mazhab, Religion, Colonialism, Critical Theory
  • Hoosein Rezai*, Ali Imani Pages 85-114

    In the general discourse of political science, "common good" refers to those material, cultural, or institutional facilities in which members of a given community share public interest. "Common good" is an important concept in political philosophy and political thought; because it plays an important role in philosophical thinking about the public and private dimensions of social life. In this article, while recognizing and analyzing the concept of common good and related concepts, we have examined the views of Muslim thinkers in relation to common good thought. The analysis of the political thought of Muslim thinkers has shown that they consider man to be, by nature, a social being, and in their opinion, the attainment of perfection and common good also depends on the formation of society. "There is no doubt that it is not possible for man to attain the perfections for which he was created, except for a large integrated community where everyone helps each other with what they need, and that thanks to them all that is necessary for human perfection is obtained." Therefore, Muslim thinkers such as Mullah Sadra and Farabi consider correct thinking and beneficial science as a necessary condition along with good morals, self-purification and exaltation of the soul. They believe that the first head of Medina should have the rank of divine caliphate and deserve to rule over the people and accomplish the mission of Allah the Almighty, so that common good may be spread. Such a person has reached the position and level of comprehensiveness in the threefold origin of intellect, soul and senses, has the merit of the Khalifatullah (Vicegerent of Allah) and the comprehensive manifestation of the divine names, and can spread common good in human society. This article tries to analyze the concept of common good in the political thought of Muslim thinkers in a descriptive-analytical way, using reliable library resources.

    Keywords: common good, political thought, public interest, Muslim thinkers
  • Amin Moradi* Pages 115-140

    The village of Viyar is known for its impressive rock-cut architecture called "Dash Kasan Temple." This monument is special in its architectural layout; two large scale dragon snakes carved out of cliffs, also the creation of a vast open area by excavating solid rock are the only examples in Iranian art and architecture. Although most of the debates generated hitherto on the identity of the so-called Dash Kasan are centered on a temple construction with a Mongol background in the Ilkhanid capital of Sultaniyya, there has been less architectural evidence to support this idea. Hence, the nature and the extent of the earlier studies are not sufficient to substantiate the architectural discourse in this monument. Consequently, most of the works done so far are mainly limited to general information from past decades attesting its monastic function. Thus, there remain several controversies about the inception of the architectural layout of the so-called Dash Kasan which needs to be further explored. The most recent field studies headed by the author in the spring of 2020 had developed one major question to be answered regarding this site: Why the so-called Dash Kasan cannot be a Buddhist temple. This research rejects the function of this complex as a temple based on its architectural composition. While the results clearly suggest an outright contradiction to the traditional views of scholars as a Buddhist temple, it is possible to trace a similar construction scheme between this site and Chines style ceremonial halls in Central Asia. This paper is intended to review the monastic function of the so-called Dash Kasan, and to further stimulate others to explore this extraordinary site.

    Keywords: Ilkhanid Architecture, Dash Kasan Temple, Buddhist Architecture, Mongolian Ritual, Chinese-style Ceremonial Halls